Analysis of the role of the USA President John F. Kennedy and Prime Minister of the USSR Nikita Khrushchev in the solution of that difficult problem. <ul><li>What do we mean when speaking about the Caribbean Crisis? </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons that led to its emergence. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chronics of the Crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>13 days that separated the world from the Nuclear War. </li></ul><ul><li>The lessons of the crisis. </li></ul>
Pre-history of the Crisis. <ul><li>January 1, 1959. The victory of the socialist revolution in Cuba and the beginning of attempts of the new government to get rid of the American influence in all forms of life. Washington couldn’t stand the appearance of the first socialist state near its borders. </li></ul><ul><li>1961. The attempt of the counterrevolutionary forces to overthrow the peoples’ Government and invade the country. The failure of the attempt of the invasion at the Bay of Pigs. </li></ul><ul><li>The fear of the Cuban Government for the fate of the revolution. Fidel Castro’s contacts with the Soviet Government. </li></ul>
The Crucial Obstacle in American – Soviet Union relations.
Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis <ul><li>According to Nikita Khrushchev's memoirs, in May 1962 he conceived the idea of placing intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Cuba as a means of countering an emerging lead of the United States in developing and deploying strategic missiles. He wanted to show the Americans that in case they attack Cuba again they will have to fight against the Soviet Union. </li></ul>
<ul><li>He also presented the scheme as a means of protecting Cuba from another United States-sponsored invasion, such as the failed attempt at the Bay of Pigs in 1961. </li></ul><ul><li>Once placed on the island the missiles had to be the resistance factor in case America started military actions against the socialist states. They could easily reach the territory of many American cities. </li></ul>
The Placing of the Missiles on the Territory of Cuba. <ul><li>After obtaining Fidel Castro's approval, the Soviet Union worked quickly and secretly to build missile installations in Cuba. </li></ul>
The Stages of the Crisis <ul><li>American aircraft intelligence discovered the concentration of Russian military units, technical equipment and installations ready for launching cruise missiles. </li></ul><ul><li>On October 16, President John Kennedy was shown reconnaissance photographs of Soviet missile installations under construction in Cuba. </li></ul>
The Stages of the Crisis <ul><li>After seven days of guarded and intense debate in the United States administration, during which Soviet diplomats denied that installations for offensive missiles were being built in Cuba, </li></ul>
The White House Reaction <ul><li>President Kennedy, in a televised address on October 22, announced the discovery of the installations and proclaimed that any nuclear missile attack from Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union and would be responded to accordingly. </li></ul>
The Soviet Missiles placed on Cuban territory.
The Reaction of the White House <ul><li>It was very difficult for president John F. Kennedy to come to the proper decision: either to pretend not to notice the preparations of the Russians or start immediately military actions, forcefully making them dismantle the missile installations, even at the risk of unleashing the thermonuclear war. </li></ul><ul><li>A “non-stop” telephone communication line was established between the Kremlin and the White House. </li></ul>
The Stages of the Crisis <ul><li>J.F. Kennedy also imposed a naval quarantine on Cuba to prevent further Soviet shipments of offensive military weapons from arriving there. </li></ul>
Extreme Attempts to Solve the Crisis <ul><li>During the crisis, the two sides exchanged many letters and other communications, both formal and "back channel." Khrushchev sent letters to Kennedy on October 23 and 24 indicating the deterrent nature of the missiles in Cuba and the peaceful intentions of the Soviet Union. </li></ul>
The Demands of the USSR <ul><li>On October 26, Khrushchev sent Kennedy a long rambling letter seemingly proposing that the missile installations would be dismantled and personnel removed in exchange for United States assurances that it or its proxies would not invade Cuba. On October 27, another letter to Kennedy arrived from Khrushchev, suggesting that missile installations in Cuba would be dismantled if the United States dismantled its missile installations in Turkey. </li></ul>
Taking a Difficult Decision 1 <ul><li>The American administration decided to ignore this second letter and to accept the offer outlined in the letter of October 26. Khrushchev then announced on October 28 that he would dismantle the installations and return them to the Soviet Union, expressing his trust that the United States would not invade Cuba. </li></ul>
Taking a Final Decision 2 <ul><li>Further negotiations were held to implement the October 28 agreement, including a United States demand that Soviet light bombers also be removed from Cuba, and the exact form and conditions of United States assurances not to invade Cuba be specified. </li></ul>
The End of the Crisis Meeting of Two Political Leaders in Geneva.
Victory of Political Wisdom Very Difficult Negotiations in Geneva
The Outcomes of the Crisis <ul><li>Both leaders confessed that the new nuclear war would lead to annihilation of mankind. </li></ul><ul><li>The existence of two different political systems was possible, but the competition in military sphere could bring them to dangerous outcomings. </li></ul>
From the reminiscences of the Soviet Ambassador in America A. Dobrinin : “ I shall always remember the fever of the October rocket crisis, when the peace was hanging on a thread, and when the leaders of the USA, the USSR and Cuba had to read the incoming papers on the spot and react upon them according to the situation. At the decisive moment of the crisis N. Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy turned out to be at the top, having shown courage, wisdom and political strain.
<ul><li>The crisis had a long lasting outcomings: </li></ul><ul><li>both leaders began to clarify that the use of thermonuclear weapons would bring the mankind to annihilation and not to the prosperity. </li></ul><ul><li>it became impossible to talk to another country from the position of force. </li></ul><ul><li>all the disputable problems should be solved by negotiations. </li></ul><ul><li>both leaders began to realize the danger of the repeating of such a crisis. More than that they felt the necessity of digression of the international tension after solution of such types of crises. </li></ul>
The Results of the Crisis <ul><li>The politicians all over the world said it was the victory of political wisdom over ambitions shown by both leaders – N. Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy. </li></ul>
What Lesson Both Leaders Got <ul><li>Both the USA and Russia tried to change the military balance into its favour. At the same time both sides understood that there couldn’t be a winner in a thermonuclear war. </li></ul><ul><li>The understanding of it made the super powers obey the norms of behavior, which were formed chaotically and were rather contradictory. </li></ul>
<ul><li>First of all, the rules were supposed </li></ul><ul><li>to consider the interests of both sides. They learned that by trying to gain any privilege by threatening the other side by using nuclear weapons, they shouldn’t declare their wish in ultimatum way which is not acceptable to the other side. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondly, it is very dangerous if the other side is convinced that it can unexpectedly be subjected to a nuclear attack . It can lead to unpredictable actions. All the disputable questions should be negotiated, compromised, even questions of military security. </li></ul>
Thirdly, it is necessary to limit the range of territorial conflicts in which the super powers or their alliances are involved. They shouldn’t be permitted to reach the stage of using nuclear weapons, and the overgrowing of a regional military conflict into a global war.