• Save
PDC+++ Module3 Class 4 Water
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

PDC+++ Module3 Class 4 Water

on

  • 725 views

Water is another vital element & normally very badly managed in our society, due to our usual ignorance of its importance, characteristics & inter-relationships with other elements....

Water is another vital element & normally very badly managed in our society, due to our usual ignorance of its importance, characteristics & inter-relationships with other elements.
In this class we learn of harvesting systems for this vital substance, how to re-connect ourselves with the water cycle, the strategies of "slow it, spread it, sink it"

& we see various examples where a good management of water has totally changed the system.   Small re-designs can improve the whole environment a great deal, & this is especially true with water re-designs.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
725
Views on SlideShare
704
Embed Views
21

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

2 Embeds 21

https://mj89sp3sau2k7lj1eg3k40hkeppguj6j-a-sites-opensocial.googleusercontent.com 19
http://mj89sp3sau2k7lj1eg3k40hkeppguj6j-a-sites-opensocial.googleusercontent.com 2

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • UENOS DRENAJES Y SISTEMAS DE IRRIGACIÓN (SALINIZACIÓN) • ALMACENAMIENTO DEL AGUA (DEPENDER MÁS DEL AGUA DE LLUVIA QUE DEL AGUA SUBTERRÁNEA).
  • Peter Gleick, experto internacional sobre el agua, recomienda que se usen 25 l. diarios por persona para beber y servicios sanitarios, más otros 25 l. para bañarse y cocinar.
  • Keyline design is a technique for maximizing beneficial use of water resources of a piece of land. The Keyline refers to a specific topographic feature linked to water flow. Beyond that however, Keyline can be seen as a collection of design principles, techniques and systems for development of rural and urban landscapes. Keyline design was developed in Australia by farmer and engineer P. A. Yeomans , and described and explained in his books The Keyline Plan , The Challenge of Landscape , Water For Every Farm and The City Forest .
  • How to: Create a Banana Circle By growing Bananas in a circle, you can increase production, and avoid the untidyness often associated with Bananas.   Goals • Easy, large, production from a small space • Multi-crop system • Consume organic waste - especially from bananas. • Retain moisture, or soak up excess • Easy access for harvesting • A tidy way of growing Bananas • Grey water sink - including for Laundry What you'll need: • Lots of Mulch • Ideally use of a small excavator • Sweet potato cuttings: • About 7 banana shoots: collected from suckers which appear beside mother plants, slice off with a sharp spade as close to the mother plant as possible • Optionally: Taro, Arrow root, Canna Lilly, Comphrey Construction: Pick a location - the bananas will grow to about 4 meters, and generate shade. A location where water gathers would be good since the bananas can make good use of the water. Dig a hole 1-1.5 meters deep and 2-3 meters diameter, piling the soil in a mound around it. Depending on location, you can leave a gap for water to flow into the middle, and add a lead-in drain, or swale. If the location is on a slope, then build the mound as a crescent to catch the water. The size can be reduced to a circle 1-1.5 meters diameter if dwarf bananas are used. Plant the shoots around the top of the mound,[the highest point] evenly spaced. Dot in sweet potato cuttings over mound with the intention of covering mound and mulch pit. Place optionals on the inside edge of mound where mulch from pit makes contact and outside edge where the mound makes contact with the ground. Fill centre of circle [mulch pit] up to 2 meters high with garden prunings/old banana stems/unwanted suckers/optionals growth/straw mulch etc..This will feed your bananas and tidy up your garden. In the wet tropics you can put logs into the middle to rot, in the cooler sub-tropics use more green prunings. Maintenance, Pests and Problems : Keep one mature plant fruiting, a second half grown, and one sucker growing in the same direction around the top of the mound for all 7 original plants. This will ensure that your bananas circle will produce healthy bananas continuosly. Depending on the climate its likely that you'll get a bunch every three or four months from each of the seven families. Keep the tree clean by removing broken and dying leaves cleanly to avoid rot and snake-habitat. The leaves can be used for plates. Bats and parrots will take the ripe fruit - remove the "bell" (the flower) once the bunch is formed, also the bunch is best bagged for pest control, put a bag over the bunch, sealed at the trunk end, open at the other, the bags should be light and ideally have a silvered top, which confuses bat's radar as well as reflecting heat if you can't buy these then improvise from a white fertilizer bag with foil on top. Theoretically the bell can be eaten, but noone ever shared a recipe with me! Cut down fruited banana at the first sign of yellow, and chop remaining plant stem and throw into mulch pit in the centre of the circle. Unwanted suckers also to be placed in mulch pit. Keep mulch pit topped up with new organic material for best results. Problems: In Australia: Bananas commonly get bunchy-top disease which is recognizable by the leaves all bunching together at the top of the plant instead of opening. They can also get a borer (beatle) which makes it rot and the plant starts wilting. In both cases, remove the plant, including the roots and mulch it. They don't like severe winds, if this is a problem, reduce the foliage by removing any even slightly damaged leaves before the windy season. Variations: A banana circle also makes a good place for an outdoor shower, or even, where legal, as an outdoor toilet, although in this case make sure to cover with organic matter. This way of growing will also work for Papayas, or in the tropics for Palms, but don't mix them as the other plants will tangle with bananas.
  • Are you part of the solution or part of the precipitate? Restoreation - what is the creation myth that holds power for you? Is the planet a commodity or a community?

PDC+++ Module3 Class 4 Water Presentation Transcript

  • 1. M3.4 pdc+++
    • Water is another vital element & normally very badly managed in our society, due to our usual ignorance of its importance, characteristics & inter-relationships with other elements.
    • In this class we learn of harvesting systems for this vital substance, how to re-connect ourselves with the water cycle, the strategies of "slow it, spread it, sink it"
    • & we see various examples where a good management of water has totally changed the system.   Small re-designs can improve the whole environment a great deal, & this is especially true with water re-designs.
    of the an integral exploration M3.4 WATER PDC + + +
  • 2. wangari maathai " I have seen rivers that were brown with silt become clean-flowing again ... The job is hardly over, but it no longer seems impossible. " From the article "Planting the future", The Guardian , 16 February 2007. Kenia 1 april 1940 - 25 septemb er 2011 "Until you dig a hole, you plant a tree, you water it and make it survive, you haven't done a thing. You are just talking."
  • 3.
    • An EgoRestoration Project
    • Storage in Soil & Vegetation
    • Swales & Diversion Channels
    • Rain Water Collecting
    • Dams & Reservoirs
    • Mythology & Culture of Water
    an integral exploration M3.4 WATER Earth Works
  • 4. • Good drainage & irrigation systems (salinization) Water storage (depend more on rainwater than sub-terrenean water) Slow it, Spread it, Sink it Cover the soil (roots in the earth) Regeneration & Reforestation of areas in danger of erosion • Large scale: cover vegetation, green manures • Small scale: composts, vegetation wastes, mulching • Foliar application & Compost Teas STOP the destruction The ABC of Regeneration C. Control of Water A. hAlt the Erosion B. Biomass & Bugs
  • 5.
    • An EgoRestoration Project
    • Storage in Soil & Vegetation
    • Swales & Diversion Channels
    • Rain Water Collecting
    • Dams & Reservoirs
    • Mythology & Culture of Water
    an integral exploration M3.4 WATER Earth Works
  • 6.
    • The health of our waters is the principal measure of how we live on the land. (Luna Leopold)
    As Brock likes to ask, “ Do you know where your watershed is tonight?” "We're probably  known around the universe  as that really noisy  blue planet  where everybody  pees in their water."   (Will Durst)
    • An EgoRestoration Project
    Brock Dolman wonderful lectures by him in our e-book www.PermaCultureScience.org M3.4 - Water
  • 7. “ The critical head-waters (human brain) are in need of an ego-restoration project” and the “lifeboat in this restorative journey is our watershed.”   A watershed carries water "shed" from the land after rain falls and snow melts. The important thing about watersheds is: what we do on the land affects water quality for all communities living downstream. They are natural BioRegions
    • An EgoRestoration Project
    Brock Dolman
  • 8. Life Boats We all live in life-boats -they are our Watersheds conoces a tu cuenca?
    • An EgoRestoration Project
    Brock Dolman
  • 9. Poetically, our society must engage in a “Reverential Rehydration Revolution,” Regenerative Rehydration Hope lies in world-wide “water literacy” and establishing a water management commitment to the four R’s of “Conservation Hydrology: Receive, Release, Recharge, and Restore.” Brock Dolman
    • An EgoRestoration Project
  • 10. by adjusting our development and water management patterns away from the “problem-causing system of: Pave it, Pipe it, Pollute it” to a “solution-based system of: Slow it, Spread it, Sink it.” Brock Dolman
    • An EgoRestoration Project
  • 11. only 0,007 % can be considered drinkin g water Planet Earth >> Planet Water 3/4 of planet is covered in water Domestic use of water (in litres per person per day) Gambia 3 Tanzania 8 Bangladesh 14 Nigeria 24 India 31 China 59 Holland 67 Syria 98 Mexico 129 Germany 273 Japán 376 Canada 431 USA 555 Estimations based on “ The World’s Water 2000-2001”, by Peter H. Gleick 50 l/day recommended
  • 12. snow & ice (solid water) condensation water vapour oceans & seas (salt water) evaporation precipitation rivers, lakes & underground waters (sweet water) it is important to understand how aquifers work
  • 13. Springs It is any natural situation where water flows to the surface of the earth from underground. A spring is a site where the aquif er surf ace meets the ground surface.
  • 14.
    • An EgoRestoration Project
    • Storage in Soil & Vegetation
    • Swales & Diversion Channels
    • Rain Water Collecting
    • Dams & Reservoirs
    • Mythology & Culture of Water
    an integral exploration M3.4 WATER Earth Works
  • 15. the Hydrological Cycle - cycles & purifies water continuously Precipitation Evaporation Cloud Transportation of vapour Evaporation Snow Transpiration Sub-terrenean flow of water Percolation Superficial Storage Sea One of Nature's priceless services M3.4 - The Science of Water www.PermaCultureScience.org
  • 16. Plants are fertility (water) indicators value the marginal (Edge)
  • 17. temperature down 3-5 degrees C air humidity up 10% cloud cover up 11.5% rainfall up 25% 137 species of birds (up from 5) 9 species of primates 3000 people getting income Class 3.2 on Regeneration (Borneo) Forests CREATE the rain so vegetation is a pro-sumer of water
  • 18. 0.003 % of the planet's water is contained in plants, animals and the soil
    • & most water soil erosion is prevented by vegetation (covering & holding the earth in place)
    • Of any water that precipitates (condensed, rain or snow) only 30-40% finds its way to rivers or underground water deposits
    • Most of it is taken up by plants & humus in soils >> the most mini-max water storage is to get harvested water directly into (good) soil with dense vegetation
    "you can think of a forest as a mass of vegetation ... or you can think of it as a lake"
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.
    • An EgoRestoration Project
    • Storage in Soil & Vegetation
    • Swales & Diversion Channels
    • Rain Water Collecting
    • Dams & Reservoirs
    • Mythology & Culture of Water
    an integral exploration M3.4 WATER Earth Works
  • 22. Are ditches that follow the contour and in which there is no flow . Their function is first to stop the water and then to soak it in to the landscape. Planting is usually done in or alongside, to use up the water collected. Planting is usually done in or alongside, to use up the water collected. Planting is usually done in or alongside, to use up the water collected. Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual”
  • 23. there are some great videos on earth-works by Jeff Lawton in the e-book: www.PermaCultureScience.org M3.4 - Water
  • 24.  
  • 25. re-hydrated landscape can result in new springs downstream
  • 26. The distance between swales will depend on the slope and the climate some rough guidelines SLOPE DISTANCE 2% 30 m(eters) 10% 20 m 20% 14 m 45% 4 m native acacias herbs or grass cutting crop (for straw) wildlife infiltration area with straw cucubits, beans, cassava, bananas / other water-demanding crops
  • 27. how to you mark the contour? < With an A-frame Level in order to ensure we dig a swale and not a diversion channel? when the A-frame is level, then both legs are resting on the contour, can mark with pegs & move along to find next point on the contour (also prepare lots of pegs to mark landscape)
  • 28. how to you mark the contour? With a Bunyip Water Level > Used in building, can also find difference in levels very easily, including around corners. Can be used to find same level also, to mark swales.
  • 29. how to you mark the contour? With a Surveyor's Level >
  • 30. BE CREATIVE! observe the landscape, swales have to be DESIGNED like anything else (no 'standard recepies' please)
  • 31. Class 3.2 on Regeneration (US Dust Bowl)
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34. Diversion Channels Unlike swales, diversion channels connect a stream to a dam, or collect runoff water and carry it to places of storage ... and they can need a slope in order to carry water along a landscape (not soak it into the landscape, which is the function of swales) Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual” FLOW
  • 35. diversion channels come in all types & often have 'doors' for optimal flow control
  • 36. There are many shapes. The objective is not to collect water but regulate the streams flows Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual” Check Dam Stream Boomerang shape wall Contour diversion channel Dry bed of the stream
  • 37. this one in Fuerteventura
  • 38. the 'gabias' of Fuerteventura
  • 39. the 'gabias' of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) are a combination of desviation channels & 'mega-swales'
  • 40. an essentially dry landscape, but when it rains it rains hard & ingenious water-harvesting systems have evolved to work with nature
  • 41. edges traditionally made with camel-power & planted with palm-trees
  • 42. slow sedimentation layers stones, sand & clays in that order
  • 43. & a crust of very fine clay forms which lowers evaporation
  • 44. no more watering is needed (these fields have a lot of water stored in the soil)
  • 45. today most of the palm-tree edges have disappeared (they shaded & held the gabia walls in place)
  • 46. A water-harvesting technique we saw before, also from Fuerteventura Antonio
  • 47. Antonio is an organic farmer who is continuing his family's tradition, here this is his gabia field in production
  • 48. notice the fine clay 'crust mulch', lowering evaporation & mini-swales for shading
  • 49. abandoned gabias keep working ... decades later (advantages of passive systems & good earth-works)
  • 50.
    • An EgoRestoration Project
    • Storage in Soil & Vegetation
    • Swales & Diversion Channels
    • Rain Water Collecting
    • Dams & Reservoirs
    • Mythology & Culture of Water
    an integral exploration M3.4 WATER Earth Works
  • 51. Imagen de: Texas Guide to Raiwater Harvesting Main components of a rainwater collection system catchment surface / roof channels / tubing conduction & water treatment surplus out storage tank To calculate tank volume needed, eg. roof area (m2) x rain mean (l/m2) = total litres (l) then compare with water requirements in dry season RainGardens - store water directly in soil
  • 52. Total roof area here is 9x6.5 = 58.5m2 Any paved area (eg. roads, car-parks, patios, etc.) can act as good rainwater collection areas < Rainwater collection tank from road above farm, in La Casita Verde, Ibiza (2 or 3 of these fill up every winter)
  • 53.  
  • 54. Typical Canarian rain-water collection system (water tank covered)
  • 55.  
  • 56. Be creative & use whatever containers you can to store precious rain-water
  • 57. Methods for diverting the 1st rainwater from a roof. These wash the roof & are redirected to uses that don't require clean water. Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual”
  • 58. Some filters or systems for rejecting leaves, insects, etc.
  • 59. Crystal Waters: water storage on a large scale
  • 60. Barcelona: House of Sr. Joan Carulla
  • 61. Barcelona: House of Sr. Joan Carulla
  • 62.
    • An EgoRestoration Project
    • Storage in Soil & Vegetation
    • Swales & Diversion Channels
    • Rain Water Collecting
    • Dams & Reservoirs
    • Mythology & Culture of Water
    an integral exploration M3.4 WATER Earth Works
  • 63. Very useful for fire control, animals and limited irrigation. It's the kind dam higher in the landscape that can be filled by the runoff from the hills. Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual” Diversion channel that catch the runoff Water and take it to the dam The channels have a slope of 1:250-500 “ saddle shape” dam
  • 64. Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual” Keyline system does drought-proof farms with low operating costs and maintenance. The road is in the range S located along a principal a ridge Notice how the valleys and primary ridges are inclined to Redbank Creek to the north
  • 65. Yeomans Keyline plow for soil conditioning
  • 66. Chisel plough used in compacted pasture soils 3 or 4 sequences with increasing depth creates deep (18cm) humus soils over 1 - 2 growing seasons
  • 67. cuts along contour
  • 68. all of these techniques for slowing, spreading & sinking water into the landscape are often used in the same piece of land Slow it, Spread it, Sink it
  • 69.  
  • 70. The same uses as the saddle dam Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual” Diversion Channels drainage channels (to the next dam) Cross section following the main ridge
  • 71. If used in a series of dams is not necessary drainage canal and the remainder goes to the next dam an eventually to the stream. Adapted for irrigation in lower slopes. The keyline (dashed line) connects the key points in the primary valleys Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual” Keypoint DAM Cross section Input Diversion channel Drain output
  • 72. It is the dam of &quot;engineers&quot;. It can affect fish migration and have difficulty draining. Only works well in the keyline system as part of a system of dams connected to each other. Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual” Barrier dam Stream drainage
  • 73. Useful in slopes of 8º or less as part of a interconnected dams system Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual” Cross section Contour dams Concave wall Convex wall
  • 74. To contain water pumped by a windmill. Provides a low flow in flat areas. Can be filled with a pipe from a big roof or parking lot Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual” Ring dam over a flat area (circular on a map) “ turkey nest” dam
  • 75.  
  • 76.  
  • 77. The walls of earth and concrete or wire baskets can hold &quot;mud fields&quot;, make sprinkle water and reduce the amount of silt in streams Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual” Silt dam for the accumulation of silt Stream bed
  • 78. A dam of this type with 1-3m wall perpendicular to a stream can create enough flow rate for a hydraulic ram Imagen de “Permaculturre a Designer’s Manual” Control dam for a watermill or a hydraulic ram
  • 79. Banana Circle
  • 80. Banana Circle Objectives: 1) easy, large production in small space 2) multi-crop system 3) use up organic waste, eg. banana leaves 4) water storage 5) easy access for harvesting 6) neat system for banana production 7) gray water deposit
  • 81.  
  • 82.  
  • 83.  
  • 84.
    • An EgoRestoration Project
    • Storage in Soil & Vegetation
    • Swales & Diversion Channels
    • Rain Water Collecting
    • Dams & Reservoirs
    • Mythology & Culture of Water
    an integral exploration M3.4 WATER Earth Works
  • 85. The work of a land-designer is to to slow, spread & sink water in the landscape in order to re-hydrate & restore the soil for maximum vegetation cover (& fertility) possible
  • 86. Watershed Headwaters The work of a culture-designer is to to re-design the culture of water in the society in order to re-hydrate & restore the collective intelligence of the whole system water as a sacred resource (would be tabú to dirty it, to waste it, to dis-respect it's cycles in any way)
  • 87. ReStoryAtion: what is the creation myth that holds power for you? Is the planet a commodity or a community? Are you part of the solution or part of the precipitate? Brock Dolman
    • An EgoRestoration Project
  • 88.
    • An EgoRestoration Project
    • Storage in Soil & Vegetation
    • Swales & Diversion Channels
    • Rain Water Collecting
    • Dams & Reservoirs
    • Mythology & Culture of Water
    an integral exploration M3.4 WATER Earth Works