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If Sentences

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Grammer

Grammer

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  • 1. If sentences back Menu next
  • 2. If sentences
    • Рассмотрим такую ситуацию:
    • Tэд хочет навестить Салли, но он не может это сделать, потому что не знает ее адрес. Он говорит: - If I knew her address, I would visit her . Tэд говорит ` If I knew her address...'. Это означает, что он не знает ее адреса. Он просто представляет себе ситуацию, а в действительности он не знает, где она живет.
    • Когда вы представляете себе ситуацию подобного типа, после if употребляется Past Tense (`I did/ I was/ I knew' и т.д.). Но действие в такой ситуации относится к настоящему, а не к прошлому времени:
    • - I would buy it if I had more money. ( но у меня нет денег )
    • - If he didn't want to see us, he wouldn't come. ( но он хочет прийти )
    • - We wouldn't have any job if we didn't look for it . ( но у нас есть работа )
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  • 3.
    • Прошедшее время для описания ситуации в
    • настоящем используется также после wish.
    • Wish употребляется для выражения сожаления, для того,
    • чтобы показать что что-то не так, как нам бы хотелось:
    • I wish it wasn't so rainy in England. ( Как бы мне хотелось, чтобы в Англии не было так дождливо. )
    • He wishes he knew her address. ( Как бы он хотел знать ее адрес. Он его не знает.)
    • Do you ever wish you could fly?( Ты когда – нибудь мечтал полетать? )
    • The bus is overcrowded. I wish there weren't so many people. ( Автобус переполнен. Как бы я хотел, чтобы людей было поменьше. )
    • I wish I had a holiday. ( Я бы хотел быть в отпуске. )
    • В предложениях с if и после wish можно употреблять were вместо was :
    • - If I were you, I wouldn't go there. (или `If I was you')
    • - I'd go out if it weren't raining so hard. (или `if it wasn't raining')
    • - I wish my work were easier. (или `I wish my work was easier.')
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  • 4.
    • Никогда не употребляйте would в условной
    • ( if ) части предложения или после wish :
    • - If I were rich, I would buy a car for you. (а не `if I would be rich' )
    • - I wish you were cleverer. (а не ` I wish you would be cleverer. )
    • Но иногда можно сказать I wish... would....
    • - I wish I would take part in the competition.
    • Could иногда означает `would be able to‘ а иногда `was able to':
    • - She could ( = would be able to ) do the work faster if she could ( = was able to ) type .
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  • 5.
    • Изучим следующую ситуацию:
    • Last month Mary didn't feel well. Ted didn't know this, so he didn't go to see her. After Mary got better they met again. Ted said:- If I had known that you were ill, I would have visited you.
    • В прошлом месяце Мэри плохо себя чувствовала. Тэд не знал об этом, поэтому не навестил ее. Они встретились снова, когда Мэри выздоровела. Тэд говорит: If I had known...(Если бы я знал)
    • Когда вы говорите о прошлом, используйте Past Perfect
    • ( I had done/ I had been/I had known и т.д.) после if .
    • - If I had known you were in Paris, I would have shown you the city . ( но я не видел тебя )
    • - I would have gone out with you if I hadn't had so much work. ( но у меня было слишком много работы )
    • - If he had been looking where he was going, he wouldn't have walked into the wall. ( но он не был внимательным )
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  • 6.
    • Никогда не употребляйте would ( have ) в условной ( if ) части предложения:
    • - If I had met you yesterday, I would have invited you to the party . (а не `if I would have met' )
    • Как would так и had могут быть сокращены до 'd :
    • - If I'd met (= had met) you, I'd have invited (= would have invited) you to the party
    • Вы также должны использовать Past Perfect (I had done) после wish , когда вы сожалеете о чем-то, что случилось (или не случилось) в прошлом:
    • - I wish I had known that Tim was ill. I would have come to see him. ( I didn't know that he was ill. )
    • - I feel sick. I wish I hadn't eaten fish for dinner. ( I ate fish. )
    • - Do you wish you had studied maths instead of languages?
    • ( You didn't study maths. )
    • - The weather was terrible. We wish it had been warmer. ( It wasn't warm. )
    • Никогда не используйте would have после wish :
    • - We wish it had been warmer. (не `would have been' )
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  • 7.
    • Would have (done) - это форма прошедшего времени от would (do):
    • - If she had gone to the party yesterday, she would be tired now. ( она не усталая сейчас - present.)
    • - If she had gone to the party yesterday, she would have seen us. ( она не видела нас - past.)
    • Вместо would have можно использовать might have и could have :
    • - If we'd trained harder, we might have won.
    • (= perhaps we would have won)
    • - We could have gone out if it hadn't been raining. (= we would have gone out)
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  • 8.
    • Иногда мы используем would после I wish...
    • Рассмотрим пример:
    • It is raining. Don wants to go out, but not in the rain. He says: I wish it would stop raining.
    • Это означает, что Дон жалуется на дождь и хочет, чтобы он перестал. Мы используем I wish would..., когда хотим, чтоб что-то произошло или чтобы кто-то что-то сделал. Говорящий жалуется на действительность.
    • - I wish someone would help us to carry the boxes. They are so heavy.
    • - The music next door is very loud. I wish they would turn it down.
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