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Menangani respon yang salah

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  • 1. • G: Apakah formula bagi air?• M: [Diam]. Saya tak tahu.• G: Ok, jika satu molekul air adalah terdiri daripada 2 atom hidrogen dan 1 atom oksigen, apakah formula kimianya?• M: H2O
  • 2.  G: Apakah maksud kata nama, Mimi? Murid: (Diam) “Lari” G: “Cuba semak semula jawapan anda. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan kata nama?” Murid: (Diam lama) “seorang, satu tempat, satu benda” G: Adakah lari itu seorang, satu tempat atau satu benda?” Murid: [Diam] “Tidak” G: “Bolehkan anda memberi satu contoh lain?” Murid: “Port Dickson” G: “Bagus”
  • 3. MENANGANI RESPON YANG SALAH G- dalam pelan rumah ini (rumah tepi pantai di Pantai Cherating), bilik di ruang tamunya mengadap timur. Adakah satu idea yang baik? (tunggu) Izan? Izan- Saya rasa satu idea yang bagus. Boleh nampak matahari terbit. G- Jawapan Izan itu adalah contoh yang baik berdasarkan keutamaan individu. Bagi sesetengah orang, melihat matahari terbit adalah suatu yang penting. Apakah bentuk cuaca yang dijangka di hujung tahun khasnya jika tangkapnya besar?
  • 4. 3. SOALAN MENEROKA (PROBINGQUESTIONS) Soalan ditanya bila jawapan yang murid berikan adalah cetek/ kurang kedalaman Soalan meneroka menggalakkan murid untuk berfikir dengan lebih mendalam berkaitan respon pertamanya. Melalui soalan meneroka, murid diminta memberi maklumat tambahan untuk lebih jelas. Khasnya untuk respon yang kurang sempurna atau yang tidak menampakkan murid berfikir dengan baik akan jawapan berkenaan.
  • 5. CONTOH SOALAN MENEROKA1. Apakah asas fakta yang anda berkata demikian?2. Kenapa anda kata begitu?3. Apakah andaian anda?4. Anda pasti tiada yang perlu ditambah?5. Bolehkah anda kaitkan jawapan ini dengan ini dengan …?6. Cuba kita lihat semula jawapan ini berkaitan dengan …?7. Apakah implikasi jawapan anda ini?8. Bolehkah anda kaitkan jawapan Abu tadi kepada isu ini …?9. Aplikasi jawapan anda kepada ..?
  • 6. JENIS SOALAN (F, PT, M) Minggu ini, kita telah pun belajar mengenai poligon dan saya ingin ulangkaji apa yang kita telah pelajari setakat ini. Apakah poligon? Namakan satu poligon yang yang kita gunakan seharian Segiempat Anda betul (tepat sekali), tapi ada banyak objek yang mempunyai empat sisi. Apakah nama objek 4 sisi ini? [Hentian] paralellogram.
  • 7. TEKNIK SEMASA MENYOAL Alih arah (redirecting)- guru minta setiap orang murid menjawab soalan yang sama. Masa tunggu- masa yang gur berikan sebelum guru menyambung semula setelah menyoal.
  • 8. Guru kemukakan soalanWait time Masa tunggu 1 Guru panggil nama murid Murid beri respon Masa tunggu 2 Murid yang sama Murid lain tokok tambah lagi responnya tambah respon
  • 9. SESI SOAL-JAWAB? M2 M1 G M1 M3 G M2 G G M3 M4 M7
  • 10. TEKNIK PELBAGAIKAN RESPON G- saya akan tanya anda satu soalan, tunggu sebentar dan kemudian memanggil 3-4 orang untuk menjawab. Dengar betul2 kerana saya tidak akan ulang soalan itu. Dengar respon kawan anda bila mereka menjawab kerana saya juga tidak akan ulang respon mereka. Setakat itu, ada soalan? Ok kita mula. Di manakah Sultan Perak pertama mendarat jika baginda belayar dari Sumatera ke Semenanjung Tanah Melayu pada arah timur? (tunggu) Aman, Dina, Siti, Leman Aman- Mungkin mendarat di Pulau Pangkor G- (senyum dan tunjuk kepada Dina tanpa sebarang komen) Dina- di Pulau Pinang kot? Siti- Dua2 silap, Baginda akan tiba di Pulau Ketam Leman- Itu pun tak akan berlaku. Sultan itu akan ditiup oleh monsun balik ke Sumatera. G- Ok idea yang bagus. Kelas, buka muka surat 200, kita lihat peta berkaitan angin dan arus.
  • 11. KAGAN’S WHO AM I? What am I? How do I? When do I? Why do I? Which am I?
  • 12. KENAPA PERLU GALAKKAN MURIDMENYOAL? Meningkatkan motivasi untuk belajar Meningkat kefahaman isi pelajaran dan mengingat isi pelajaran lebih lama Menggalakkan kreativiti Mengajar cara berfikir dan belajar (mengemukakan soalan) Menjadi asas kepada pbl, penyelesaian masalah dan membuat keputusan
  • 13. KELEBIHAN WAIT TIME UNTUK GURU UNTUK MURID•Guru kurang bercakap•Kurang mengulang soalan •Respon yang lebih panjang•Kurang soalan setiap waktu •Lebih murid terlibat•Lebih soalan dengan pelbagai •Kurang murid yang tidak responrespon •Lebih banyak murid terlibat•Kurang soalan aras rendah •Soalan beraras tinggi•Lebih banyak probing meningkatkan penaakulan•Lebih soalan aras aplikasi •Lebih banyak interaksi rakan sebaya •Lebih berkeyakinan •Pencapaian lebih tinggi
  • 14. MASA HENTI (HALTING TIME) Menyerupai masa tunggu Bertujuan memberi masa untuk berfikir khasnya bila guru memberikan bahan/ arahan yang kompleks Semasa hentian, semak apa yang mereka cuba komunikasikan (faham- teruskan; jika murid kelihatan keliru) – mungkin perlu terangkan semula.
  • 15. MENDENGAR AKTIF Silent time- masa selepas murid tamat memberi respon dan Oleh kerana para guru terlalu ghairah untuk terus mengajar, mereka lupa…
  • 16. PENGUKUHAN Lisan Bukan lisan
  • 17. PANDUAN MENYOAL Kemukakan soalan yang jelas/ tidak kabur Kemukakan soalan, baru panggil responden Tanya soalan selaras dengan HP Agihkan soalan dengan adil Tanya soalan yang sesuai untuk pelbagai aras soalan Mengemukakan soalan sekali sahaja
  • 18. PENGUKUHAN Good Great What an outstanding idea SuperDitanya satu soalan, dan dijawab oleh beberapa orang murid. Kemudian mengukuh untuk sumbangan mereka. Kemudian, kembali semula kepada jawapan yang terbaik. Jangan terlalu awal guru respon “super”, murid lain risau sama ada jawapan mereka bagi 5 soalan terbaik
  • 19.  Masa yang dibenarkan guru menantikan respon pelajar sebelum guru sambung Masa yang dibenarkan guru
  • 20. ISU-ISU DALAM KAEDAHPENYOALAN1. Mengulangi soalan- berapa ramaikah penduduk Tg. Malim? Berapa populasi Tg. Malim? Berapa ramaikah orang yang tinggal di Tg. Malim?2. Mengulangi respon murid- verbatim. Murid tunggu “Instant replay” guru- beza jika sesi orang sangat ramaidi dean besar atau murid yang suaranya perlahan3. Guru kemukakan soalan, guru menjawab sendiri4. Tidak beri peluang murid untuk menyudahkan jawapannya yang panjang5. Tidak beri perhatian semasa murid memberi respon6. Memilih murid yang sama untuk menjawab
  • 21. TINGKAHLAKU GURU TERHADAPMURID BERPENCAPAIAN RENDAHSEMASA KAEDAH PENYOALAN1. Beri mereka kurang masa2. Beri jawapan untuk mereka atau terus memanggil murid lain tanpa guru membantu meningkatkan kualiti jawapan dengan penggunaan kue/ paraphrasa3. Pengukuhan yang kurang wajar4. Lebih mengkritik5. Gagal beri maklumbalas6. Kurang beri pujian7. Kurang beri perhatian8. Kurang memanggil mereka untuk respon9. Kurang guna kontak mata dll10. Bahasa bukan lisan
  • 22. QUESTIONING 1 Remember wait time Provide at least three seconds of thinking time after a question and after a response Utilize “think-pair-share” Allow individual thinking time, discussion with a partner, and then open up the class discussion Ask “follow-ups” (Why? Do you agree? Can you elaborate?) Tell me more. Can you give an example? Withhold judgement
  • 23. QUESTIONING 2 Respon to student answers in a nonevaluative fashion Ask for summary (to promote active listening) “could you please summarize John’s point?” Survey the class “How many people agree with the author’s point of view?” (“thumbs up, thumbs down”) Allow for student calling “Richard, will you please call on someone else to respond?” Play devil’s advocate
  • 24. QUESTIONING 3 Require students to defend their reasoning against different points of view Ask students to “unpack their thinking” “Describe how you arrived at your answers.” (“think aloud”) Call on students randomly. Not just those with raised hands Student questioning. Let the students develop their own questions. Cue students response. “there is not a single correct answer for this question. I want you to consider alternatives.
  • 25.  These purposes are generally pursued in the context of classroom recitation, defined as a series of teacher questions, each eliciting a student response and sometimes a teacher reaction to that response. Within these recitations, students follow a series of steps (consciuosly or unconsciously) in order to produce responses to the questions posed. These steps include:
  • 26.  Attending to the question Deciphering the meaning of the question Generating a covert response (i.e. formulating a response in one’s mind) Generating an overt response and often Revising the response (based on teacher probing or other feedback)
  • 27. RESEARCH FINDINGS Instruction which includes posing questions during lessons is more effective in producing achievement gains than instruction carried out without questioning student. Students perform better on test items previously asked as recitation questions than on items they have not been exposed to before. Oral questions posed during classroom recitations are more effective in fostering learning than are written questions. Questions which focus student attention on silent elements in the lesson result in better comprehension than questions which do not.
  • 28. PLACEMENT AND TIMING OFQUESTIONS Asking question frequently during class discussions is positively related to learning facts. Increasing the frequency of classroom question does not enhance the learning of more complex material. (some researches have found no relationship, others have found a negative relationship) Posing questions before reading and studying material is effective for students who are older, high ability, and/ or known to be interested in the subject matter. Very young children and poor readers tend to focus only on material that will help them answer questions if these are posed before the lesson is presented.
  • 29.  The majority of researches  Higher cognitive questions however have conducted are defined as those which more simple comparisons, ask the student to mentally they have looked at manipulate bits of The relative effects on information previously student outcomes produced learned to create an by what they call higher answer or to support an and lower cognitive answer with logically questions. reasoned evidence. Higher cognitive questions are also Lower cognitive questions called open-ended, are those which ask the interprative, evaluative, student merely to recall inquiry, inferential and verbatim or in his/her synthesis questions. Own words material previously read or taught by the teacher. Lower cognitive question are also referred To in the literature as fact, closed, direct, recall and knowledge questions.
  • 30. FINDINGS On the average, during classroom recitations, approximately 60 percent of the questions asked are lower cognitive questions, 20 percent are are higher cognitive questions, and 20 percent are precedual. Higher cognitive questions are not categorically better than lower cognitive questions in elicting higher level responses or in or in promoting learning gains. lower cognitive questions are more effective than higher level questions with young (primary level) children, particularly the disadvantaged. lower cognitive questions are more effective when the teacher’s purpose is To impart factual knowledge and assist students in committing this knowledge to memory In setting where a high incidence of lower level questions is appropriate, greater frequency of questions is positively related to student achievement. When predominantly lower level questions are used , their level of difficulty should be such that most will elicit correct responses. In most classes above the primary grades, a combination of higher and lower cognitive questions is superior to exclusive use of one or the other.
  • 31. FINDINGS Students whom teachers perceive as slow or poor learners are asked fewer higher cognitive questions than students perceived as more capable learners. Increasing the use of higher cognitive questions (to considerably above the 20 percent incidence noted in most classes) produces superior learning gains For students above the primary grades and particularly for secondary students. Simply asking higher cognitive questions does not necessarily lead students to produce higher cognitive responses. Teaching students to draw inferences and giving them practice in doing so result in higher cognitive responses and greater learning gains. Increases in the use of higher cognitive questions in recitations does not reduce student performance on lower cognitive questions on tests.
  • 32. For other students, increases in the use of highercognitive questions (to 50 percent or more) are positivelyrelated to increases in:2.On-task behaviour3.Length of student responses4.The number of relevant contributions volunteered bystudents5.The numbers of student-to-student interactions6.Student use of complete sentences7.Speculative thinking on the part of students8.Relevant questions posed by students
  • 33.  For other students, increases in the use of higher cognitive questions (to 50 percent or more) are positively related to increased teacher expectations about children’s abilities-particularly the abilities of those students whom teachers have habitually regarded as slow or poor learners.
  • 34. WAIT TIME Researches on questioning strategies speak of two kinds of wait- time: “wait-time 1” refers to the amount of time the teacher allows to elapse after he/she has posed a question and before a student begins to speak; and “wait-time 2” refers to the amount of time a teacher waits after a student has stopped speaking before saying anything. The research has focused more on wait-time 1 than wait-time 2, but the following findings apply to both. Because research has established a positive relationship between the amount of instructional content covered and student achievement, researches and other educators have recommended that teachers keep up brisk instructional pacing. In this way, the reasoning goes, classes will cover more material, student interest will be maintained, and achievement levels will be higher. As with the research on the cognitive level of teacher’s questions, this wisdom turns out to have limited application. Findings include.
  • 35.  The average wait-time teachers allow after posing a questions is one second or less. Students whom teachers perceive as slow or poor learners are given less wait-time than those teachers view as more capable. For lower cognitive questions, a wait-time of three seconds is most positively related to achievement, with less success resulting from shorter or longer wait- times. These seems to be no wait-time threshold for higher cognitive questions; students seem to become more and more engaged and perform better and better the longer the teacher is willing to wait.
  • 36. Increasing wait-time beyond three seconds is positivelyrelated to the following student outcomes:2.Improvements in the student achievement3.Improvement in student retention, as measured bydelayed tests4.Increases in the number of higher cognitive responsesgenerated by students5.Increases in the length of student responses6.Increases in the number of unsolicited responses7.Decreases in student’s failure to respond