Coursework option 1 “Managing creativity is complex.” Select a creative sector organisation that demonstrates how creativity is ‘typically managed’ in the ‘creative industries’. Discuss the challenges of managing and sustaining creativity during periods of organisational growth and expansion. Critically assess the strengths and limitations of ‘lifestyle businesses’ versus larger organizations in the creative industries.
Coursework option 2 “Creative Industries are the future!” It has been claimed that the UK creative industries are among the fastest growing sectors of the UK economy and will provide an engine for future job creation and growth. Survey and critically review the evidence for this claim; Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the UK creative sector drawing on strategic management concepts. Outline future challenges for the UK’s leadership in the creative sector and provide a critical assessment of (current) government policy. Propose new strategies and policies based on your analysis, if appropriate.
Formative Draft December 14th 2500 words It’s about the structure and direction of your argument to make sure you are on track Evidence of your research Bullet points allowed
The Final Draft 6,000 words Content/ Argument Structure Sources Referencing Presentation
What do you want from your essay? A good mark Personal satisfaction Gain knowledge of your subject Understanding of the implications of using knowledge Ability to move other people’s ideas around, weigh arguments, examine evidence Skills in essay writing
Writing… It’s a complex process and it requires skill It’s a lonely business Is it brilliant, is it rubbish: Formative draft! Make a plan with milestones To do lists
The writing process Understanding the question Thinking about the topic Gathering material Structuring the argument Writing up Editing It’s not a linear, it is an ITERATITVE process
What is the question asking? “Account for the emergence of the policy of privatization developed by successive Conservative governments during the 1980s.” Identify the subject Identify the instruction Identify the key aspects Look for other significant words that help to pinpoint the scope of the answer
Getting started Brainstorming Think about pro & contra arguments Jot everything down Gathering material Library Electronic sources (Athens) Newspapers (Guardian, FT)
Deciding what to read WHAT you read is important, as well as reading it critically! Start with the reading list Look up 2 important books in the library, then do a search using their subject code Go to the library shelves and see what is physically stored under that same class mark When you start reading, see which texts are often cited by others Check what books have been reviewed in recent academic journals
Deciding what to read II Textbooks Not recommend to use them as a source Using the Internet Convenient, but can’t replace work & research Copy & paste plagiarism Information can be unreliable
Style and voice in academic writing
Academic register and conventions Seriousness of approach We expect seriousness in the way the writer addresses the topic No flippancy or colloquialism (“you know what I mean”) Humour (but must be subtle, clever and well phrased) Formality of register Formal, not colloquial Reflects the considered and measured thought-process Reader is treated as an interested/ informed acquaintance, but not a best mate Consistency of register
Conventions II Objectivity of tone Try to be objective and neutral Argue, but do not abuse or accuse Cautiousness about the way claims are made “it could be said…” ; “this might lead us to the interpretation that” Reasoned, analytical and logical thought processes Sequential and logical thought process Linking sentence is crucial “I have shown how XXX’s assumptions affected her view of the film industry, but it remains to be shown how it affected her view on the games industry.” Concern with argument and evidence Evidence for each claim made Evidence is properly referenced
Fact, Opinion, Speculation and Evidence
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Facts vs Opinion vs Speculation Facts A thing that is known to have occurred, to exist, or to be true Verified information, piece of evidence Opinion A belief/ assessment based on grounds short of proof Speculation To form a theory without a firm factual base
Fact or Opinion? “The Creative industries are doing well.” “Creative industry students are better than other students.” “Ed Wood is the best director of all time.” “There are not enough jobs for CI graduates. “MS Word is suitable for our needs”
Assertions versus Argument An assertion is a statement that is intended to be taken as true If it forms the basis of a logical argument, the argument falls apart if the statement turns out to be false Assertions that are not backed up by evidence are opinions Arguments based on opinions are speculations
If you want to express an opinion… Look for more evidence! Discuss how reliable the evidence is Say that it is an opinion Say whose opinion it is Say what made you (the other person) to make this judgment Demonstrate your reasoning is sound
Identifying flaws in arguments Opinion = Unwarranted conclusion Argument = Conclusion + Warrant Ask of any argument: Why should I believe this? How do you know? Warrant without a conclusion: Why are you telling me this? What does it imply? Conclusion with an inadequate warrant: Does this evidence really mean as much as you claim? Is this evidence robust enough? Conclusion that is not explicitly linked to its warrant. What are you trying to claim? What is the causal relationship? Demand of yourself that every conclusion you write is adequately warranted
Structuring your text
Structure Title Abstract (200 words): A brief summary of the purpose of your study/ work/ conclusions Introduction In which you interpret the question, define key terms, show the limits of your essay Statement of purpose Justification of significance of questions with reference to literature (Why is it the topic important?) Brief description of context of study Brief overview of the rest of the study Main body Show that you know the key issues and can support them with evidence Literature Review Findings Discussion Conclusion Summary of your findings Self critical reflection Evaluation to what an extent you contribute to answering questions Outlook to future Final statement Reference List Contains all the work that is referenced Presented in alphabetical order Appendices
Writing paragraphs A paragraph is a short block of text that develops one main idea The main idea is typically expressed in one sentence – the topic sentence – the first in the paragraph Paragraph have a structure: beginning – middle – end When you read, this allows to quickly identify the main idea and see how it is developed Each paragraph develops one single main point New point, new paragraph Start with the topic sentence to express the main idea Explain or define any problematic terms Show your evidence/ support your main idea Comment on the evidence, to show how it supports and develops your main idea. Mention other evidence to broaden discussion Conclude End each paragraph by showing how you have developed your point Link back to idea in topic sentence Link forward to next paragraph How long is a paragraph? Long enough to do what you want it to do Longer than one sentence If you have ten or more sentences, you have probably failed to notices when you’ve moved on to a new idea
Using other people’s ideas Paraphrase Closely follows the sense of the original text Limited place in academic writing If you don’t acknowledge the source, its PLAGIARISM Plagiarism Passing the ideas of someone else of as your own is cheating, a serious academic crime, very uncreative Quote when it is important to use and comment on the precise wording of another writer. Run a short quote into your text. Indent a long quote. Always reference other people’s ideas or research In your bibliography, list all the sources you have consulted
Referencing Harvard systems – see Student Handbook! If unclear – there are about 1000 guides on Google Use in-text referencing plus bibliography – don’t use refs in footnotes Don’t overuse electronic sources Try using journal articles
Editing Spellchecker Punctuation Grammar Format titles Bibliography properly formatted Appropriate references for all quotes Check the order of your paragraphs – does the argument flow well? Presentation and formatting: e.g. 12pt, 1.5 spaced Read and reread what you have written, improve the writing. Does it make logical sense? Check style
Improve your academic writing style Avoid passive constructions where possible Try to develop a direct, clear style Say what you think and why you think it but always justify your arguments and opinions Avoid unnecessary jargon Cut out the deadwood in the editing stage State clearly what your questions are/ if appropriate state clearly what you have discovered Learn from writers you admire Spend time proof-reading and editing your work, clarify argument, improve your style
General problems with essays Lots of information but little argument Don’t waffle! Difference between knowledge telling and knowledge transformation Don’t just summarize, analyze! Unsubstantiated generalisations Be precise, subtle and careful in your thinking Proof reading and editing
Do’s and Don’ts The creative industries provide thousands of jobs for many people across the UK, for example the industries such as film, music, TV, radio, magazine and newpaper industries make up a good number of jobs and opportunities. As well as providing thousands of jobs, these industries also entertain and inform the world. The creative industries are growing twice as fast as the economy and have a huge impact on the UK’s production market.
Some examples from your essays…
What is wrong here… “Obviously not everyone involved within the Creative Industries is an artist selling these creative ideas.” “But in my opinion this is the easiest way of defining how the creative industries are different.”
What is wrong here… The industry supplies over a million jobs in the UK, bringing in over £100.5 billion to the economy annually It is clear that the UK can no longer rely upon its once traditional manufacturing industries to sustain the economy going forward in to the 21st century.
What is wrong here… According to the Independent newspaper, in 2006 Britain’s cultural leaders united to launch a manifesto to convince government to play amore central role in the creative arts, providing more financial investment. Since then the government’s contribution and recognition of the industry has grown tremendously. The government officer for the English Region states: The government constantly works to increase the understanding of the importance of creative industries to regeneration and economic development. Over the past three years they have heavily invested in advertising, spending over 3 million in 2008 alone. NHS and binge drinking campaigns for example.
What is wrong here… The creative industries are important in the UK, contributing approximately £57 bn to the economy, these industries also affect other industries and if were to break down, will have a direct effect on everything around us. The creative industries success is based on a large number of very small companies that need to create new business models, which would enable them to approach markets that may be difficult to reach.
What is wrong here… The creative industries are said to have accounted for 4% of the world’s economic output. Therefore with such an increase in the demand for all things creative it seems that the governments and the UN are using it for some economic reports. The less-than-dynamic Gordon Brown (especially when compared to Barack Obama) presides over a country trying to claw its way out of recesssion, with inflation at its lowest in 5 years and 2.47 million people unemployed, the highest amount in 14 years.
Further help Kate Williams (1995) Writing essays. Mike Wallace and Alison Wray (2006) Critical Reading and Writing for Postgraduates Rebecca Stott, Anna Snaith and Rick Rylance (2001) Making your case. Geraldine Price and Pat Maier (2007) Effective study skills – Unlock your potential