REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF JOURNALS ARTICLE: WHY DO PEOPLE AVOID ADVERTISING ON THE INTERNET? Journal of Advertising. vol. 33, no. 4 (Winter 2004), pp. 89-97 ANDAVOIDANCE OF ADVERTISING IN SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES: THE TEENAGE PERSPECTIVE Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol 10 No 2(Spring 2010), pp. 16‐27. By: Noorazlin Ani
ABSTRACTThis study was designed to provide insights into why people avoidadvertising on the Internet. Recent negative trends in Internetadvertising, such as "banner blindness" and extremely low click-through rates, make it imperative to study various factors affectingInternee ad avoidance. Accordingly, this study builds acomprehensive theoretical model explaining advertising avoidanceon the internet, researcher examined three latent variables ofInternet ad avoidance: perceived goal impediment, perceived adclutter, and prior negative experience. Researcher found thatthese constructs successfully explain why people cognitively,affectively, and behaviorally avoid advertising messages on theInternet. Perceived goal impediment is found to be the mostsignificant antecedent explaining advertising avoidance on theInternet.
PURPOSE OF STUDYThere are four purposes of this study:1. To explore teenage attitude toward advertising in online social networking environment2. To understand how people avoid advertising messages on the Internet3. To detect various antecedents influencing Internet ad avoidance4. To suggest ways to decrease advertising avoidance on the Internet.
RESEARCH PROBLEM• This research demonstrates the consumer attitudes toward advertising. It also highlights work on advertising avoidance and how it has escalated with increasing media fragmentation, advertising clutter, and technological devices to avoid advertising. The gap of the research aims to fill pertains to attitudes toward advertising on social networking sites and whether advertising is welcomed as a friend or avoided as an unwelcomed guest. This exploratory study asks five important questions:• RQ1: What are teenagers perceptions of advertising on social networking sites?• RQ2: Do teenagers avoid advertising on online social networking sites when they believe it disrupts their goals online?• RQ3: Do teenagers ignore advertising on online social networking sites when they perceive that there is too much clutter in the medium?• RQ4: Do teenagers avoid advertisements on online social networking sites if they have had negative experiences with previous online advertisements?• RQ5: Are there other reasons why teenagers avoid advertising in online social networking sites?
RESEARCH PROBLEM While another journal focuses on Advertising on Internet which concerned with the speed of data access and retrieval downloading time), which is less applicable to other traditional media. Internet users may have negative attitudes toward Internet ads when they perceive that Internet ads slow down the speed of data access. Internet involves more two-way interactivity or voluntary action from consumers (e.g., clicking banners, hyperlinks, etc.), and thus, Internet ad avoidance might encompass intentional refraining from any further action (e.g. ignoring ads by intentionally not clicking any hyperlink).
RESEARCH PROBLEM• Measurement items thru online survey:• Internet ad avoidance• "When I visit Web sites,"• Cognitive ad avoidance• I intentionally dont put my eyes on pop-up ads.• I intentionally dont put my eyes on any ads on the Web.• I intentionally dont pay attention to banner ads.• I intentionally dont pay attention to pop-up ads.• I intentionally dont click on any ads on the Web, even if the ads draw my attention.• Affective ad avoidance• I hate banner ads.• I hate pop-up ads.• I hate any ads on the Web.• It would be better if there were no banner ads on the Web.• Behavioral ad avoidance• I scroll down Web pages to avoid banner ads.• I close windows to avoid pop-up ads.
RESEARCH METHODi) Snowball sampling researcher made contacts with acquaintances who had children, through the researchers childrens friends and friends of friends, who fulfilled all three criteria. Some of the participants were known, but not well known, to the researchers. The acceptance rate was high, with a total of 23 teenagers participating in the mixed-gender focus groups, and a further 8 teenagers sharing their thoughts in in-depth interviews.
RESEARCH METHODii) On-line survey This study employed an on-line survey to collect the data relevant with papers topic (Internet ad avoidance) The sample size of 266 was relatively small considering the nature of the study (a survey of Internet users). In addition, the sample was limited to college students, who may exhibit different ad-avoidance patterns and reasons than those of other consumer segments. The samples were collected in September 2002 from students enrolled in three large undergraduate courses at a large Southeastern university.
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO JOURNALSThere some similarities between this journal which is:1) The researcher proposes three factors of advertising avoidance online because of: i) Perceive goal of impediment ii) Perceive clutter on internet site iii) Negative past experiences with internet advertising2) The researcher investigated advertising avoidance by using internet as media3) Focus group is teenagers
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO JOURNALSThe differences between these journals are:1) Cho and Cheons (2004) research investigates advertising avoidance in the general Internet environment, while Kelly, Kerr and Drennan (2010) specifically the online social networking environment.
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CONCEPTS/THEORIES/MODELS WITH DATA IN AN ACADEMIC RESEARCHa) Push-Pull Model of Marketing Communication Schultzs (2008)b) Model of Advertising Avoidance Online Cho and Cheons (2004)c) Theoretical Model - theory that designed to explain an entire situation or behaviour, with the idea that it would eventually be able to predict that behaviour.d) Causal Model - an abstract model that describes the causal mechanisms of a system. The model must express more than correlation because correlation does not imply causation.
Push-pull model of marketingcommunication Schultz’s (2008)The push-pull model of marketing communicationshows that consumers control the information flow,making their attitude toward advertising a criticalfactor in determining whether a shield is erected andwhen a message is received (Schultz 2008).
Model of Advertising AvoidanceOnline Cho and Cheons (2004)shows the antecedent of advertising avoidanceonline is perceived goal impediment, perceived adclutter, prior negative experiences.
HYPOTHESES CONSTRUCTIONWHICH IS APPROPRIATE WITHCONCEPTS, THEORIES AND MODELS• Perceived Goal Impediment Ad avoidance• When Internet ads are a significant source of noise or nuisance, hindering consumer efforts to browse Web content, they can disrupt consumer Web page viewing, distract viewers from the Web pages editorial integrity, and intrude on their search for desired information. For instance, consumers might feel that the navigation process to locate desired content is difficult on the Internet because Internet ads disrupt or intrude on their overall search for desired information, which may result in a retreat from the source of interference (i.e., ad avoidance). Therefore hypothesize that perceived goal impediment, indicated by consumer search hindrance, disruption, and distraction, and may evoke ad avoidance on the Internet.• H1: The greater- the perceived goal impediment, the greater the advertising avoidance on the Internet.
HYPOTHESES CONSTRUCTIONWHICH IS APPROPRIATE WITHCONCEPTS, THEORIES AND MODELS• Perceived Ad Clutter on the Internet• Ad clutter on the Internet can be operationalized as the number of banner ads, pop-up ads, advertorials, text links, and so forth that appear on a single Web page (ad excessiveness). Consumer irritation with the number of ads on the Internet, or the perception that the Internet is exclusively an advertising medium (ad exclusiveness), should also logically contribute to the perception of advertising clutter. This perceived ad clutter might, in turn, lead to negative attitudes and subsequent ad avoidance.• H2: The greater the perceived ad clutter, the greater the advertising avoidance on the Internet.
HYPOTHESES CONSTRUCTIONWHICH IS APPROPRIATE WITHCONCEPTS, THEORIES AND MODELS• Prior Negative Experiences• With Internet ads, prior negative experience can be indicated by dissatisfaction and perceived lack of utility and incentive for clicking on those ads. This negative experience may lead consumers to avoid the source of the negative experience (i.e., Internet ad avoidance). Based on this theory of learning from experience, researchers hypothesize that as negative experiences with Internet ads increase, the tendency to avoid those ads also increases.• H3: The greater the prior negative experience, the greater the advertising avoidance on the Internet.
HYPOTHESES CONSTRUCTIONWHICH IS APPROPRIATE WITHCONCEPTS, THEORIES AND MODELS Kelly, Kerr and Drennan (2010): Researcher have found that other factors have that influence and identify four antecedents of advertising avoidance in the online social networking environment (as outlined in Figure 3):• Expectations of negative experiences: This expectation of advertisements in the online social networking environment can be as a result of prior negative experiences or the expectation of negative experiences due to word of mouth, including that received from those in authority.• Perception of relevance of advertising message: If the advertising message is not of interest to the receiver of the message, the information is likely to not be processed.
HYPOTHESES CONSTRUCTIONWHICH IS APPROPRIATE WITHCONCEPTS, THEORIES AND MODELSSkepticism of advertising message claims: If consumers are skeptical of the claims made by the advertisement or if these claims are not appropriate to the media environment, they are likely to ignore the message and potentially disregard other messages in this medium.Skepticism of online social networking sites as a credible advertising medium: Consumers do not trust the information gained from online social networking sites. They believe that online social networking sites lack credibility and perceive that there is little policing of advertising claims in this medium.
HYPOTHESES CONSTRUCTIONWHICH IS APPROPRIATE WITHCONCEPTS, THEORIES AND MODELS Figure 3. Model of Advertising Avoidance in the Online Social Networking Environment
OPERATIONAL OF TWO JOURNALS• Advertising Avoidance Online Cho and Cheon (2004) propose three factors of advertising avoidance online: interruption of task, perceived clutter on Internet sites, and negative past experiences with Internet advertising.1) Perceived goal impediment. This factor is important because the Internet is considered more goal and task oriented than traditional media such as television. When advertising reduces or interrupts the speed of data retrieval and processing, consumers may react negatively toward the advertisement or product (Cho and Cheon 2004). Pop-up advertisements, distracting advertisements, and advertisements that require consumer action before they can resume their online activity may encourage them to delete the message immediately and therefore avoid the advertising completely.
OPERATIONAL OF TWO JOURNALS• 2) Perceived advertising clutter Which can also prove a distraction, causing consumers to discriminate and avoid ads that are not relevant or important to them (Ingram 2006). If this perceived clutter is excessive, consumers are likely to have difficulty discriminating messages, which could result in disregard of them all (Cho and Cheon 2004).
OPERATIONAL OF TWO JOURNALS• 3) Prior negative experience Which this factor is includes instances in which Internet advertising is deceptive, exaggerated, or incorrectly targeted or leads users to inappropriate sites (Cho and Cheon 2004). Such marketing techniques have led users to believe that that the Internet is a distrustful medium (Grant 2005).
METHOD SIMILARITIES ANDDIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWOJOURNALS• these journals are using qualitative and quantitative method (in this journalmeasured using a seven-point Linker scale range from strongly disagree to strongly agree)• Qualitative methods are ways of collecting data which are concerned with describing meaning, rather than with drawing statistical inferences. Qualitative methods (e.g. case studies and interviews) lose on reliability they gain in terms of validity. Focus group will provide a more in depth and rich description.• Generally there are no differences method using in these journals expects for data collecting which using online internet question and face to face questions (interview).
POSIBLELITY FOR FUTURE RESEARCH• Further research could widen the frame of reference by drawing on larger samples nationally and internationally and addressing users of different ages and demographic profiles.• Could consider the issue that teenagers raised regarding the lack of advertising regulation on online social network sites.• Need to obtain a deeper understanding of Internet ad avoidance.
REPLICATE IN MALAYSIA• This study can be replicate in Malaysia because a lot of advertiser in Malaysia uses internet and social media as an advertising media. As well as the growth of Internet advertising companies in Malaysia thru Blog Advertising and Online Advertising such as Aductions, Advertlets (blog advertising), Gokita (Contextual Online Advertising. Called "Nufflets" at one time), GrabMyAds (Blog Advertising), Netizens Media (Online Advertising), Nuffnang ("Asias First Blog Advertising Community").