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  • There is more in the text than presented at surface, there is a hidden agenda


  • 1. The Assignment brief
  • 2. Coursework option 1
    “Managing creativity is complex.”
    Select a creative sector organisation that demonstrates how creativity is ‘typically managed’ in the ‘creative industries’. Discuss the challenges of managing  and sustaining creativity during periods of organisational growth and expansion. Critically assess the strengths and limitations of ‘lifestyle businesses’ versus larger organizations in the creative industries.
  • 3. Coursework option 2
    “Creative Industries are the future!” It has been claimed that the UK creative industries are among the fastest growing sectors of the UK economy and will provide an engine for future job creation and growth.
    Survey and critically review the evidence for this claim; Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the UK creative sector drawing on strategic management concepts. Outline future challenges for the UK’s leadership in the creative sector and provide a critical assessment of (current) government policy. Propose new strategies and policies based on your analysis, if appropriate.
  • 4. Formative Draft
    December 14th
    2500 words
    It’s about the structure and direction of your argument to make sure you are on track
    Evidence of your research
    Bullet points allowed
  • 5. The Final Draft
    6,000 words
    Content/ Argument
  • 6. Getting started
  • 7. What do you want from your essay?
    A good mark
    Personal satisfaction
    Gain knowledge of your subject
    Understanding of the implications of using knowledge
    Ability to move other people’s ideas around, weigh arguments, examine evidence
    Skills in essay writing
  • 8. Writing…
    It’s a complex process and it requires skill
    It’s a lonely business
    Is it brilliant, is it rubbish: Formative draft!
    Make a plan with milestones
    To do lists
  • 9. The writing process
    Understanding the question
    Thinking about the topic
    Gathering material
    Structuring the argument
    Writing up
     It’s not a linear, it is an ITERATITVE process
  • 10. What is the question asking?
    “Account for the emergence of the policy of privatization developed by successive Conservative governments during the 1980s.”
    Identify the subject
    Identify the instruction
    Identify the key aspects
    Look for other significant words that help to pinpoint the scope of the answer
  • 11. Getting started
    Think about pro & contra arguments
    Jot everything down
    Gathering material
    Electronic sources (Athens)
    Newspapers (Guardian, FT)
  • 12. Deciding what to read
    WHAT you read is important, as well as reading it critically!
    Start with the reading list
    Look up 2 important books in the library, then do a search using their subject code
    Go to the library shelves and see what is physically stored under that same class mark
    When you start reading, see which texts are often cited by others
    Check what books have been reviewed in recent academic journals
  • 13. Deciding what to read II
    Not recommend to use them as a source
    Using the Internet
    Convenient, but can’t replace work & research
    Copy & paste plagiarism
    Information can be unreliable
  • 14. Style and voice in academic writing
  • 15. Academic register and conventions
    Seriousness of approach
    We expect seriousness in the way the writer addresses the topic
    No flippancy or colloquialism (“you know what I mean”)
    Humour (but must be subtle, clever and well phrased)
    Formality of register
    Formal, not colloquial
    Reflects the considered and measured thought-process
    Reader is treated as an interested/ informed acquaintance, but not a best mate
    Consistency of register
  • 16. Conventions II
    Objectivity of tone
    Try to be objective and neutral
    Argue, but do not abuse or accuse
    Cautiousness about the way claims are made
    “it could be said…” ; “this might lead us to the interpretation that”
    Reasoned, analytical and logical thought processes
    Sequential and logical thought process
    Linking sentence is crucial
    “I have shown how XXX’s assumptions affected her view of the film industry, but it remains to be shown how it affected her view on the games industry.”
    Concern with argument and evidence
    Evidence for each claim made
    Evidence is properly referenced
  • 17. Fact, Opinion, Speculation and Evidence
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  • 19. Facts vs Opinion vs Speculation
    A thing that is known to have occurred, to exist, or to be true
    Verified information, piece of evidence
    A belief/ assessment based on grounds short of proof
    To form a theory without a firm factual base
  • 20. Fact or Opinion?
    “The Creative industries are doing well.”
    “Creative industry students are better than other students.”
    “Ed Wood is the best director of all time.”
    “There are not enough jobs for CI graduates.
    “MS Word is suitable for our needs”
  • 21. Assertions versus Argument
    An assertion is a statement that is intended to be taken as true
    If it forms the basis of a logical argument, the argument falls apart if the statement turns out to be false
    Assertions that are not backed up by evidence are opinions
    Arguments based on opinions are speculations
  • 22. If you want to express an opinion…
    Look for more evidence!
    Discuss how reliable the evidence is
    Say that it is an opinion
    Say whose opinion it is
    Say what made you (the other person) to make this judgment
    Demonstrate your reasoning is sound
  • 23. Identifying flaws in arguments
    Opinion = Unwarranted conclusion
    Argument = Conclusion + Warrant
    Ask of any argument: Why should I believe this? How do you know?
    Warrant without a conclusion: Why are you telling me this? What does it imply?
    Conclusion with an inadequate warrant: Does this evidence really mean as much as you claim? Is this evidence robust enough?
    Conclusion that is not explicitly linked to its warrant. What are you trying to claim? What is the causal relationship?
    Demand of yourself that every conclusion you write is adequately warranted
  • 24. Structuring your text
  • 25. Structure
    Abstract (200 words): A brief summary of the purpose of your study/ work/ conclusions
    In which you interpret the question, define key terms, show the limits of your essay
    Statement of purpose
    Justification of significance of questions with reference to literature (Why is it the topic important?)
    Brief description of context of study
    Brief overview of the rest of the study
    Main body
    Show that you know the key issues and can support them with evidence
    Literature Review
    Summary of your findings
    Self critical reflection
    Evaluation to what an extent you contribute to answering questions
    Outlook to future
    Final statement
    Reference List
    Contains all the work that is referenced
    Presented in alphabetical order
  • 26. Writing paragraphs
    A paragraph is a short block of text that develops one main idea
    The main idea is typically expressed in one sentence – the topic sentence – the first in the paragraph
    Paragraph have a structure: beginning – middle – end
    When you read, this allows to quickly identify the main idea and see how it is developed
    Each paragraph develops one single main point
    New point, new paragraph
    Start with the topic sentence to express the main idea
    Explain or define any problematic terms
    Show your evidence/ support your main idea
    Comment on the evidence, to show how it supports and develops your main idea. Mention other evidence to broaden discussion
    End each paragraph by showing how you have developed your point
    Link back to idea in topic sentence
    Link forward to next paragraph
    How long is a paragraph?
    Long enough to do what you want it to do
    Longer than one sentence
    If you have ten or more sentences, you have probably failed to notices when you’ve moved on to a new idea
  • 27. Referencing
  • 28. Using other people’s ideas
    Closely follows the sense of the original text
    Limited place in academic writing
    If you don’t acknowledge the source, its PLAGIARISM
    Passing the ideas of someone else of as your own is cheating, a serious academic crime, very uncreative
    when it is important to use and comment on the precise wording of another writer.
    Run a short quote into your text.
    Indent a long quote.
    Always reference other people’s ideas or research
    In your bibliography, list all the sources you have consulted
  • 29. Referencing
    Harvard systems – see Student Handbook!
    If unclear – there are about 1000 guides on Google
    Use in-text referencing plus bibliography – don’t use refs in footnotes
    Don’t overuse electronic sources
    Try using journal articles
  • 30. Editing
  • 31. Editing
    Format titles
    Bibliography properly formatted
    Appropriate references for all quotes
    Check the order of your paragraphs – does the argument flow well?
    Presentation and formatting: e.g. 12pt, 1.5 spaced
    Read and reread what you have written, improve the writing. Does it make logical sense?
    Check style
  • 32. Improve your academic writing style
    Avoid passive constructions where possible
    Try to develop a direct, clear style
    Say what you think and why you think it but always justify your arguments and opinions
    Avoid unnecessary jargon
    Cut out the deadwood in the editing stage
    State clearly what your questions are/ if appropriate state clearly what you have discovered
    Learn from writers you admire
    Spend time proof-reading and editing your work, clarify argument, improve your style
  • 33. General problems with essays
    Lots of information but little argument
    Don’t waffle!
    Difference between knowledge telling and knowledge transformation
    Don’t just summarize, analyze!
    Unsubstantiated generalisations
    Be precise, subtle and careful in your thinking
    Proof reading and editing
  • 34. Do’s and Don’ts
    The creative industries provide thousands of jobs for many people across the UK, for example the industries such as film, music, TV, radio, magazine and newpaper industries make up a good number of jobs and opportunities. As well as providing thousands of jobs, these industries also entertain and inform the world.
    The creative industries are growing twice as fast as the economy and have a huge impact on the UK’s production market.
  • 35. Some examples from your essays…
  • 36. What is wrong here…
    “Obviously not everyone involved within the Creative Industries is an artist selling these creative ideas.”
    “But in my opinion this is the easiest way of defining how the creative industries are different.”
  • 37. What is wrong here…
    The industry supplies over a million jobs in the UK, bringing in over £100.5 billion to the economy annually
    It is clear that the UK can no longer rely upon its once traditional manufacturing industries to sustain the economy going forward in to the 21st century.
  • 38. What is wrong here…
    According to the Independent newspaper, in 2006 Britain’s cultural leaders united to launch a manifesto to convince government to play amore central role in the creative arts, providing more financial investment. Since then the government’s contribution and recognition of the industry has grown tremendously. The government officer for the English Region states: The government constantly works to increase the understanding of the importance of creative industries to regeneration and economic development. Over the past three years they have heavily invested in advertising, spending over 3 million in 2008 alone. NHS and binge drinking campaigns for example.
  • 39. What is wrong here…
    The creative industries are important in the UK, contributing approximately £57 bn to the economy, these industries also affect other industries and if were to break down, will have a direct effect on everything around us.
    The creative industries success is based on a large number of very small companies that need to create new business models, which would enable them to approach markets that may be difficult to reach.
  • 40. What is wrong here…
    The creative industries are said to have accounted for 4% of the world’s economic output. Therefore with such an increase in the demand for all things creative it seems that the governments and the UN are using it for some economic reports.
    The less-than-dynamic Gordon Brown (especially when compared to Barack Obama) presides over a country trying to claw its way out of recesssion, with inflation at its lowest in 5 years and 2.47 million people unemployed, the highest amount in 14 years.
  • 41. Further help
    Kate Williams (1995) Writing essays.
    Mike Wallace and Alison Wray (2006) Critical Reading and Writing for Postgraduates
    Rebecca Stott, Anna Snaith and Rick Rylance (2001) Making your case.
    Geraldine Price and Pat Maier (2007) Effective study skills – Unlock your potential
  • 42. Time-management
    Randy Pausch