Contents1. What is Drama?2. Elements of Drama3. Kinds of Drama4. Forms of Drama
DRAMA Drama comes from Greek words “dran” meaning "to do" or "to act." It also referred to as “play”. It is a prose or verse composition, especially one telling a serious story that was intended for representation by actors impersonating the characters and performing the dialogue and action and a serious narrative work or program for television, radio, or the cinema.
ELEMENTS OF DRAMA• Character• Theme• Plot• Point of View• Dialogue• Visual Elements• Stage
CHARACTER: A Character is one of the persons who appears in the play, one of the dramatis personae (literally, the persons of the play). In another sense of the term, the treatment of the character is the basic part of the playwrights work. Most plays contain major characters and minor characters. The distinction between heroes (or heroines) and villains, between good guys and bad guys, between virtue and vice is useful in dealing with certain types of plays, but in many modern plays (and some not so modern) it is difficult to make.
The protagonist is the main character in the story. The antagonist is an enemy to the main character.Protagonist - the main character in adrama or other literary work.Antagonist - principal rival in theconflict set forth in the play.represent a major threat or obstacleto the main character by their veryexistence, without necessarilydeliberately targeting him or her. -a person who is opposed to, struggles against, or competeswith another; opponent; adversary.
Theme• The plot has been called the body of a play and the theme has been called its soul.• A writer’s message, or main point, is the theme of his or her literary work. Looking for a theme helps you look more deeply into the literature and makes for more enjoyable reading.• You will need to infer what the theme is from the work’s title, key scenes, characters, symbols, and plot events.
Plot• events that make up a story, particularly as they relate to one another in a pattern, in a sequence, through cause and effect, or by coincidence.• The plot is usually structured with acts and scenes.
Point of ViewA. Omniscient – astory told by theauthor, using thethird person;her/his knowledge,control, andprerogatives areunlimited; authorialsubjectivity.
B. Limited Omniscient – a story in which the author associates with a major or minor character; this character serves as the author’s spokesperson or mouthpiece.
C. First Person – the author identifies with or disappears in a major or minor character; the story is told using the first person “I”.
D. Objective or Dramatic – the opposite of the omniscient; displays authorial objectivity; compared a roving sound camera. Very little of the past or the future is given; the story is set in the present
Dialogue Dialogue provides the substance of a play. Each word uttered by the character furthers the business of the play, contributes to its effect as a whole. Therefore, a sense of DECORUM must be established by the characters, ie., what is said is appropriate to the role and situation of a character.
Visual Element While the dialog and music constitute the audible aspect of drama,the visual element deals with the scenes, costumes and special effectsused in it. The visual element of drama, also known as the spectacle,renders a visual appeal to it. The costumes worn by the artists mustsuit the characters they are playing. Besides, it is important for thescenes to be dramatic enough to hold the audiences to their seats. Thespecial effects used in a play add to the visual appeal. Thus, thespectacle forms an essential component of drama. The use of symbols implies the use of indirect suggestions in adrama. Logically used symbols help in making a scene more effective.The use of contrast is about using stillness followed by activity orsilence followed by noise. It can also mean the use of contrasting colorsto add to the visual appeal. It can mean the clever use of contrastingscenes following each other that enhance the dramatic element of aplay.
Stage It is the most important element and without it the drama is never performed. It is the name of place where on the drama is acted.
Kinds of Drama1. Comedy2. Tragic3. Tragicomedy
Comedy a universal form of expression and a major dramatic genre that is intended to amuse. often associated with humorous behavior, wordplay, pleasurable feeling, release of tension, and laughter. Imbued with a playful spirit, comic entertainment frequently exposes incongruous, ridiculous, or grotesque aspects of human nature. It generally follows a fixed pattern of theatrical surprises that leads to a sense of exhilaration in the spectator. Of all dramatic genres, comedy is the most widely performed.
Tragic dramatic genre that presents the heroic or moral struggle of an individual, culminating in his or her ultimate defeat, tragic plays appear chiefly in societies that maintain a fixed hierarchy of political and religious beliefs. Only when spectators share with the playwright a particular social vision and system of class-based values can they empathize with the fall of the protagonist (central character) from an elevated position into bleak despair or annihilation.
Tragicomedy drama that contains elements of tragedy and comedy. One example of tragicomedies is English playwright William Shakespeares so-called reconciliation plays, such as The Winters Tale (1610), which reach a tragic climax but then lighten to a happy conclusion. A tragicomedy is the usual form for plays in the tradition of the theater of the absurd.
TYPES OF DRAMA1. Comedy2. Tragedy3. Farce4. Melodrama5. Musical
Comedy refer to plays that are light in tone, andthat typically have happy endings. The intentof a comedic play is to make the audiencelaugh. In modern theater, there are manydifferent styles of comedy, ranging fromrealistic stories, where the humor is derivedfrom real-life situations, to outrageousslapstick humor.
Tragedy- Tragedy is one of the oldest forms ofdrama;- Tragedy usually involves serioussubject matter and the death of one ormore main characters. These playsrarely have a happy ending.
Farce Farce is a sub-category of comedy,characterized by greatly exaggeratedcharacters and situations. Characters tendto be one-dimensional and often followstereotypical behavior. Farces typicallyinvolve mistaken identities, lots of physicalcomedy and outrageous plot twists.
Melodrama Melodrama is another type ofexaggerated drama. As in farce, thecharacters tend to be simplified and one-dimensional. The formulaic storyline of theclassic melodrama typically involves a villain aheroine, and a hero who must rescue theheroine from the villain.
Musical• In musical theater, the story is told not only through dialogue and acting but through music and dance. Musicals are often comedic, although many do involve serious subject matter. Most involve a large cast and lavish sets and costumes.• As a student of drama it is important to be able recognize these different types of drama. Be aware that in modern theater, the lines between these types of drama are often quite blurred, with elements of comedy, drama and tragedy residing in the same play.
Forms of Drama1. Opera2. Pantomime3. Creative Drama
Opera Opera is a dramatic art form, which arose during the Renaissance. Drama in which the text is set to music and staged. The texts of operas are sung, with singing and stage action nearly always given instrumental accompaniment.
Pantomime is an art of dramatic representation by means of facial expressions and body movements rather than words. Pantomime, or mime, has always played a part in theater. Pantomime, or dumb show, was essential to commedia dellarte, an improvised comedy that arose in 16th-century Italy and spread throughout Europe.
Creative Drama includes dramatic activities and games used primarily in educational settings with children.