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Gender, articles, plural forms
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Gender, articles, plural forms


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  • 1. Nouns In English, a noun is the name of something. It can be a -person – John, Ana, Mr. García -place – Colombia, Chile, school -thing – desk, class, book -idea – love, liberty, nature It’s the same in Spanish. 1
  • 2. Nouns and gender In English, nouns can be -masculine – boy, John, Mr. García -feminine– girl, Ana, lady or -neuter – school, class, book It’s not the same in Spanish 2
  • 3. Gender of nouns In Spanish, nouns are either masculine or feminine But how will we know? There are rules and clues. Let’s look at a few. 3
  • 4. Masculine nouns -Refer to males muchacho, padre (father), hombre (man) -Usually end in the letter o colegio, curso, otoño Note: there are exceptions -Have the definite article el or los el café, el inglés, los meses 4
  • 5. Feminine nouns -Refer to females muchacha, madre (mother), mujer (woman) -Usually end in the letter a escuela, primavera, persona Note: there are exceptions -Have the definite article la or las la clase, las noches Note: there are exceptions 5
  • 6. Oh, dear me!! What do I do if I don’t see an “o” or an “a”? What do I do? Ay, mi amigo, you are out of suerte (luck), UNLESS you learned the gender of the noun when you were learning the word in the first place. 6
  • 7. Articles There are two (2) types of articles: definite and indefinite •definite = the the book, the apple You are definite; you know which one •indefinite = a, an a book, an apple You are not definite; any one will do 7
  • 8. Articles in Spanish In Spanish, there are four (4) definite articles : el la = the los las and four (4) indefinite articles: un una = a, an unos unas 8
  • 9. Práctica Write the Write the definite article indefinite article _____ carros _____ limonada _____ casa _____ blusas _____ cuaderno _____ refresco _____ mochila _____ mesa _____ bolígrafo _____ vestidos _____ plumas _____ camisas _____ libros _____ zapatos _____ clases _____ día 9
  • 10. Nouns have number There are only two (2) basic rules to form the plural of nouns: 1. If the word ends in a vowel, add –s 2. If the word ends in a consonant, add –es Except: If the consonant is a “z”, change it to “c” before adding the –es The fine print: leave days of the week that end in “s” alone. 10
  • 11. Basic rule #1 la escuela el verano el estudiante la señora el amigo la muchacha la clase el curso la semana 11
  • 12. Basic rule #2 el profesor el señor el español la nacionalidad el mes la estación 12
  • 13. Exception to Basic rule #2 la actriz la luz la nariz la paz el pez la vez la voz le lápiz 13
  • 14. Adjectives An adjective describes a noun In Spanish, adjectives agree with the noun they modify in number (singular / plural) and in gender (masculine / feminine) Descriptive adjectives usually follow the noun they modify. 14
  • 15. Adjective Plurals Adjectives form their plurals like nouns do. If you know how to form the plural of a noun, you can form the plural of an adjective. Note: see the two (2) Basic Rules 5 slides back 15
  • 16. Adjective Plurals Adjectives that end in o have four forms: alto, alta, altos, altas rubio, rubia, rubios, rubias 16
  • 17. Adjective Plurals Adjectives of nationality that do not end in o, add a to form the feminine These also have four forms español española españoles españolas The same is true for adjectives that end in -dor hablador habladora habladores habladoras 17
  • 18. Adjective Plurals Adjectives (other that those previously noted) ending in a consonant, or in an vowel other than –o, have the same form for the masculine and feminine. These will agree only in number with the nouns they modify and, therefore, have only two forms 18
  • 19. Adjetivos Una chica ________________(American) Unos alumnos ______________(serious) Unas muchachas ____________ (pretty) Un día ______________________(good) Unas profesoras _____________(Cuban) Unos cursos ______________(required) Una clase ___________________(small) Un chico ___________________(funny) 19
  • 20. Adjetivos Laura es _________________(intelligent) Juan y Marcos son ______________ (tall) El chico es ____________________ (fat) Los estudiantes son_____________ (good) La muchacha es _______________ (short) Raúl y Marta son_____________(popular) La clase es____________________(hard) Las profesoras son __________________ (interesting) 20
  • 21. ¿Cierto o falso? Nouns in Spanish are either masculine or feminine. If a noun ends in a vowel, add –es to form the plural. If a nouns ends in z, change the z to c before adding –es in the plural. There are four definite and three indefinite articles in Spanish. All nouns ending in a are feminine. 21