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Regional Inequality & Urban Development Policy Dr.Nora041212



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  • 1. Urban & Regional Economics (RPK351) Semester 1, Academic Session 2012/2013 TOPIC:REGIONAL INEQUALITY & URBAN DEVELOPMENT POLICY Dr.Norazmawati Md.Sani @ Abd.Rahim (Dr.Nora) E08/102B 04-6533161 4 Disember 2012 1
  • 2. CONTENT 1. Regional Development Issues 2. Regional Inequality 3. Pattern of Regional Inequality 4. Effected Factors of Regional Inequality 5. What Is Stability of Urban Development? 6. Main Aspect of Regional Development Stability 7. Regional Development Strategy 8. Urban Development Policy 9. Element In Urban Development Policy10. Roles Of Federation Government In Urban Development Issues 11. Government Roles In National Development Policy 12. Basic Government Roles In Urban Management 13. Sustainable Development 14. Aim Of Sustainable Development 15. Sustainable Development Approaches 16. Conclusions 2
  • 3. Decline Unemployment Area Regional DevelopmentRegional Issues MetropolitanInequality Urban Area Distribute Sources For Development 3
  • 4. Regional Inequality Detect development problem. Caused ; colonist governance effect. Williamson (1965) agreed; increased 1st stage of development: Labour migration. Capital = decline area to develop area. Government action. Limited spread effect because lack of regional relation. 4
  • 5. VIDEO 1How to detect development problem? 5
  • 6. How to solve regional inequality?  < choice of migration,  Labour market & capital; > perfect,  Government practice policy; support decline regional. 6
  • 7. Regional Inequality…..continued Stable regional development = Main objective of Country development (9th MP). Action ; reduce regional inequality.  Regional & state. > focus Urban & rural area. > activatedActivity; increase income & quality of life. 7
  • 8. Types of Regional InequalityEthnic Urban & Rural Geography Area 8
  • 9. Pattern of Regional Inequality Decrease = 1st decade execute New Economic Policy (NEP) Increase ; last year NEP Shows:  < effectiveness of government effort.  None integrations & country physical in economic development at a 1st development stage. 9
  • 10. Effected Factors of Regional Inequality OriginalGeography Climate Colonization Sources Spatial Economic Social (distribute Structure sources) Income Work Wealth 10
  • 11. What Is Stability of Urban Development? Part of important strategy to integrate economy system. Achieved through < differences between regional.  Benefit ;economy development & basic facilities  Distribute ; widely & fairly = all country National urbanization policy = provide urban centre  Proper  > Crowded  Different size & roles Effectiveness relation (urban & rural area)  > rural household ; involved urban activities, 11  Faster modern processer ; rural area.
  • 12. 4 Main Aspect ofRegional Development Stability 12
  • 13. 2. Increased delivered system in urban & 13 rural area.
  • 14. 3. Set up Regional Progress Institution (LKW)Sabah & Sarawak.-To execute development effort at regional & ruralarea. 14
  • 15. 4. Develop ; centre & corridor growth.- To make sure, high economic growth at decline area. 15
  • 16. Resource & New Land Development Rural Urbanisation Regional In Situ & Development RuralGrowth Centre Strategy Strategy Development Industrial Dispersal Strategy 16
  • 17. Resource & New Land Development Aims; Increasing agricultural productivity in highly productive land development schemes by absorbing the rural poor from the less developed states. Implies; Mobility of large numbers of people to newly development areas. The method; RDA to transform virgin land into agriculturally productive areas. 17
  • 18. VIDEO 2Agricultural Productivity 18
  • 19. In Situ Rural Development Definition; An integrated development approach, aimed at modernising existing rural areas, by providing infrastructural facilities such as drainage, irrigation, marketing, & other agricultural services. The aim; To increase the productivity of the farmers & improve their standards of living. Located; less developed parts of the country (e.g., Muda, Kemubu, & Besut – Low income states in Kedah, Kelantan & Terengganu, respectively). Different from the old rural development approach, in that the new strategy involves defining areas, planning integrated activities, special implementing, & co-ordinating organisation. 19
  • 20. Industrial Dispersal Strategy The aim; To encourage new manufacturing industries to move to the less developed parts of the country especially in the east coast states from the congested Klang Valley & other major urban centres in the west coast. Industrial decentralisation; To accelerate development in the poorer states through the utilisation of the local resources & absorbing the large number of the unemployed, especially the Malays. This strategy is linked; strategy of growth centres, in that the development of these centres would spread the development to the hinterlands. 20
  • 21. Rural Urbanisation & Growth Centre Strategy Definition; An integral part of the urbanisation strategy, designed to encourage rural to urban migration; especially amongst the Malays, in the context of the NEP. The aim; relieving the congested metropolitan areas & developing the depressed areas by restructuring the indigenous rural communities into more modern & productive communities. Related with other strategies; rural industrialisation, industrial dispersion, & growth centres. 21
  • 22. Purposes of Rural Urbanisation Concept1. To introduce an urban type environment, facilities, & services, into generally agricultural & rural areas.2. To foster the development of modern commercial & industrial activities in the rural areas, & into the designated new growth centres.3. To induce an active participation of Malays & other indigenous people within the modern sector of commercial & service activities. 22
  • 23. VIDEO 3ECER Malaysia - English Versio 23
  • 24. Urban poverty Roles offederation government Inequality in economy in urban & social development development issues Element In UrbanUrbanization Development Roles of Local Authority •Pattern. •Demography & Policy •Need & reality; Organization.migration people ; rural-urban. •Commitment; private •Working, social & government. facilities & housing. •Decentralization, caring, Responsible & strength. Finance capability of Distribution of Local Authority social services •Give income sources & investment. •Housing, education & health. •Involve in local economic development . 24
  • 25. Roles of Federation Government In Urban Development Issues1. Make sure ; urban development  > stable; physical & ethnic  Efficient sources management ; land, transportation, housing & etc….2. Quick urban process at rural area  Workers ; Land development scheme  People ; in- situ area In urban economy activities such as services, commercial, small industries. Obj;  < income distribution at others area.  Encourage development aspect to increase local economy.3. Make sure ; proper development  urban area  So ; prepare structure plan & local plan  Development guideline & urban renovation.  Increase ; efficiency in urban planning. 25
  • 26. Roles of Federation Government InUrban Development Issues….continue4. Quick urban development  Regional Progress Institution (LKW)  Method; study private involvement  Encourage; urban activities  Such as ; construction, manufacturing & services.5. Introduce the concept of village urbanization  Method; grouping small village become small urban  Commercial activities ; small industries, business & agriculture.6. Sustainable development  Good partnership, good governance & general involvement.  Stabilization; fulfill the current requirement & future time – social development, economy, physical & surrounding area.  Institution ; fair principal, effective, transparent & responsible. 26
  • 27. Government Roles In National Development PolicyRoles; social development & security. Private sector ; Play their role in economy country growth. Profit & invest ; higher return. But ; lowest return sector (agriculture) ; Long term of return (social infrastructure & security) Not attractive private sector. 27
  • 28. 3 Phase to develop National Economy (since Year 1960) Market Based Approaches Development by Government Private & Public Commitment 28
  • 29. Market Based Approaches 1960-1970 ; agriculture sector  Main contribute to economy growth. Rubber & tin; main commodity  Contribute 53% (export).  Main contribution ; federation revenue 28%. 2 development approaches; 1. Industrial sector & commercial ; laissez-faire policy (British).  Def; a doctrin mention that the initiative & private product is the best because no participation by government (free market, minimum tax & rules, property ownership). 2. Rural area ; They have social infrastructure & physical.  Government play an active role.  To make sure ; rural people get development benefit. This approaches ; success – contribution national economy (6% yearly). 29
  • 30. Development by Government 1971-1983. Since racial riot; reconsider development approaches of laissez-faire. Aware ; importance of stable & fair distribute of development revenue. New approaches; to make sure native of a country.  Get a benefit from economy development = DEB objective. This time; government play big roles.  From rural area development to pro-active role.  Under development & economy distribution. 30
  • 31. Private & Public Commitment  Purpose; encourage > participation of public sector (especially native of a country).  In country development as a DEB objective.  Still use nowadays. 31
  • 32. Basic Government Roles In Urban ManagementMonitoring Zoning Compactness Standard Infrastructure 32
  • 33. What is Sustainability? VIDEO 4 33
  • 34. Sustainable Development Development; fulfill current requirement  without spoilt capability for future fulfill. (Brundtland, 1987 ) Consider; caring capability  Sources  Distribution of domestic waste  Pollution rate ; urban & surrounding area (White & Whitney, 1992) Must consider; social fair  Human basic necessities  Public health  Surrounding awareness ; space & time  Method ; urban economy health.  Focus > ; economy activities, work chances & poverty problem. (David Drakakis-Smith, 1995) 34
  • 35. Aim of Sustainable Development   (Blowers, 1993) Sources Physical Social Political Quality of Conservation Development Impartiality Participation Nature• Continuously ; • Balance with nature. • Avoid • Encourage • Protect pollution. effective land development ;+ community • Community • Save eco- use. differences rich & participation. awareness : chances. system. poor.• Conservation ; • Minimize sources • Avoid natural sources. • Encourage Misspend development ; development.1. Change sources. health & quality of • Minimize bad element; • < misspend; life.2. Using changes. community. human energy. • < output process.3. Maintain •Over development. intangible factor; • Care method; •Declining comfortable & throw rubbish. business. heritage value. 35
  • 36. VIDEO 5Sustainable Approach 36
  • 37. Collaboration Completeness Making decision. Community balance; work, housing, shopping & etc. Coordination Sustainable CompactnessPlanning & management activity; Land use development & Development < depends ; vehicle, effective infrastructure, < pressure; nature sensitiveness. effective infrastructure. Approaches Conservation Comfort Urban growth ; limited nature sensitiveness area, Walking space. & habitat maintain the ecology. 37
  • 38. ConclusionsTo achieve stable development; Increase urban & small area. Development strategy must focus on potential area & care surroundings quality. Physical development strategy must related with economy & social development strategy. Varieties economy & industrial development at rural area. Urban development strategy ; Consider the sources & capability to solve inequality problem. 38
  • 39. REFERENCES1. Coffey, W.J. dan Polese, M. (1984). The concept of local development : a stages model of endogenous regional growth, Papers of the Regional Science Association, 55: 1-12.2. Coffey, W.J. dan Polese, M. (1985). Local development : conceptual bases and policy implications. Regional Studies. 19(2): 85-93.3. Ferguson, B.W. (1992). Inducing local growth : Two intermediate-sized cities in the state of Parana Brazil, Third World Planning Review, 14 (3):245-265.4. Friedmann, J. dan Weaver, C. (1979). Territory and Function : The Evolution of Regional Planning. London : Edward Arnold.5. Glasson, J. (1992). The fall and rise of regional planning in economically advanced nations. Urban Studies. 29(3/4): 505-531.6. Hautamaki, L. (1993). Rural communities : Finnish find renewal in village action, Town Planning and Country Planning, 62(10); 283-285.7. Perroux, F. (1970). Note on the concept of “growth pole”, translated by Linda Gates and Anne Marie McDermont, Perroux, F. “Note sur la notion de pole de croissance” Economi Appliquee (1955), in Mckee, D.L., Dean, R.D. dan Leahy, W.H. (eds.), Regional Economic Development : Theory and Practice. New York : Free Press.8. Snograss, D. R. (1980) Inequality and Economic Development in Malaysia, Oxford University Press: Kuala Lumpur.9. Stohr, W.B. and Taylor, D.R.F. (1981). Development from Above and Below. Chichester : John Wiley and Sons.10. Williamson, J. G. (1965) Regional inequality and the process of national development: a description of patterns, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 13, No. 4: pp. 3-45.11. Williamson, J. G. (1965) Regional inequality and the process of national development: a description of patterns, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 13, No. 4: pp. 3-45.12. Snograss, D. R. (1980) Inequality and Economic Development in Malaysia, Oxford University Press: Kuala Lumpur. 39
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