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Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir
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Vladimir

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Towns of old Russia

Towns of old Russia

Published in: Spiritual, Travel
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  • 1. Vladimir Mikhail Nokhov Gymnasium # 1 Khasavyurt
  • 2. <ul><li>The town of Vladimir is situated in extremely picturesque surroundings on the left bank of the River Klyazma. It stands on a high piece of ground intersected by deep gullies, bordered by the Klyazma on the south and the valley of the small River Lybed on the north. On the other side of the Klyazma stretch water-meadows fringed with a dark belt of hazy forest receding into the far distance. </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>To the north and east of the town across the valleys of the Lybed and Irpen the land begins to rise again up to the old villages of Dobroye and Krasnoye, which formerly stood apart from Vladimir with their beautifully situated churches that could be seen for miles around. Today they have practically become part of the town itself. In older days the town was bordered on the west by vast stretches of ancient pine forest. </li></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>The feudal struggles that ensued showed the vital strategic importance of the elevated ridge of ground along the Klyazma which faced the hostile principalities of Ryazan and Murom and protected Suzdal from the southwest. This was the decisive factor which caused the peaceful settlement of traders and craftsmen on the high promontory above the Klyazma to be transformed into a mighty fortress erected by Vsevo-lod's son, Vladimir Monomach, in the year 1108. </li></ul>
  • 5. Prince Vladimir Manomach
  • 6. <ul><li>The shape of the fortress was dictated by the lie of the land. It was bounded to the south by the steep banks of the Klyazma, to the north by the Lybed valley, and to the east and west by the steep gullies in the plateau. Vladimir's builders constructed huge earth ramparts crowned with wooden walls all the way round the fortress. Traces of these ancient ramparts can still be seen in Proletarskaya Street (the northeast corner of the old town) and Komsomolskaya Street (northwest corner). Originally they covered a perimeter of 2.5 kilometers. </li></ul>
  • 7. Prince Vladimir Chooses the Religion
  • 8. Monument to Prince Vladimir
  • 9. <ul><li>Inside the town walls, probably on the highest point overlooking the Klyazma, Monomach built the first stone church, the Church of Our Saviour. The new town was called Vladimir in honour of its founder, and this asymmetrical quadrangular fortress became the heart of the future capital of northeast Russia. </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Vladimir's heir, Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, was too occupied with the struggle for the throne of Kiev to pay much attention to his northern possessions. It was not until a short time before his death that, evidently realising the futility of this struggle, he began to build a series of new fortress towns in the northeast, including the fortress of Moscow. A new royal palace was erected in Vladimir with a church made of white stone (1157) and dedicated to Saint George, the prince's patron saint. </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>The rapid growth of the town, its large population, rich natural resources and strategic importance led to it being made the capital of the Vladimir principality.Yuri Dolgoruky's son. Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky, decided to transfer his residence from the south to Vladimir - a town of craftsmen and traders These ordinary people gave tremendous support to the Vladimir princes in their struggle against the rich boyars for control of the principality and helped them to increase the political importance of the Vladimir lands in their efforts to save the country from being ruined by feudal warfare. </li></ul>Andrei Bogolyubsky
  • 12. Bogolyubsky Monastery
  • 13. <ul><li>A great deal of splendid buildings was carried out between 1158-1165. The western part of the town had four turreted gates: the Volga Gates at the foot of the Middle Town leading to the jetty on the Klyazma, the wooden Irina and Copper gates on the slopes of the gullies leading to the Lybed, and the Golden Gates made of white stone through which the main road to the south ran. </li></ul>The Golden Gates
  • 14. <ul><li>The large Cathedral of the Assumption (1158-1160) was built on the elevated southwestern corner of the Middle Town. Together with the white stone churches of St. George and Our Saviour, which were also situated high up on the southern edge of the town, the Cathedral of the Assumption formed part of Vladimir's strikingly beautiful southern facade. Its longitudinal axis was decorated with the towers of the Golden Gates, the Trading Gates in the west wall of the Middle Town, the Ivan Gates in the east wall of the Middle Town, and the Silver Gates at the easternmost tip of the town. </li></ul>
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  • 17. <ul><li>The next stage in the architectural history of the town came at the end of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth centuries. The strengthening of the Grand Prince's power under Vsevolod III and the increasing political awareness of the citizens of Vladimir resulted in a number of serious riots and uprisings. The prince decided to move his residence to the Middle Town. A sumptuous stone palace with the Cathedral of St. Dmitri (1194-1197) was erected by the south wall next to the Episcopal residence. </li></ul>
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  • 20. <ul><li>This section of the Middle Town, which was known as the Detinets (an archaic Russian word meaning inner fortress, or citadel of the reigning prince), was surrounded by stone walls with fortified gates (1194-1196) to separate the residences of the prince and bishop from the hustle and bustle of the town. The Cathedral of the Assumption had been badly damaged in the fire of 1185 and Vsevolod had new walls erected round the old building (1185-1189). As a result of this the Cathedral now had five aisles instead of the former three and this increase in size emphasized, as it were, the importance of the citadel as the architectural centre of the town. </li></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>The Monastery of the Nativity (Rozhdestvensky Monastery) was built in the southeast corner of the Middle Town with a cathedral of white stone (1192-1195). This new ensemble formed a kind of second inner citadel. The rowdy Vladimir market was moved to the north part of the Middle Town facing the menacing fortified walls of the citadel. In 1218 Vsevolod's successor, Prince Konstantin, erected the small Church of the Exaltation of the Cross (Vozdvizheniye) on this spot. Princess Maria, the wife of Vsevolod III, founded the Convent of the Assumption (Uspensky Monastery also known as the Knyaginin Monastyr or Princess Convent) with a cathedral made of brick (1200-1201) which was erected in the northwest corner of the New Town. </li></ul>
  • 22. <ul><li>The general picture of the town's layout and buildings in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries took the form of a triangle consisting of three sections which had grown up at different stages and bounded on two sides by the Klyazma and Lybed The central street ran from one end of the town to the other (along what is now Moskovskaya St., Third International St. and Frunze St.) and was intersected by four turreted gates. Entering the town through the Golden Gates the traveler would see the royal palaces with the Church of Our Savior and the Church of St. George on the right. </li></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>On the left in the distance was the ensemble of the Princess Convent. These impressive buildings stood out against the broad panorama of the water-meadows and distant forests beyond the Klyazma and the gentle wooded slopes to the north. Straight ahead of the traveler rose the earth ramparts and walls of the Middle Town and the wooden tower of the Trading Gates. Beyond the walls in the southern corner he could see the huge white building of the Cathedral of the Assumption with its five domes. </li></ul>
  • 24. <ul><li>The forces of feudal disintegration gained the upper hand, however, and after the death of Vsevo-lod III in 1212 the unity of his lands was broken. This left the country weakened and divided on the eve of the Mongol invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mongols reached Vladimir in 1238. After a stubborn siege the town eventually fell to the invaders who looted and set fire to it. Even after this great disaster, however, the town continued to be regarded by the people of the time as the centre of northeast Russia and the repository of its political and cultural traditions. </li></ul>
  • 25. <ul><li>Prince Dmitri Donskoi put the Cathedral of St. Dmitri under his patronage, and in 1380 on the eve of the battle of Kulikovo the famous twelfth-century icon of St. Demetrius of Salonica (Dmitri Solunsky) was taken from the Cathedral to Moscow. In 1395 Vladimir's most treasured relic, the icon of the Virgin of Vladimir, was removed to the Cathedral of the Assumption in the Moscow Kremlin. </li></ul>Dmitri Donskoi
  • 26. <ul><li>From then onwards Vladimir ceased to be the capital of the northeast lands and simply became one of the towns in the Muscovite state, a town with great memories and sacred relics. It developed extremely slowly. In 1489 settlers from Novgorod formed a sloboda* on the opposite bank of the Lybed, known as the Varvarka Sloboda. Two other settlements appeared in the same area in the middle of the sixteenth century, the Streletskaya Sloboda and Pushkarskaya Sloboda, which eventually combined to form the one Streletskaya Sloboda. Another two appeared in the seventeenth century - Upper and Lower Borovki. Legend has it that the latter was founded by the early Novgorod settlers and the large brick house belonging to the Babushkin merchant family was first built in the sixteenth century. </li></ul>
  • 27. <ul><li>The Vladimir namestnichestvo was set up in 1778, an administrative unit which later became the Vladimir gubernia in 1796 with the town of Vladimir as its centre. Under Catherine the Great many of the old Russian towns were re-designed on a more symmetrical basis. The new plans for Vladimir, however, did not alter the town's original layout as much as might have been feared. </li></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>Today the beautiful old buildings of Vladimir and its environs are safely in the hands of the state. Even in the difficult years of the civil war, money and manpower were set aside for looking after them. The cleaning of the frescoes in the Cathedral of the Assumption, begun in 1918, was one of the first restoration projects to be undertaken after the revolution. Since then a great deal of important restoration work and research has been carried out on these fine specimens of early Russian architecture so dear to the hearts of all Russian people. </li></ul>
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  • 30. Outskirts of Town (Sloboda)
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