Republic of Dagestan is considered to be one of the most interesting tourist centers in Russia. It is very convenient to spend a holiday and make trips in any season of the year here. In spring and summer, in autumn and winter those who love mountainous tourism, ethnographers and historians, hunters and fishermen try to get here.
For the tourist there a wonderful opportunity to get acquainted with the history, culture, traditions and customs of the peoples of Dagestan, historical monuments, Muslims Mosques, the most ancient city in Russia – city fortress of Derbent through which in the middle ages lay the Great Silk way.
The Highland Dagestan has unique climate characteristics. Micro-climate of the Gunib Highland, the richest flora of all three plateaus, the Alps and sub Alps mountain landscapes make the rest for the tourists here very favorable.
The sandy shores of the Caspian Sea make the rest here very attractive for those who want to swim and sunbathe. The air is usually fresh and it’s not humid, so the conditions for the rest here are better than on the Black Sea shore.
Geographically Dagestan is situated at the junction of two continents -Europe and Asia. It is the Eastern section of the North Caucasus and occupies the north-eastern slope of the Caucasian Mountains which gradually go down to the wide lowlands in the north and the Caspian Sea in the east. Situated between the 41-st and the 45-th degrees of northern latitude Dagestan is the southern most part of the Russian Federation
In the north it borders on the Kalmyk Republic, in the west and north-west – on the Chechen Republic and the Stavropol territory. Dagestan’s neighbours in the south are Georgia and Azerbaijan. On the East it is washed by the Caspian Sea.
Dagestan occupies an area of 50,000 square kilometres. It stretches for some 400 kilometres from north to south and for 200 kilometres from east to west. Despite the small area it occupies, the landscape of the republic is quite varied ranging from magnificent mountains of central and south Dagestan to the wide plains in the north, which include the semi-arid Nogai steppe.
Therefore the whole republic can be roughly divided into three main parts: the Lowland Dagestan, the Foothill Dagestan and the Highland Dagestan. Mountains occupy more than half of the territory of the republic.
The highest points are Mount Bazardyuzi on the border with Azerbaijan and Mount Diklos-Mta on the border with Georgia. In many places the Mountain ranges are cut through by the deep rivers and canyons, the Sulak River Canyon is the deepest.
The main rivers are the Terek, the Samur and the Sulak with its main tributaries: the Avar Koisu, the Andi Koisu, the Kara Koisu and the Kazikumukh Koisu. All of them flow into the Caspian Sea and are important for irrigation purposes and the power-generating sources.
Industrially significant natural resources are oil, natural gas, copper, ore, sulhpur, quarts sands, mineral fertilizers and different building materials, such as clay, limestone, sandstone, granite, etc.
In addition , a number of districts of Daghestan possess remarkable balneological factors, including mineral springs and medical mud with rare curative properties.
Tourism also receives great encouragement. A plan has been prepared for opening new tourist camps, inns and motels.
At present Daghestan is composed of 42 administrative districts and 10 towns and 14 urban-type settlements. Altogether there are about 1000 villages in the Republic. The capital of Daghestan is Makhachkala.