Cinematography is the art of photography and camerawork
in film-making. There are 4 key areas I will be discussing in
the following slides. These are:
- CAMERA SHOTS/ANGLES/FRAMING/COMPOSITION
Camera shots are used to show the different aspects such as where
the film is set, the different characters and themes in the film.
There are many types of Camera shots, I will be giving examples of
these techniques in my techniques video. These are some camera
Extreme close ups – This magnifies an object or feature in the body
Medium shot – this is when the shot captivates half the body of person
Long shot – this is when there is a shot showing the full view of the person
Extreme long shot – this is when the camera is positioned far from the person
and shows them a full body shot.
Establishing shot – this is when the shot allows a full landscape view of the
Zoom in and out – this is when a camera focuses
on a point and either moves outs or moves in to
focus on that object.
Tilt – this is when a camera moves from down to up
focusing on one object.
Point of view shot – this is when you can see the
POV of the main character (protagonist/ antagonist)
Panning shot – this is when the camera moves
from left to right focusing on an object
Over the shoulder shot – is when a camera is
focusing on a person or object over the shoulder of
Camera Angles are the point of views of the camera. It shows parts of the
scene in different perspectives.
High angle – the camera is positioned from a high point
looking down at the character or object.
Low angle – this is when the camera is positioned at a low
point looking up at the character or object.
Birds eye angle – this is when the camera is positioned
directly over the character or object and looks down.
Eye level – this is when the camera is positioned as if it is a
human actually observing the scene.
Composition is how everything is organized
within a frame, this includes the objects, actors
and space. The frame needs to be positioned
horizontally on a left right axis and vertically from
bottom to top making sure that there is a
The space within the frame affects what the
scene means and how people see this. Changing
how the objects, actors and the background
objects are place affect how the audience
interprets the scene.
Editing is when you manipulate the clip to add effects to suit the
genre, for example: the tempo can be slowed down or sped up to
create a particular meaning for the scene. For example: in thriller films
the tempo can be sped up of the scene to add tension and suspense,
and the tempo can be slowed down in romance movies.
The timing between the shot transitions can also be manipulated to fit
in perfectly with the visual scene. This effect can make scenes show
much more by emphasizing an event within the scene.
Sound plays an important role in determining the way the audience
reacts to an image. There are two types of sound – Diegetic and NonDiegetic.
Diegetic sound is the actual sound within that clip, it is the natural
sounds such as characters dialogue, background noises, object
sounds in the actual clip.
Non-Diegetic sound is sound added on after, this is usually edited on.
It can be a narrators voiceover, sound effects added to create a
dramatic effect or to emphasize an image on screen or it can be mood
music to set the tone of the film.
The music in the scene sets the mood and atmosphere. For example:
in romantic movies the music is slow, gentle and passionate to
emphasize particular intimate scenes. And in thriller films the music is
made to add suspense and drama.
Mise-En-Scene means ‘putting into the scene’ it refers to the lighting,
props, characters, settings, acting, space, costumes and facial
expressions within that particular frame.
The setting refers to where the films action takes place. The setting
can be real or imaginary places. They can also be near or specific
places for example: Panic Room is a thriller which is set in New York,
America. This setting is where the action of the film takes place.
The casting is another part of Mise-En-Scene, it refers to the
actors/actresses chosen to take part in the movie. A-list actors are a
group of people who do not need to take part in auditions. TypeCasting is when a particular actor gets known for the specific role or
character they play in movies. For example: Daniel Craig is associated
to the James Bond character he plays.
Costumes are really important in Mise-En-Scene, they give the
audience an understanding of the time and place the movie is set in.
They also give you an understanding of the characters social status
and personal style. Props are objects that are used on stage by the
actors. Props have a symbolic meaning in the film. Props are objects