Note 2 How To Start A Research  Dr.Nora 280213
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Note 2 How To Start A Research  Dr.Nora 280213 Note 2 How To Start A Research Dr.Nora 280213 Presentation Transcript

  • APPLIED QUANTITATIVE METHODS (RPG 131) Semester 2, Academic Session 2012/2013Topic: How To Start A Research Dr.Norazmawati Md.Sani @ Abd.Rahim (Dr.Nora) E08/102B 04-6533161 norazmawati@usm.my http://drnorazmawati.blogspot.com 28 Februari 2013 1
  • CONTENT1. How To Start A Research?2. Hypothesis3. Variable4. Hypothesis Development5. Nature of Study6. Conclusions 2
  • How To Start A Research? 3
  • Start with… 1. Title 2. Abstract 3. Introduction 4. Research Problem 5. Research Question 6. Research Objective 7. Research Framework 8. Literature Review 9. Research Methodology 10. Analysis 11. Results 12. Discussion 13. Conclusion 4
  • What is a Title? 5
  • Title  Concise. Avoid redundant words. Avoid Investigation of, Studies on, Abbreviations. 6
  • TitleUnambiguous but adequate. Contains key words  describing the work. 7
  • Title  Descriptive. Providing idea of results & focus of research. 8
  • Title 5-6 WORDS. 9
  • Examples of Title Homeownership affordability in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.  Low cost housing affordability in Malaysia.  Entrepreneurial Intention Among USM students. 10
  • WHAT IS Abstract? 11
  • Abstract Concise description of research article, without providing details. 12
  • Abstract Accurate portrayal of title & study. 13
  • Abstract  May contain brief introductorystatement, objective, methodology, interpretation/conclusion, results & findings. 6 14
  • Abstract Do not includereferences & extra information. 15
  • Abstract Advisable to write last. 16
  • Abstract Use past tense!. 17
  • Examples of AbstractMany variables can determine housing affordability, includinghousehold income, household expenditures, and housing prices.Nevertheless, owning a house can be difficult, especially for low-income individuals in Malaysia. The objective of this research is toexamine the level of affordability and other variables that affect low-cost homeownership amongst the low-income group in KualaLumpur. The affordability of homeownership for an individual isgenerally determined by income. If his income is sufficient to pay for ahouse, buy other essential necessities, and obtain services in a market,then a home is affordable for that individual. The sample for thisresearch comprises 300 individuals who own a low-cost housemanaged by the Kuala Lumpur City Hall in Kuala Lumpur. Thesystematic sampling technique was utilized to generate this sample.This research utilizes binary logistic regression as its analytical tool. Thefindings indicate that low-income earners can afford to own a low-cost house in Kuala Lumpur. The main variables that affect the abilityof the low-income group to own a low-cost house include householdincome, household expenditures, occupation, education level, whetherhousehold members work and monthly payment for housing. 18
  • 19
  • Introduction Establish context of the work.  Short review of the literature, summarizing current stage of knowledge.  Highlight knowledge gap. 20
  • Introduction State the purpose of the work.  Define the research question/reasons for carrying out the study.  May conclude method used in the study & why. 21
  • Introduction Explain the rationale of the work.  Ends with objective(s)of the study. 22
  • Examples of an IntroductionMalaysian economy-affected by the financial crisis 1997- Large number of firms & factorieswere closed down. The rate of unemploymentwas high. There is also an increasing number of unemployment graduate in Malaysia. At the same time, the government was trying toemulate the development of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Government developed a policy relating to SMEs which involve 12 ministries & 40 departments. This includes 11comprehensive programs for the development of SMEs e.g., easy loan, financial support scheme etc. 23
  • What is a Research Problems? 24
  • Research Problems Does the problem/topic indicate a particular focus of study? 25
  • Research Problems Is the problem “researchable”? 26
  • Research Problems May include:  What are you discovering?  What problems are you solving?  What grave situations are you helping to alleviate?  How it will value-add? 27
  •  Significance of the problem? Research Problems  (Quantitative) variables & statement of relationship. 28
  • Research Problems Resource, knowledge & skill to carry out the proposed research. 29
  • Research Problems Are based on your literature review. 30
  • Research Problems From Research Problems, you;  Can determine your research title.  Can identify the variable of your research.  Can identify the population of your research.  Can identify the relationship of variables.  Can get your framework of research. 31
  • Examples of Research Problems Lately, government come out with newpolicy that entrepreneurial subject should be thought for all public institution of higher learning in Malaysia. Previous study focused on the determinants ofentrepreneurship among business owners or working adults. 32
  • What is aResearchQuestion? 33
  • Research Questions Def: is the methodology point of departure of scholarly research inboth the natural & social sciences. The research will answer any question posed. 34
  • Research Questions Research Question & Research Problem are related with Objective & Title. 35
  • Research Questions Examples of Research Questions1. What are the level of entrepreneurial personality & intention of USM students.2. What are the impacts of demographic variables such as gender & ethnicity on entrepreneurial intention & personality traits? 36
  • What is a Research Objectives? 37
  • Research Objectives Will achieved. 38
  • Research Objectives Will translate yourresearch problem into statements of intent. 39
  • Research Objectives Use “verbs”:to identify, to formulate, to evaluate, to produce, to examine, to develop etc. 40
  • Research Objectives Be realistic on the number of objectives. 41
  • Research Objectives Remember that the fulfillment of each objective will be evaluated at the end of the research. 42
  • Examples of Research ObjectivesThe objectives of this study are:1. To examine the level of entrepreneurialpersonality & intention of USM students.2. To examine the impact ofdemographic variables such as gender &ethnicity on entrepreneurial intention & itsdeterminants (work ethic, pursuit ofexcellence etc). 43
  • Research Framework Def; Is the foundation on which the entire research project is based. It is logically developed, described & elaborated network of associations among the variables deemed relevant to the problem situation & identified through such processes as interviews, observations & literature survey. 44
  • Research Framework  Afterexamining thedifferent kind of variables. 45
  • Research Framework Already identify how the relationships among these can be established. 46
  • Examples of Research Framework Introduction Homeownership Affordability In Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Housing Affordability :Literature Review Low Cost Low Cost Analysis ofResearch Methodology Ownership House Ownership of In Malaysia In Kuala Housing Lumpur Affordability Conclusion 47
  • What is a Literature Review? 48
  • Literature Review Scope of your review is appropriate for your degree level/research work. 49
  • Literature Review Reviewed the sources relevant to your research topic. 50
  • Literature ReviewThere has been fullcritical engagement with the literature. 51
  • Literature ReviewIt is clear how your researchobjectives/questions fit in with previous scholarly work. 52
  •  Judge how Literature Review feasible & useful your researchproject is going to be. 53
  • Literature Review Judge how it will add to the current body of knowledge. 54
  • Examples of Literature Review What are the impacts of demographic variables such as gender & ethnicity on entrepreneurial intention & personality traits? Define entrepreneurship & entrepreneurial intention. Explanation on specific variables (IV &DV) & dimensions.  Demography.  Entrepreneurial intention.  Personality traits (Work Ethic, Pursuit of excellence, Mastery, Chance, Internal, Powerful others etc). Explanation on past studies that look into the relationship between demographic & personality traits, entrepreneurial intention & contextual elements). What were the results of their studies e.g.,  Mazzarol et al. (1999) found that females were less likely to be founders of new business.  Ramayah (2004) found that male students had significantly higher self efficacy, …….. 55
  • What is a Research Methodology? 56
  • Research MethodologyDef; the section of a research proposal in which the methods to be used are described. The research design, thepopulation to be studied,& the research instruments/tools, to be used arediscussed in the research methodology. 57
  • Research Methodology Described in appropriate details.  eg. organisms, subjects, size, respondents,etc. 58
  • Research Methodology Methodically address the issue.  Include data analysis & summary. 59
  • Research Methodology Described so that it is easily understood & may be repeated. 60
  • Research Methodology Statistically acceptable.  Sample size.  Number of respondents. 61
  • Research Methodology Use past tense & avoid using a single sentence to relate a single action. 62
  • Analysis Def; the use of statistical methods to analyze data. 63
  • Analysis Are the data analysis able to answer the research questions? 64
  • Analysis Are the expected outcomes stated? 65
  • Analysis Are the significance of the study highlighted? 66
  • AnalysisExamples of Analysis1. Profile of respondents-Frequency.2. Level of entrepreneurial intention/personality-Frequency.3. Relationship- Correlation/Regression. 67
  • Results Def; a statement that solves aproblem /explains how to solve the problem. 68
  • Results  Presented in a logical, sequential,thorough but concise manner. 69
  •  Details Results provided should beinformative. 70
  • Results Inclusion of Figures & Tables inappropriate sequence & based on necessity. 71
  •  Accurate & clear presentation Results (opinions versus facts). 72
  • Results Avoid interpreting data. 73
  • Results Use past tense & wise to start first!. 74
  • What Is A Discussion? 75
  • Discussion  Def; the examination/consideration of a matter in writing. 76
  • Discussion Accurate interpretation of research .  Connects with introduction & describes how your findings have contributed to the problem. 77
  • Discussion  Include &acknowledge previous studies, gaps in knowledge. 78
  • Discussion Acknowledge limitations of study & use the right words. 79
  • Discussion Project importance of your contention. 80
  • Discussion Organize according to results but not recapitulate it. 81
  • Discussion Do not overwrite; do not introduce new results!. 82
  • 83
  • Conclusion Def; a position/opinion/judgment reached after consideration. 84
  • Conclusion Do not repeatabstract/results/discussions. 85
  • Conclusion  Make conclusionsbased on workdone & results obtained. 86
  • Conclusion Conclusions should be focused & to the point. 87
  • Conclusion Recommendations are generallyincluded for further of future research. 88
  • Conclusion Should answer the objectives of the research. 89
  • Hypothesis Def; Something taken to be true for the purpose of argument/investigation ; an assumption. 90
  • Hypothesis Can be defined as a logically conjectured relationship between 2/> variables expressed in the form of a testable statement. 91
  • Hypothesis Relationships established in the theoretical framework formulated for the research study. 92
  • Hypothesis By testing the hypothesis, it is expected that solutions can be found to correct the problem encountered. 93
  • Variable Def; A quantity capable of assuming any of a set of values. Is anything that can take on differing values. eg: gender (male/female), the level of motivation (very low /very high). Dependent Variable (DV)= is the variable of primary interest to the main issue. Independent Variable (IV)= is one that influence the DV in either –/+ way. 94
  • Example: Dependent Independent Variables Variables1. There is a positive relationship between father’s educational level & student’s performance. 2. There is a positive relationship between level of effort & student’s performance. 95
  • Hypothesis Development (Using DV & IV) Research studies indicate that successful new product development has an influence on the stock market price of the company. Hypothesis=More successful new product, the higher will be the stock market price of the company. A manager believes that good supervision & training would increase the production level of the workers. Hypothesis=The better the supervision & training, the higher will be the production level of the workers. 96
  • Nature of Study HypothesisExploratory Descriptive Case study Testing 97
  • Exploratory Study Def; serving in/intended for exploration/discovery. When not much is known about the situation at hand/noinformation is available on how similar problems/research issueshave been solved in the past. Involved extensive interview to understand the situation &actual phenomena/when facts are known but moreinformation needed for developing theoretical framework. eg., before formulated theories of managerial roles, HenryMintzberg interviewed managers to explore the nature ofmanagerial works. 98
  • Descriptive Study Def; Involving/characterized by description. To ascertain & to describe the characteristics of the variables. eg., group of people (students), the age, educational level, area of specialization etc. Normally, descriptive studies been used to explain the profile of the respondents. 99
  • Hypothesis Testing To explain the nature of certain relationships/ establish the differences among groups. eg., If advertising is increased, then sales will also go up. 100
  • Case Study Involved in depth, contextual analyses of matters relating to similar situations in other organization. Also useful in understanding phenomena, & generating further theories for empirical testing. 101
  • CONCLUSIONS 13 Elements To Start A Research. Hypothesis = an assumption Variable = A quantity capable of assuming any of a set of values. Hypothesis Development = By Using DV & IV. 4 types of Nature of Study. 102
  • References Research methods for business: A Skill Building Approach by Uma Sekaran. John wiley and Sons,Inc.1992. Basic Statistics for business and Economics: Third Edition by Douglas A. Lind, Robert D. Mason and William G. Marchal, Mc Graw Hill, 1994. 103
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