Knowledge
Management Needs
in Prescription-
Medication Process
Allahyari Nooshin, Das Aby.
March 30, 2011 1
Agenda
•The Current Process
•Knowledge Identification
•Portfolio of Systems
•Selected Portfolio
•Modeling and Analysis of ...
Motivation
3
Motivation (cont.)
4
Problematic Prescription
The Current Process–Flow
Diagram
5
The Current Process – Logical
DFD at Level Zero
6
The Current Process – Logical
DFD at Level One
Checked
Patient/Prescription
2-1
Checking
Patient
Information
2-2
Create
ac...
4-1
Process
Prescription
In Computer
4-4
Labling
4-5
Counting
4-3
Generating
Lable
4-6
Final
Checklist
Documentation
4-2
C...
The Current Process –
Strategic Dependency Model
9
i* Model 10
Possible scenarios to
decrease preparation errors
Possible Scenario Advantage Disadvantage
Automated System Decreases huma...
But preparation depends on
the pharmacist …
12
Knowledge Identification
13
Roles, Responsibilities, and
DependenciesRole Roles
Responsible
Responsibilities Role(s)
depended on
Roles(s) that
depend ...
Current Knowledge Stores
• Pharmacy Local Database
• Stores customer customer information, prescription information,
and i...
Knowledge Management
Portfolio
• Decision Support System (DSS)
• Provide expert knowledge to aid pharmacist’s decision.
• ...
Selected Portfolio
• Decision Support System (DSS)
• Electronic-Prescription (EP or E-Prescription)
(combines with Electro...
Modeling and Analysis of
Selected KM Technologies
18
DSS
19
E-Prescription
20
Change in dependencies
21
SD Model before EP
SD Model after EP
22
Interaction of actors and
stakeholders with DSS
23
Goal Evaluation for DSS technology
24
Interaction of actors and
stakeholders with E-Prescription
25
Goal Evaluation for EP technology
26
Impact of Employed
Technology on each other
27
Temporal and Spatial Context
Short time
(6 Month)
Mid time
(2years)
Long time
(10 years)
Temporal
Increase patient Safety
...
Role of ontologies
29
Why Ontologies?
• Unified Healthcare System
• Ontologies can explicit conceptualize the semantics of the data
• Ontologies...
What do ontologies do?
• Ontology application are classified into:
• Semantic integration
• Search
• Decision Support Syst...
32
Which languages?
• RDF
• RDF schema
• OWL
• Rules
• KIF
• Common Logic
• FOL
Powerful logical
languages
Conceptual Graph
33
Relationship between
diseases, drug, and
instructionsFor all (x)
(If disease(x)
(exists (y) exists (z)
and ( and medicine(...
35
Physician, Pharmacist, and EP
Relationship
For all(x)
(iff prescription(x)
(exists(y) exists(z)
and (and Physician(y)
p...
36
Drug prescription error
For all(x)
(if Disease(x)
( not exists (y)
(and medicine(y)
has_medicine(x,y))
(exists(z) exist...
37
Benefits of Using our Ontology
• It does not have other languages or ontologies constraints
• all other semantic web la...
38
Ontology Structure
• Our ontology is using different existing ontologies and using
ontology mapping techniques to conne...
39
WSMO (Semantic Web)
Romana et al. (2005) , Web Service Modeling Ontology
Questions?
40
Thank You!
41
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Knowledge managementneedsinprescriptionmedicationprocess

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This project overviews the requirement of prescription medication process, analyzes its processes and dependencies, and designs a intelligent decision support system to overcome some of its issues.

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  • Little connection between doctor and pharmacist.
    Patient and doctors are external entities and thus we can’t show the relationship.
  • Local database,
    Patient has to request a transfer of record between pharmacies.
  • We can bring in human-factor engineering like e-bulletin etc, to decrease the errors.
  • Physican – patient – pharmacist – and management are related to each other- within a system
    Point:
    We
  • List of Roles, responsibilities and dependencies
  • Pharmacist’s don’t have a way to track errors (bug-tracking).
  • Management and Pharmacist are connected together. – So management is out of the system.
    Most tacit/knowledge intensive part is between pharmacist-doctor –patient.
    Prescrption errors occur during communication between these three actors.
  • EP – combination of a Web Portal and Electronic Publishing System.
  • Knowledge managementneedsinprescriptionmedicationprocess

    1. 1. Knowledge Management Needs in Prescription- Medication Process Allahyari Nooshin, Das Aby. March 30, 2011 1
    2. 2. Agenda •The Current Process •Knowledge Identification •Portfolio of Systems •Selected Portfolio •Modeling and Analysis of KM Information Technologies •Role of Ontologies 2
    3. 3. Motivation 3
    4. 4. Motivation (cont.) 4 Problematic Prescription
    5. 5. The Current Process–Flow Diagram 5
    6. 6. The Current Process – Logical DFD at Level Zero 6
    7. 7. The Current Process – Logical DFD at Level One Checked Patient/Prescription 2-1 Checking Patient Information 2-2 Create account Local Patient History Ask Patient History New Patient New Patient Information Patient History 2-3 Review Patient Profile 2-4 Ask Patient allergies New Patient Asked Question Answer Patient with History 7
    8. 8. 4-1 Process Prescription In Computer 4-4 Labling 4-5 Counting 4-3 Generating Lable 4-6 Final Checklist Documentation 4-2 Checking Availability Medication Database Medication Local Patient history Request Required Medication Prescription Information New prescription Information Prescription Information Lable Counted Medication Labelled Bottle Correct prescription Replenished/new Medication Dispense medication Order Unavailable Medication Unavailable prescription Medication Availability Request Medication Availibility Book Patient Order The Current Process – Logical DFD at Level One (cont.) 8
    9. 9. The Current Process – Strategic Dependency Model 9
    10. 10. i* Model 10
    11. 11. Possible scenarios to decrease preparation errors Possible Scenario Advantage Disadvantage Automated System Decreases human errors. Cost E-Bulletin for guidelines Aids pharmacist’s decision Outdated, Time consuming. Forums Pharmacist’s can contribute experiences with other pharmacists. Time consuming, Lack of incentives. Human-Factor Engineering Improves efficiency Not periodically updated. 11
    12. 12. But preparation depends on the pharmacist … 12
    13. 13. Knowledge Identification 13
    14. 14. Roles, Responsibilities, and DependenciesRole Roles Responsible Responsibilities Role(s) depended on Roles(s) that depend on Human Knowledge Worker Pharmacist - Providing mediation. - Giving advice - Providing medication- administering information. - Explaining medication side effects. 1. Management 2. Pharmacy Information System. 3. Patient 4. Doctor 1. Patient 2. Management Patient - Providing correct information to doctors - Providing correct information to pharmacist. - Paying for the service. - Following advice. None 1. Doctor 2. Pharmacist Family Doctor - Diagnosing the problem correctly. - Prescribing an effective treatment to patient’s problem - Giving advice - Tracking patient’ s progress. 1. EHR 2. Patient 1. Patient 2. Pharmacist Management - Providing good environment. - Stocking/re-stocking medication. - Providing internal guidelines. - Managing the pharmacy effectively. 1. Pharmacist 2. Main office 1. Pharmacist IT System EHR - Provide patient health information. 1. Doctor 1. Doctor 2. Patient Pharmacy Information System - Provide history of past prescriptions. - Checking availability of drugs. - Generate container label. 1. Pharmacist 1. Pharmacist 2. Main office Other organizations Main office - Providing guidelines - Supplying drugs to pharmacy. - Tracking local pharmacy needs. 1. Management 2. Pharmacist 1. Patient 2. Management 14
    15. 15. Current Knowledge Stores • Pharmacy Local Database • Stores customer customer information, prescription information, and inventory of drugs. • Physical Prescription • Drug information, dosage. • Indexing System • Locates drug information, patient history in pharmacy • Physician’s Database • Physician’s access to patient’s records 15
    16. 16. Knowledge Management Portfolio • Decision Support System (DSS) • Provide expert knowledge to aid pharmacist’s decision. • Electronic Publishing System • Access to patient information using electronic means. • Web Portal • Provides access to tools like wikis, form, email, search, and retrieval tools. • Intranet • Facilitates access to patient past prescription and records across different pharmacies. 16
    17. 17. Selected Portfolio • Decision Support System (DSS) • Electronic-Prescription (EP or E-Prescription) (combines with Electronic Publishing System) 17
    18. 18. Modeling and Analysis of Selected KM Technologies 18
    19. 19. DSS 19
    20. 20. E-Prescription 20
    21. 21. Change in dependencies 21
    22. 22. SD Model before EP SD Model after EP 22
    23. 23. Interaction of actors and stakeholders with DSS 23
    24. 24. Goal Evaluation for DSS technology 24
    25. 25. Interaction of actors and stakeholders with E-Prescription 25
    26. 26. Goal Evaluation for EP technology 26
    27. 27. Impact of Employed Technology on each other 27
    28. 28. Temporal and Spatial Context Short time (6 Month) Mid time (2years) Long time (10 years) Temporal Increase patient Safety Application for converting different ontology languages to first order logic Unify Electronic Health Care System Decrease medication prescription and administration error rate Well define consistent ontologies for Medicine, Disease And symptoms Ontology which has a ability to learn from content(ontology learning) Legacy problem regarding to Pharmacists access to EHR Improve the model base on technology changes in web content Legacy changes regarding to Providential or Federal rules Spatial Facilitate communication between different actors Expanded usage of a system and train involved people in new technology Privacy problem in web content regarding to EP Legacy problem regarding to Pharmacists access to EHR Creation of virtual community of actors in order to share Their experience and knowledge Using EP and EHR for Scientific study on medicine effect on person Requesting refill from your Physician online Reliable DSS, based on their feedback and improvement in AI Community - 28
    29. 29. Role of ontologies 29
    30. 30. Why Ontologies? • Unified Healthcare System • Ontologies can explicit conceptualize the semantics of the data • Ontologies can make deductions and reasoning. 30
    31. 31. What do ontologies do? • Ontology application are classified into: • Semantic integration • Search • Decision Support System(DSS). 31
    32. 32. 32 Which languages? • RDF • RDF schema • OWL • Rules • KIF • Common Logic • FOL Powerful logical languages
    33. 33. Conceptual Graph 33
    34. 34. Relationship between diseases, drug, and instructionsFor all (x) (If disease(x) (exists (y) exists (z) and ( and medicine(y) has_medicine(x,y)) (and instruction(z) has_instruction(x,y,z)))). 34
    35. 35. 35 Physician, Pharmacist, and EP Relationship For all(x) (iff prescription(x) (exists(y) exists(z) and (and Physician(y) prescribed_by(x,y)) (and pharmacist(z) used-by(x,z)))).
    36. 36. 36 Drug prescription error For all(x) (if Disease(x) ( not exists (y) (and medicine(y) has_medicine(x,y)) (exists(z) exists (w) ( and message(z) physician(w) has_ message(x,w,z)).
    37. 37. 37 Benefits of Using our Ontology • It does not have other languages or ontologies constraints • all other semantic web languages are constriction of FOL. • It is powerful in making deduction and reasoning • It could make inference between different ontologies. Horrocks et al. (2005), Semantic Web Architecture: Stack or Two Towers?
    38. 38. 38 Ontology Structure • Our ontology is using different existing ontologies and using ontology mapping techniques to connect them to each other. • WSMO (Web Services Modeling Ontology) • DOPE (Drug ontology) • Disease ontology
    39. 39. 39 WSMO (Semantic Web) Romana et al. (2005) , Web Service Modeling Ontology
    40. 40. Questions? 40
    41. 41. Thank You! 41

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