Adjustment for GuessingNegative Marking… - Elimination strategy reduces odds ofwrong answer penalty - subtracting a percentage of the number of wrong answer obtained from the final grade - give a grade of 4 a correct answer and a score of – 1 for a wrong on a 4 choicequestion
Negative Marking…- A score of less than zero is possible-students hate negative marking-negative marking is not practised in descriptiveexaminations- A poor substitute for a test that is too shortwith too few answer options
Measurement defined• Process of quantifiying individual’s achievement, personality, attitudes, habits and skills• Quantification appraisal of observable phenomena• Process of assigning symbols to dimensions of phenomena• An operation peformed on the physical world by an observer• Process by which information about the attributes or characteristics of things are determined differentiated
Evaluation defined• Qualitative aspect of determining the outcomes of learning.• Process of ranking with respect to attributes or trait• Appraising the extent of learning• Judging effectiveness of educ. Experience• Interpreting and analyzing changes in behavior• Describing accurately quantity and quality of thing• Summing up results of measurement or tests giving meaning based on value judgments• Systematic process of determining the extent to which instructional objectives are achieved• Considering evidence in the light of value standard and in terms of particular situations and goals which the group of individuals are striving to attain
• TESTING- a technique of obtaining information needed for evolution purposes – Test, Quizzes, measuring, instruments- are devices used to obtain such information
FUNCTIONS OF MEASUREMENTS1. INSTRUCTIONAL a)principal (basic purpose) -to determine what knowledge, skills, abilities, habits and attitudes have been acquired -to determine what progress or extent of learning attained -to determine strengths, weaknesses, difficults and needs of students
Function of Evaluation1. Evaluation assesses or make appraisal of -Educational objectives, programs, curricula, instructional materials, facilities - teacher - Learner -Public relations of the school - achievement scores of the learner 2. Evaluation conducts research
Principles of Evaluation• Evaluation should be2.Based on clearly stated objectives3.Comprehensive4.Cooperative5.Used Judiciously6.Continuous and integral part of the teaching- learning process
Types of Evaluation used in classroom instruction• Diagnostic Evaluation-detects pupil’s learning difficulties which somehow are not revealed by formative tests. It is more comprehensive and specific• Formative Evaluation- it provides feedback regarding the student’s performance in attaining instructional objectives. It identifies learning errors that needed to be corrected and it provides information to make instruction more effective
3.Placement evaluation- it defines student’sentry behaviors. It determines knowledge andskills he possesses which are necessary at thebeginning of instruction4. Summative Evaluation-it determines theextent to which objectives of instruction havebeen attained and is used for assigning grades/marks and to provides feedback to students.
Qualities of a Good Measuring Instrument1. VALIDILITY content, concurrent, predictive, construct3. RELIABILITY adequacy, objectivity, testing condition, test administration procedures5. USABILITY (practicality) ease in administration, scoring, interpretation and application, low cost, proper mechanical make-up
VALIDITY Content validity- face validity or logicallyvalidity used in evaluating achievement test Concurrent validity- test agrees with orcorrelates with a criterion (ex. Entranceexamination) predictive validity-degree of accuracy ofhow activity which it intends to foretell Construct validity-agreement of the testwith a theoretical construct or trait (ex.IQ)
RELIABILITY• Methods of estimating reliability2. Test –retest Method (uses spearmen rank correlation coefficient)3. Parallel forms/alternate forms (paired observations are correlated)4. Split-half method (odd-even halves and computed using spearmen brown formula)5. Internal-consistency method (kuder - Richardson formula 20)6. Scorer reliability method(two examiners independently score a set of test papers then correlate their scores)
Classification of Measuring Instrument1. Standard Tests a) psychological test-intelligence test, Aptitude test, Personality (rating scale) test, vocational and professional interest inventory b) Educational Test5. Teacher-made test planning, Preparing, Reproducing, Administering , Scoring, Evaluating, Interpreting
Criterion and Norm Reference TestsNorm-Reference TestsIt compares a student’s performance of other students in the classIt uses the normal curve in distributing grades of students by placing them either above or below the mean.The teacher’s main concern is the variability of the score.The more variable the score is the better because it can determine how individual differs from the other.Uses percentiles and standard scoresIt tends to be of average difficulty.
• Measures of central Tendency Mean, Median, Mode• Measures of Variability Range, Quartile Deviation, Standard Deviation
Measures of Central TendencyMODE-the crude of inspectional average measure. It is most frequently occurring score. It is the poorest measure of central tendency.Advantage: Mode is always a real value since itdoes not fall on zero. It is simple to approximate by observation for small cases. It does notnecessitates arrangement of values.Disadvantage: it is not rigidly defined and isinapplicable to irregular distributionWhat is the mode of these scores? 75,60,78,75 76 75 88 75 81 75
Measures of Central TendencyMEDIAN-the scores that divides the distributioninto halves. It is sometimes called the countingaverage.Advantage : it is the best measure when thedistribution is irregular or skewed. It can be locatedin an open – ended distribution or when the data isincomplete (ex. 80% of the cases is reported)Disadvantage: It necessitates arranging of itemsaccording to size before it can be computedWhat is the medium?75,60,78,75 76 75 88 75 81 75
Measures of Central TendencyMEAN-The most widely used and familiaraverage. The most reliable and the most stableof all measures of central tendencyAdvantage: It is the best measure for regulardistribution.Disadvantage: It is affected by extreme valuesWhat is the mean?75,60,78,75 76 75 88 75 81 75
STANDARD DEVIATION• It is the most important and the best measure of variability of test scores.• A small standard deviation means that the group has small variability or relatively homogeneous.• It is used with mean.
Letter grade Criterion- Norm-referenced Self-referenced ReferencedB Very Good or Very Good; Very Good; some Proficient; performs above the improvement on complete average of the class most or all the knowledge of most objectives content, skills ; mastery of most objectivesC Acceptable or basic; Average; performs Acceptable; some command of only at the class average improvement on the basic content some of the skills; mastery of objectives some objectives
Letter Grade Criterion- Norm-referenced Self-Referenced referencedD Lacking ; little Poor ; below the Lacking ; minimal knowledge of most class average progress on most content; master of objectives only a few objectivesF Unsatisfactory; Unsatisfactory; far Unsatisfactory; no lacks knowledge of below the class improvement on content; no average; among the any objectives. mastery of worst in the class objectives
Grading and Framing Questions (frisbie & Waltman,1992):- What meaning should each grade symbol carry?- What should “failure” mean?- What elements or performances should be incorporated?- How should the grades in a class be distributed?- What should the components be like that go into a final grade?- What method should be used to assign grades?- Should borderline cases be reviewed?- What other factors can influence the philosophy of grading?
Essential Terminology• Grade: A symbol that represents the degree to which students have met a set of well-defined instructional objectives.• Absolute Grading: Absolute grading, or criterion- referenced grading, consists of comparisons between a student’s performance and some previously defined criteria. Thus, student’s are not compared to other students. When using absolute grading, one must be careful in designing the criteria that will be used determine the student’s grades.
Essential Terminology• Relative Grading: -relative grading, or norm-referenced grading -consists of comparisons between a student and others in the same class, the norm group. - those that perform better than most other students that will be assigned certain grades. . If using the normal curve in relative grading then 3.6% of the students should be assigned As, 23.8%Bs, 45.2%Cs, 23.8%Ds, and 3.6% Fs. -emphasizes competition among group members and does not accurately reflect any objective level of achievement.
Essential Terminology• Growth Grading : (self-referenced grading) -consists of comparisons between a student’s performance and their perceived ability/capability. . Overachievers would be assign highed grades, while underachievers would be assigned lower grades. -Growth grading, while de-emphasizing competition, tends to produce invalid grades relative to achievement levels.
Letter Grades• Advantages – easy to use – Easy to interpret(theoretically) – Concise • Disadvantages – Meaning of a grade may very widely – Does not address strengths & weaknesses – K-2 student’s may feel threatened by them
Number of Percentage Grades 1,2,3 or 98%, 80%, 60%Advantages-Easy to use.-Easy to interpret (theoretically)-Concise-More continuous than Letter Grades-May be combined with Letter GradesDisadvantage-Meaning of grade may vary widely-Does not address strengths & weaknesses.-K-2 students may feel threatened by them-Meaning may need to be explained/interpreted.
Two-Category Grades pass- fail, Acceptable- unacceptable , s/u• Advantages - less emotional for younger students. -can encourage risk taking for students that may not want to take the course for a grade• Disadvantages - Less reliable than a continuous measure - Does not contain much information relative to a student’s achievement.
Checklists and Rating Scales: objective evaluated by checks or numerical ratings.• Advantages - results in a detailed list of student achievements. - may be combined with other measures.• Disadvantages - may become too detailed to easily comprehend. -Difficult for record keeping
Student-Teacher Conference Discussion with no grade• Advantages - Involves a personal discussion of achievement. - May be used as a formative, ongoing measure• Disadvantages - Teachers needs to be skilled in discussion and offering+ and-feedback. - Time consuming. -Some students may feel threatened. - Difficult for record keeping.
Parent-teacher conference: discussion with no grade• Advantages - Involves personal discussion of achievement and may alleviate misunderstanding. -Teacher can show samples of work and rational for assessment. -May improve relations with parents. • Disadvantages - teachers need to be skilled in discussion and offering=and- feedback -time consuming -may provoke parent-teacher anxiety -may be inconvenient for parents -Difficult for record keeping
Letter of parents: explanation with no grade• Advantages - most useful as an addition form of communication• Disadvantages - short letters may not adequately communicate a student’s achievement. - require good writing skills -time consuming.
Guidelines for Effective and Fair Grading (Gronlund,1998 )• Discuss with students ( and parents when approprite0 the basis of all grading, and all grading procedures, at the beginning of the course/school year• Grades should reflect, and be based on, student’s level of achievement, using only those assessments that validly measure achievement• Grade should reflect, and be based on, a composite of several valid assessments.
Guidelines for Effective and Fair Grading• When combining several valid assessments, each assessment should be appropriately weighted• An appropriate type of grading framework should be adopted, given the ultimate use of the grade.• All borderline grades should be re-evaluated based on a careful examination of all achievement evidence