Nonviolent Force in theStruggle for ChangeWomen in Civil Resistanceby Anne-Marie Codur andMary Elizabeth King
“Universal” human rights oftenestablished by civil resistance• Human rights laws and international conventions havebeen co...
Women in civil resistancePam McAllister: “Most of what we commonly call ‘women’s history’ is actuallythe history of women’...
On both sides of the Atlantic, civil resisters fought againsthuman bondage.Seal of the British Anti-Slavery Society, Engla...
Women leaders played critical roles in theabolition of slavery
Women struggling for the rights of oppressedpeople led them to fight for women’s rights“I expect to plead not for the slav...
Advocates for womens suffragedemonstrating, 1913
Transnational multi-decadecampaigns for women’s ballot• 1893: New Zealand first nation to enfranchise womento vote.• As 20...
Japanese women vote for the first time, 1946
Women and the Indianindependence struggles• Gandhi’s hand-looming of homespun khadi (“constructive program”)— millions of ...
Newly independent post-colonial countries inthe 1960s did not exclude women from politicsbecause of:● Women’s significant ...
Women fought for workers’ rights and through thatstruggle also advanced women’s rightsKey role by women unionistsMaud Malo...
• Most women’s activism isnonviolent direct action, whichhas contributed to thedevelopment of the techniqueof civil resist...
Montgomery bus boycott(1955–1956):sparked by women
Rediscover history through the lensof nonviolent action, bringing tolight the prominent role of women• Effectiveness of wo...
Rosa Parks: “You may do that.”• Parks’s action: nothing to do with “tired feet.”• 42-year-old Parks had attended Highlande...
Unsung heroines of civil rights•••••Mass meeting, First Baptist Church,Montgomery bus boycott (1955). Thecitywide boycott ...
In the words of women leaders…Septima Clark:“In stories about the civil rights movement you hearmostly about the black min...
Unreported role of women in the Polishstruggle against communism (1980-81)Women’s hunger march in protest against foodshor...
The women who defeatedcommunism in Poland“When on December 13, 1981, martiallaw was imposed, most of Solidarnoscleaders we...
Women pave the way tosocial change in Iran
“A victory for women paves the wayfor democracy in Iran.”-Shirin Ebadi, 2009Founder, Defenders of Human Rights Center,2003...
The Iranian women’s movement,One Million Signatures Campaign, and specificapproaches led the way for the 2009 Green Wave• ...
Iran’s women’s rights movement sparkedthe mobilization of civil society for the 2009“green wave”
One outcome in Iran:fertility transitionIran has experienced the fastest fertility transition inhistory, from 7 children p...
Effecting family gender dynamics?●These data suggest that Iranian women have assertedcontrol over their reproductive auton...
Women’s creativity withinpatriarchal systems
Women’s strategies of resistance facingsystems of extreme patriarchyHyper-patriarchal systems both subjugate and idealizew...
Women can sometimes exploit politicalspace as mothers and nurturersStrategic advantage: if women challenge authorities in ...
Berlin 1943: wifely revolt!Married to Jewish men whohad been rounded up to besent to death camps,“devoted, perfect Aryanwi...
Argentina 1976-1983Mothers of the DisappearedLas Madres de la Plaza de Mayo
Mothers of the Plaza de Mayodared to march weeklyGoal of Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo:information and acknowledgment tha...
Chile’s mothers resistingUnder General Augusto Pinochet’s 1980s dictatorship, mothersstitched tales of resistance into tra...
Women pose stronger dilemmas forsecurity forces than do menPresence of women lowers level of violent response from securit...
Women can change the dynamics ofconfrontation with security forcesThe “disarming” factor: nonviolent method offraternizati...
Scholars believe that dozens ofunreported sex strikes occurredthroughout history — especiallyused to exert pressure to cea...
Women and civil resistancemovements in Africa
Wangari Maathai and the Green Belt Movement in Kenya(2004 Nobel Peace Laureate)National Council of Women launched the Gree...
Doing the unimaginable:the Women of LiberiaLeymah Gbowee and President EllenJohnson-Sirleaf, 2011 Nobel Peace Prizelaureates
Women of Zimbabwe Arise (WOZA)lightning actions
Women and civil resistance in theMiddle East
Palestinian women lead the waySecond from left: Matiel Moghannam, a Protestant Palestinian feminist leader, author, The Ar...
Fighting for Palestine and women’srights simultaneously“Personal and national liberation go hand in hand. When bothsexes a...
Women pave the way for the first intifada (1987)Palestinians demonstrating in Bethlehem, 1987 intifadaPoster, General Unio...
The Palestinian Authority, return to patriarchy, andmarginalization of womenThe first and second intifadas compared (adapt...
Women in Palestine’s current phase of popular resistance(2004‒2012)Only with the re-emergence of nonviolent popular resist...
Israeli women’s civil resistance• 1988: Women in Black created by Jewish-Israeli women who oppose Israelsoccupation of the...
“Four Mothers Movement inIsrael”• Named for 4 mothers whose sons served in elite IDF units inLebanon, it used 2 methods: p...
Women’s participation in theArab AwakeningWomen: full participants inthe Arab Awakening
Arab Awakening: Ending thepatriarchal father-son successionPassing of power from father to son a characteristic ofpatriarc...
Egypt’s revolution: challenging patriarchy“Thanks to social networks, young unmarried women were able to rise toleadership...
Women in Egypt were targeted by regime-sponsored thugs and security.Soldiers assaulted women on Saturday December 17, 2011...
Egyptian women of therevolutionWeb Site: www.egyptianwomen.info© Photographs and article by Tatiana Philiptchenko
In Yemen’s traditional society, women suffer asleaders if seen as “feminist” and fighting for therights of women to be “fr...
Is there a women’s advantage instruggles?• Networking skills in organizing:“More than any other groups, women’sorganizatio...
Family/community networks: women canmobilize elderly, children, youth – weavingties of solidarity among generationsInterna...
Building solidarity ties across lines ofdivides and conflicts:Black and White women in anti-slavery movement(19th century)...
Conclusion: research questions?In contemporary struggles, how are women activistscontributing to the development of strate...
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Women in Civil Resistance - Dr. Mary King & Dr. Anne-Marie Codur (FSI2013)

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Most women’s activism has historically been nonviolent direct action, which has helped develop the technique of civil resistance. Movements for abolition of slavery and women’s suffrage made common cause in the nineteenth century. Women’s activism has been the galvanizing force in several civil-resistance movements, for example, the Montgomery bus boycott (1955–1956) that launched the U.S. civil rights movement was sparked by JoAnne Robinson and the city’s black women’s political council.

Women can sometimes exploit traditional political space as wives, mothers and nurturers, as did German gentile women married to Jewish men, who in 1943 saved their husbands through street protests in Berlin. Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo dared to march weekly in Argentina’s capital, 1977–1983, seeking acknowledgment that their children had been “disappeared” by the military generals. Their audacious demonstrations created the dynamic that would lead to the fall of the regime. Women have sometimes been able to accomplish what their male peers could not, as with the Palestinian women who led popular committees in the 1987 intifada. Israeli women’s activism in the Israeli “Four Mothers Movement” exerted such pressure on the Israeli government that the IDF withdrew from Lebanon in 2000.

The significance of women’s leadership, decision-making, strategy, organization, communications, networking, and tactics needs to be more systemically surveyed and acknowledged, as their role is critical in the success of any movement of civil resistance.

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Women in Civil Resistance - Dr. Mary King & Dr. Anne-Marie Codur (FSI2013)

  1. 1. Nonviolent Force in theStruggle for ChangeWomen in Civil Resistanceby Anne-Marie Codur andMary Elizabeth King
  2. 2. “Universal” human rights oftenestablished by civil resistance• Human rights laws and international conventions havebeen codified after mass social movements fought fortheir establishment.• Human rights, civil rights, women’s rights, and minorityrights institutionalized as result of civil resistancemovements.• Civil resistance is not conflict resolution, although thismay be one outcome.• Laws often enshrine injustices — many if not mostgender inequities are legal.
  3. 3. Women in civil resistancePam McAllister: “Most of what we commonly call ‘women’s history’ is actuallythe history of women’s role in the development of nonviolent action.”
  4. 4. On both sides of the Atlantic, civil resisters fought againsthuman bondage.Seal of the British Anti-Slavery Society, England, 1780s
  5. 5. Women leaders played critical roles in theabolition of slavery
  6. 6. Women struggling for the rights of oppressedpeople led them to fight for women’s rights“I expect to plead not for the slave only, but for suffering humanity everywhere.Especially do I mean to labor for the elevation of my sex.”- Lucy Stone (1818-1893), abolitionist and advocate of women’s rightsThe U.S. suffragist movement for the vote grew out of the antislavery movementNational Woman’ssuffrage association,Chicago, 1880
  7. 7. Advocates for womens suffragedemonstrating, 1913
  8. 8. Transnational multi-decadecampaigns for women’s ballot• 1893: New Zealand first nation to enfranchise womento vote.• As 20th century opened, women’s nonviolent suffragemovements formed in China, Iran, Korea, thePhilippines, Russia, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Turkey,Vietnam, and Japan.• International relations expert Fred Halliday: Thesweep of women’s suffrage campaigns is one of themost remarkable transnational movements of themodern age.
  9. 9. Japanese women vote for the first time, 1946
  10. 10. Women and the Indianindependence struggles• Gandhi’s hand-looming of homespun khadi (“constructive program”)— millions of women• Late 1920s, Indian women leading local struggles• Gandhi criticized for insufficient attention to women’s rights, but hisincorporation of political work by women had by 1931 led to an IndianNational Congress Party resolution committing itself to the equalrights of women
  11. 11. Newly independent post-colonial countries inthe 1960s did not exclude women from politicsbecause of:● Women’s significant contributions to theindependence struggles● Concept of women voting became assumedfor the modern nation-state
  12. 12. Women fought for workers’ rights and through thatstruggle also advanced women’s rightsKey role by women unionistsMaud Malone, 1914, spokeswoman for the Library EmployeesUnion, in New York, she fought against the inferior status ofwomen library workers and their low pay.Women’s Trade Union league,New York, 1910Lucy Parsons,U.S. labor organizer(1853-1942)Louise Michel (1830-1905), emblematic figurein workers’ movements and women’semancipation in France
  13. 13. • Most women’s activism isnonviolent direct action, whichhas contributed to thedevelopment of the techniqueof civil resistancePam McAllister, "You Can’t Kill the Spirit: Women and Nonviolent Action,"in Nonviolent Social Movements: A Geographical Perspective, ed. Stephen Zunes,Lester R. Kurtz and Sarah Beth Asher (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999), 21.
  14. 14. Montgomery bus boycott(1955–1956):sparked by women
  15. 15. Rediscover history through the lensof nonviolent action, bringing tolight the prominent role of women• Effectiveness of women’s nonviolent direct action oftenignored, unacknowledged• Interchange of ideas between women’s involvement andhistory of nonviolent struggle overlooked downplayed.Rosa Parks with the ReverendMartin Luther King, Jr.(background)Montgomery 1955If not for Rosa Parks,we might not have heard of Martin Luther King Jr.
  16. 16. Rosa Parks: “You may do that.”• Parks’s action: nothing to do with “tired feet.”• 42-year-old Parks had attended Highlander Folk Centertraining institute for labor union organizers in Monteagle,Tennessee.• Learned basics of civil resistance, including civildisobedience.• Deliberate, politically wide-awake action. When the driverthreatened to have her arrested, she said, “You may dothat.” She stayed so as to break the law.• She had 6 or more opportunities to leave the bus.
  17. 17. Unsung heroines of civil rights•••••Mass meeting, First Baptist Church,Montgomery bus boycott (1955). Thecitywide boycott was initiated by womenSojourner Truth, Ida Wells, Ella Baker, PauliMurray, Septima Clark, Rosa Parks,Jo Ann Robinson, and many others. . . .
  18. 18. In the words of women leaders…Septima Clark:“In stories about the civil rights movement you hearmostly about the black ministers. But if you talk to thewomen who were there, you’ll hear another story. I thinkthe civil rights movement would never have taken off ifsome women hadn’t started to speak up.”Ella Baker:“The movement of the 1950s and 1960s was carriedlargely by women, since it came out of church groups.Their number in the movement was much larger thanthat of men.”Mary E. King, “Women and Civil Rights—A Personal Reflection,” 12th Annual Fannie Lou HamerLecture Series (Jackson, Mississippi: Department of Political Science, Jackson State University,October 5 1995).
  19. 19. Unreported role of women in the Polishstruggle against communism (1980-81)Women’s hunger march in protest against foodshortages, August 19811980, sit-down strike, Gdansk ShipyardSeptember 17, 1981: workers representatives, including LechWałęsa, formed a nationwide labor union, SolidaritySolidarnosc: 10 million members by lateautumn 1980, half of them women
  20. 20. The women who defeatedcommunism in Poland“When on December 13, 1981, martiallaw was imposed, most of Solidarnoscleaders were rounded up and arrested.Many women were arrested as well, buttheir numbers had been underestimatedby the police. They hid the fewremaining male leaders, foundedunderground Solidarity structures, andpublished the main Solidarity newspaper,providing the continuity to a movementthat was in danger of extinction.This is the untold history of the Solidaritymovement in Poland.”- Shana Penn
  21. 21. Women pave the way tosocial change in Iran
  22. 22. “A victory for women paves the wayfor democracy in Iran.”-Shirin Ebadi, 2009Founder, Defenders of Human Rights Center,2003 Nobel Peace Prize laureateThe One Million Signatures Campaign wasformally launched on August 27, 2006, tocollect one million signatures in support ofa petition to the Iranian Parliament askingfor revision and reform of existing laws thatdiscriminated against women.Iran: when women’s rights movements area catalyst for broader political change
  23. 23. The Iranian women’s movement,One Million Signatures Campaign, and specificapproaches led the way for the 2009 Green Wave• Dilemma actions (bursting into a stadium)• Unifying the people (men & women, secular & religious,& rural)• International capacity-building (networking)• Tactical innovation: noncooperation, symbols, songs• Communications: useof digital media (blogs,cell phones)
  24. 24. Iran’s women’s rights movement sparkedthe mobilization of civil society for the 2009“green wave”
  25. 25. One outcome in Iran:fertility transitionIran has experienced the fastest fertility transition inhistory, from 7 children per woman (on average) in 1985,to 1.8 children per woman in 2009. Fertility in Irandeclined an astonishing 70 percent over a 30-year period,“one of the most rapid and pronounced fertility declinesever recorded in human history.” By 2000, Iran’s fertilityrate had fallen to two births per woman, below the levelnecessary to replace current population.- Study by Nicholas Eberstadt and Apoorva Shah
  26. 26. Effecting family gender dynamics?●These data suggest that Iranian women have assertedcontrol over their reproductive autonomy, and that thepower dynamics inside marriage are becoming moreequal between husband and wife.●Illustration: a couple’s relationshipin Iranian cinema: “A Separation.”Oscar: best foreign film 2012Is patriarchy losing power at the family level?And is it a matter of time before it losespower at the socio-political level?
  27. 27. Women’s creativity withinpatriarchal systems
  28. 28. Women’s strategies of resistance facingsystems of extreme patriarchyHyper-patriarchal systems both subjugate and idealizewomen:Subjugation: a woman is considered a minor, too weak orignorant to make her own decisions, needing to be protectedand cared for by a man: her father, brother, or husbandIdealization: the “good wife” and “good mother,” thenurturer, protector, and educator of the childrenGendered stereotypes are exaggerated; men encouragedto become “hyper-males”; strength and military valuescelebratedTraditional family values, cultural pillar of support forthe system.
  29. 29. Women can sometimes exploit politicalspace as mothers and nurturersStrategic advantage: if women challenge authorities in the nameof “superior” family values — good wives and devoted mothers —they can create powerful, irresistible dilemma actions, in whichany response can help them.Historically, women have been able totake advantage of gender-definedfreedoms or stereotypes
  30. 30. Berlin 1943: wifely revolt!Married to Jewish men whohad been rounded up to besent to death camps,“devoted, perfect Aryanwives” protested for one weekbefore the Gestapo . . .posing an embarrassing dilemmafor the Nazi authorities, whoreleased 1,700 intermarriedJewish prisoners.
  31. 31. Argentina 1976-1983Mothers of the DisappearedLas Madres de la Plaza de Mayo
  32. 32. Mothers of the Plaza de Mayodared to march weeklyGoal of Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo:information and acknowledgment that their children andloved ones had been “disappeared” by the militarygenerals’ “dirty war.”
  33. 33. Chile’s mothers resistingUnder General Augusto Pinochet’s 1980s dictatorship, mothersstitched tales of resistance into traditional tapestries, arpilleras.Ignored as insignificant women’s work, they were able to smugglethem into and out of jails — sharing information with sons andhusbands. They sold theirquilts beyond their borders,when a fearful news corpscould not. The tapestriesroused anti-Pinochetsympathizers worldwide,bringing financial and politicalbacking for the civil resistance.Arpillera, courtesy of Royal Alberta Museum
  34. 34. Women pose stronger dilemmas forsecurity forces than do menPresence of women lowers level of violent response from security forces;beating of women poses stronger moral predicamentsWomen on the frontline, in direct contact with the police and securityapparatus, may protect other (male) demonstratorsVersailles, October 5, 1789Serbia, 2000Cairo, 2011
  35. 35. Women can change the dynamics ofconfrontation with security forcesThe “disarming” factor: nonviolent method offraternization — reaching out to the humanityof soldiers, treating them as sons and brothersCairo 2011 Ukraine’s Orange revolution 2004
  36. 36. Scholars believe that dozens ofunreported sex strikes occurredthroughout history — especiallyused to exert pressure to ceasefighting wars. . . .The “Lysistratic non-action”method has proven effective indiverse cases:Colombia, 1997 and 2006Liberia, 2003Kenya, 2009Women counteracting patriarchal powerAs a last resort: Sex Strike!
  37. 37. Women and civil resistancemovements in Africa
  38. 38. Wangari Maathai and the Green Belt Movement in Kenya(2004 Nobel Peace Laureate)National Council of Women launched the Green Belt Movement to plant trees in 1977,against desertification and for rural energy. The late Wangari Maathai was repeatedlyarrested and beaten. For 30 years, she mobilized 50,000 poor women to plant 40 milliontrees, while fighting for environmental protection and anti-corruption policies inKenya. In this photo, at Liberty Corner, she meets with Mothers of Political Prisoners,a group that she helped to start.
  39. 39. Doing the unimaginable:the Women of LiberiaLeymah Gbowee and President EllenJohnson-Sirleaf, 2011 Nobel Peace Prizelaureates
  40. 40. Women of Zimbabwe Arise (WOZA)lightning actions
  41. 41. Women and civil resistance in theMiddle East
  42. 42. Palestinian women lead the waySecond from left: Matiel Moghannam, a Protestant Palestinian feminist leader, author, The ArabWoman and the Palestine Problem, London, 1937‒ Photo, courtesy of Walid Khalidi, Before Their Diaspora, 1984Delegation of Muslim andChristian women activistsmet with the British highcommissioner to plead forBritain to honor itspromises to the Arabs as ithad to the Jews.Jerusalem 1929Palestinian women: ahead of their time and their region1921: Creation of Palestinian Women Union1929: First Arab Women’s Congress of Palestine, organized by Arab Women’s ExecutiveCommittee – petitions to Queen Mary, British Government, and League of Nations.Silent demonstration of Christian and Muslim women, Old City of Jerusalem (1933)
  43. 43. Fighting for Palestine and women’srights simultaneously“Personal and national liberation go hand in hand. When bothsexes are deprived of their freedom and national dignity bythe Israelis, it would be inappropriate for us to deal onlywith sexual inequalities. On the other hand, we will failboth women and our cause if we do not understand thatliberating women from discrimination will better equipthem for waging a successful national struggle”‒ Zahira KamalQuoted in Mary King, A Quiet Revolution:The First Palestinian Intifada and Nonviolent Resistance (2007)Zahira Kamal, elected first female leader of a politicalparty in Palestine (2011)
  44. 44. Women pave the way for the first intifada (1987)Palestinians demonstrating in Bethlehem, 1987 intifadaPoster, General Union of Palestinian women,1970s1970s-1980s: strong women organizations. In the absence otheir own government, women’s social welfare organizationclaim civil society as de facto informal governanceEssential role of women as community leadersand organizers in first intifada: remarkably nonviolentmobilization that succeeded in pressuring Israeli societyand government to concede the beginning of Palestinian(limited) autonomy
  45. 45. The Palestinian Authority, return to patriarchy, andmarginalization of womenThe first and second intifadas compared (adapted from Erica Chenoweth and Maria Stephan,Why Civil resistance Works (2011)Nonviolent campaigns Violent campaignsEstimated participants hundreds of thousands tens of thousandsPrimary participants middle class male youthstudents and intellectuals PLO and Islamiststrade unions extremist groupswomen’s groupsIslamic groupsMarxistspoor, ruralbusinesses, etc…Tactical diversity clear unclearEffect, regime repression backfire suppressionOutcome partial success failure
  46. 46. Women in Palestine’s current phase of popular resistance(2004‒2012)Only with the re-emergence of nonviolent popular resistance in villagesstruggling against the Wall did women rise again, to play a key roleIn Budrus, a conservative ruralenvironment, women able tomobilize in effective ways
  47. 47. Israeli women’s civil resistance• 1988: Women in Black created by Jewish-Israeli women who oppose Israelsoccupation of the Palestinian Territories — use elementary nonviolent method:denunciation.• Wearing black to convey mourning,they silently hold placards opposing their government’s policy: “Dai L’Kibbush,”or “Down with the Occupation!”
  48. 48. “Four Mothers Movement inIsrael”• Named for 4 mothers whose sons served in elite IDF units inLebanon, it used 2 methods: petitions and vigils to win tens ofthousands of supporters.• Israeli scholar Tamar Hermann: movement’s strategy strictlynonviolent to have maximal inclusivity and generate positive newcoverage. She calls it “the most successful grassrootsorganization in Israeli’s history.”- Tamar Hermann, “Winning the Mainstream: Arba Imahot, the Four Mothers Movement in Israel,”in Civilian Jihad: Nonviolent Struggle Democratization, and Governance in the Middle East,ed. Maria J. Stephan
  49. 49. Women’s participation in theArab AwakeningWomen: full participants inthe Arab Awakening
  50. 50. Arab Awakening: Ending thepatriarchal father-son successionPassing of power from father to son a characteristic ofpatriarchal (and tribal) societies, in the Arab world andelsewhere.Anthropologist John Borneman: “The publicrenunciation of the son’s claim to inherit the father’spower definitively ends the specific Arab model ofsuccession that has been incorporated into statedictatorships among tribal authorities.”John Borneman, “Oedipal Roots of Revolt in the Middle East,” Anthropology News, May 2011.
  51. 51. Egypt’s revolution: challenging patriarchy“Thanks to social networks, young unmarried women were able to rise toleadership roles – they took over the cyberspace,since conservative society didn’t allow them to takeover public spaces. ” Asmaa Mahfouz, FacebookTahrir Square: Men and women strugglingtogether, 20 percent of demonstrators were women.This experience has modeled more equal, respectfulgender relationshipsYet in the transition phase, women have been marginalized, as elections have reinforcedconservative, patriarchal structures, for now. The struggle is still at its start. . . .
  52. 52. Women in Egypt were targeted by regime-sponsored thugs and security.Soldiers assaulted women on Saturday December 17, 2011, including thisvolunteer doctor at Tahrir Square field hospital.
  53. 53. Egyptian women of therevolutionWeb Site: www.egyptianwomen.info© Photographs and article by Tatiana Philiptchenko
  54. 54. In Yemen’s traditional society, women suffer asleaders if seen as “feminist” and fighting for therights of women to be “free”“Women fought for human rights, notfor women rights. We, women,struggled to give men their rights!” –Tawakul Karman (speech, Harvard’sKennedy School, June 7, 2012)Yemen’s revolution:despite patriarchyTawakul Karman,2011 Nobel Peace Prize laureateTawakul was accepted as a leaderbecause she belongs to a conservativeparty, she is a “good Muslim woman,” sheis married and a mother of 3 children.
  55. 55. Is there a women’s advantage instruggles?• Networking skills in organizing:“More than any other groups, women’sorganizations use the terms ‘network’ and‘networking’ to describe their interactions.”- Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists beyondBorders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics (1998)
  56. 56. Family/community networks: women canmobilize elderly, children, youth – weavingties of solidarity among generationsInternational community: Women’ssuffragist movement: most successfultransnational movement of 20th century
  57. 57. Building solidarity ties across lines ofdivides and conflicts:Black and White women in anti-slavery movement(19th century) and civil rights movement (20th century)Israel/PalestineLiberia: Christian/Muslim women’s massive sit-insWomen of Srebrenica(memorializing losses in Bosnia-Herzegovina)In Social Network era, harnessing those networking skills at abroader, international scale: Transnational electronic activism(57% of Facebook users are women)
  58. 58. Conclusion: research questions?In contemporary struggles, how are women activistscontributing to the development of strategy and tactics ofcivil resistance?What properties of networking, characteristic of women’sorganizing, may strengthen future civil-resistancecampaigns?How has the philosophical and strategic connectionbetween the means and ends, which is historically part ofcivil resistance, empower and potentiate women resisters?

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