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It covers the basic applications of fluid mechanics

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- 1. Definition Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids and the forces on them. (Fluids include liquids, gases, and plasmas.)
- 2. The history of fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids move and the forces on them, dates back to the Ancient Greeks.
- 3. Archimedes: Archimedes develops the law of buoyancy, also known as Archimedes' Principle. This principle states that a body immersed in a fluid experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
- 4. Islamicate physicists Islamicate scientists, particularly Abu RayhanBiruni (973–1048) and later Al- Khazini (fl. 11151–130), were the first to apply experimentalscientific methods to fluid mechanics, especially in the field of fluid statics, such as for determining specific weights.
- 5. In fluid statics, Biruni discovered that there is a correlation between the specific gravity of an object and the volume of water it displaces. He also introduced the method of checking tests during experiments and measured the weights of various liquids.
- 6. Blaise Pascal In the hands of Blaise Pascal hydrostatics assumed the dignity of a science, and in a treatise on the equilibrium of liquids (Sur l'equilibre des liqueurs), found among his manuscripts after his death and published in 1663, the laws of the equilibrium of liquids were demonstrated in the most simple manner, and amply confirmed by experiments.
- 7. Studies by Isaac Newton The effects of friction and viscosity in diminishing the velocity of running water were noticed in the Principia of Sir Isaac Newton, who threw much light upon several branches of hydromechanics. At a time when the Cartesian system of vortices universally prevailed, he found it necessary to investigate that hypothesis, and in the course of his investigations he showed that the velocity of any stratum of the vortex is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the strata which enclose it; and from this it evidently follows that the velocity of a filament of water moving in a pipe is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the filaments which surround it.
- 8. Leonhard Euler The resolution of the questions concerning the motion of fluids was effected by means of Leonhard Euler's partial differential coefficients. This calculus was first applied to the motion of water by d'Alembert, and enabled both him and Euler to represent the theory of fluids in formulae restricted by no particular hypothesis.
- 9. Nineteenth century Hermann von Helmholtz In his paper Helmholtz established his three "laws of vortex motion" in much the same way one finds them in any advanced textbook of fluid mechanics today. This work established the significance of vorticity to fluid mechanics and science in general.
- 10. Real-Life Applications Bernoulli's Principle in Action As fluid moves from a wider pipe to a narrower one, the volume of the fluid that moves a given distance in a given time period does not change. But since the width of the narrower pipe is smaller, the fluid must move faster (that is, with greater dynamic pressure) in order to move the same amount of fluid the same distance in the same amount of time. Observe the behavior of a river: in a wide, unconstricted region, it flows slowly, but if its flow is narrowed by canyon walls, it speeds up dramatically.
- 11. Among the most famous applications of Bernoulli's principle is its use in aerodynamics, and this is discussed in the context of aerodynamics itself elsewhere in this book. Likewise, a number of other applications of Bernoulli's principle are examined in an essay devoted to that topic.
- 12. A Wind Tunnel The above scenario of wind flowing through a room describes a rudimentary wind tunnel. A wind tunnel is a chamber built for the purpose of examining the characteristics of airflow in contact with solid objects, such as aircraft and automobiles.
- 13. FLUID MECHANICS FOR PERFORMING WORK Though applications of Bernoulli's principle are among the most dramatic examples of fluid mechanics in operation, the everyday world is filled with instances of other ideas at work. Pascal's principle, for instance, can be seen in the operation of any number of machines that represent variations on the idea of a hydraulic press. Among these is the hydraulic jack used to raise a car off the floor of an auto mechanic's shop.
- 14. A pump is a device made for moving fluid, and it does so by utilizing a pressure difference, causing the fluid to move from an area of higher pressure to one of lower pressure. Its operation is based on aspects both of Pascal's and Bernoulli's principles—though, of course, humans were using pumps thousands of years before either man was born.

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