PDC+++ Module 4 Class 4 H. T. Odum

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Howard T. Odum studied in great detail the energy flows & interactions in complex life systems, creating a simple pattern-language that serves as a powerful model for understanding how ecosystems work, in useful detail.    

This model includes visible as well as invisible components of a system, & is so holistic that human economy as well as minerals & weather processes can be accounted for.      

He also proposed a new & provocative law of thermodynamics that includes Life.    

In this class we will explore the basics of this work and explore how it is an essential base of Integral Permaculture.

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  • Module 4. Despite the fact that many 'Technological Improvements' haven't managed to improve the quality of life for the majority of people, but have brought more problems & pollution, we still keep expecting the arrival of a more modern technology, perhaps more ecological, that will restore & reverse the damage made.    In fact, it is possible, but not without having more citizens with a better understanding & a wider vision of what technology is, & who also understand some basic science necessary in order to be able to think for ourselves on these subjects.
  • Alastair is widely acknowledged to be one of the most interesting, innovative and exciting of the of British chefs and leads the field along with Rowley Leigh, Simon Hopkinson and Sally Clarke. Being largely self-taught helps make him a natural communicator of cooking techniques. His book “Keep it Simple” is still one of the classics. He now has a fabulous delicatessen in Notting Hill where he sells the best of Italian and British foods. Alastair Little's cookery has been a major catalyst in the evolution of modern British cuisine. As a boy, Alastair travelled widely across Europe because his father was a naval officer. His travels ignited his passion for food, although he didn't study cooking formally, preferring to read archaeology at Cambridge. After university, he returned to the kitchen and learned his trade at London venues, before setting up on his own, first with Suffolk restaurant Le Routier and then Simpsons in Putney. Alistair's eponymous restaurant, which he opened in Soho in 1985, soon became known as one of the great London eateries. It eventually closed in 2009.
  • Odum propuso tres principios energéticos adicionales y un corolario que toman la  jerarquía energética  en consideración. Así, los 4 primeros principios de la energética se corresponden con las cuatro leyes fundamentales de la termodinámica y los otros 3 principios están tomados de  Energética Ecológica  de H.T. Odum. Es im portante tomar en cosideració n ent onces que los 4 primeros principios, las leyes de la termodinámica, están demostrados empíricamente y son generalmente aceptados entre la comunidad científica. En cambio, los 3 principios propuestos por H.T. Odum no han podido ser empíricamente probados y distan de ser reconocidos o incluso conocidos por parte de la comunidad científica. Principio cero de la energética Si dos sistemas termodinámicos A y B están en equilibrio térmico y B a su vez está en equilibrio térmico con el sistema termodinámico C, entonces A y C están en equilibrio térmico. Primer principio de la energética El incremento de energía interna de un sistema es igual a la cantidad de energía aportada al sistema por calentamiento menos la cantidad de energía entregada por el sistema en forma de trabajo sobre su entorno. Segundo principio de la energética La  entropía  total de cualquier sistema term odinámic o aislado tiende a aumentar en el tiemp o, aproximándose a su valor máximo. Tercer principio de la energética A medida que un sistema se acerca al cero absoluto de temperatura, todos los procesos cesan y la entropía del sistema alcanza su valor mínimo o cero en el caso de un sustancia cristalina perfecta. Cuarto principio de la energética Hay dos corrientes sobre el que sería el cuarto principio de la energética: Las  relaciones recíprocas  de  Onsager  son en ocasione s llamadas la cuarta ley de la termodinámica. C omo cuarta ley de la termodinámica, serían también el cuarto princi pio de la energética. En el campo de la energética ecológica, H.T. Odum considera la máxima potencia como el cuarto principio de la energética. El propio Odum propuso el principio de máxima adquisición de potencia ( Maximum empower ) como corolario del principio de máxima potencia y consideró que éste describía las tendencias auto-organizativas evolucionarias. Quinto principio de la energética El factor de calidad de la energía se incrementa jerárquicamente. Basándose en estudios de la cadena alimentaria ecológica, Odum propuso que las transformaciones energéticas forma unas series jerárquicas que se miden por el incremento de  transformidad  (en inglés  transformity ) (Odum 2000, p.246). Los flujos de energía desarrollan redes jerárquicas en las cuales, los nuevos flujos energéticos entrantes interactuan y son transformados mediante trabajo en formas de energía de mayor calidad que realimentan acciones amplificadoras, ayudando a maximizar la potencia del sistema Odum 1994, p.251 Sexto principio de la energética Los ciclos de la materia tienen patrones jerárquicos medibles mediante el ratio  emergía / masa  que determina su zona y frecuencia de pulso en la jerarquía energética (Odum 2000, p.246). M.T. Brown y V. Buranakarn escriben: Generalmente, la emergía/masa es un buen indicador de la reciclabilidad, teniendo los materiales más reciclables un mayor ratio emergía/masa Brown & Buranakarn 2003, p.1
  • Entropy is the scientific term used to describe the amount of randomness or disorder in processes and systems. In the physical sciences the concept is central to the descriptions of heat-transfer properties, or the thermodynamics of molecules, heat engines, and the Universe as a whole. Also known as the Second Law of Thermodynamics, entropy implies that all processes operate at less than 100% efficiency when energy is transferred or utilized. In the classical sense, entropy is a measure of that portion of energy unable to produce useful work (or the unavailable energy). Another aspect of entropy is an object's or system's tendency to move toward greater disorder, decay or chaos as time passes. For example, a house will eventually fall to pieces if not maintained. Along the "arrow of time" this process is said to be irreversible. That is, the house will not spontaneously reassemble itself. Statistical thermodynamics states that entropy is a measure of microscopic disorder or the uncertainty associated with the microscopic state. In information theory it is a measure of uncertainty or lack of information. In short, entropy states that no process in Nature involving chemistry or physics will occur spontaneously without some loss of energy and order. However, many facts call these assumptions into question as a universally applicable law, especially with regard to biological systems.
  • cuanto más energía se desprende, más
  • When we care enough either for ourselves or others or life itself, then we crest the balance between the death impulse ( thanatos ) and the life impulse ( eros ) While working on an article for our new sister publication, Life Positive Plus, on Gaia, the living Earth, I encountered the term entropy as well as a fascinating description of life. Dr James Lovelock, who first floated the Gaia Hypothesis, als o had to define life in order to make his theory stick. According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, everything in the universe is moving towards decay and breakdown. This process is called entropy. Life, he says, is the paradoxical contradiction of the Second Law, for evolution has inevitably moved from complexity to greater complexity, proceeding from the amoeba to man. Therefore, the presence of life reduces the entropy in any organism. Entropy then is the death impulse, the opposite of the life impulse. Surely this must be the fundamental duality with which the Universe was created? It is the balance that any organism strikes between entropy and life that decides its fate. If the entropy rate is too high, then death triumphs. If it is very low, then life has the victory. Entropy is the dragging down force that stops us from evolving. Entropy makes us roll over and sleep instead of going for that life-enhancing walk. Entropy stops us from reaching out and helping the blind man cross the road. Entropy stops us from sitting up at nights and sweating for our exams; it slips us into habits like taking the same road to work, holidaying at the same time and place every year, choosing the same restaurant meal over and over again. M. Scott Peck writes about entropy from the human context in his wonderful book, The Road Less Traveled . All growth involves effort, he says, because we have to struggle against the force of entropy. We all know how difficult it is to do the right thing and how easy it is to go with the flow. Even a simple thing as getting up and offering an elderly person a seat in a bus takes effort, which explains why so few people do it. The Buddha likened the whole process of inner growth to swimming upstream. One has to struggle against entrenched habits, against the force of one's likes and dislikes, against inertia. Those of us who have a high level of entropy know how difficult it is to act. Even going for a movie or buying tickets for a play or planning a holiday can seem strenuous. Perhaps all the laziness and disinclination in the world comes from the presence of entropy. Or do they create entropy? It is probably a mutually supporting system where Entropy and laziness create one another. Certainly the more we give in to entropy, the more entropy we create. Once we get into negative cycles of taking the easy way out, of postponing, of doing the wrong thing, it becomes difficult to get out of the cycle. So why are some people high on life and others on entropy? What makes the difference? According to Scott Peck, it is love. When we care enough either for ourselves or others or life itself, then we crest the balance between the death impulse ( thanatos ) and the life impulse ( eros ). Caring makes effort worthwhile and puts us on the side of life. It follows that the more we care the higher the life force within us. The vitality that we see so vividly in some people is the index of their ability to love. Indeed, this is how Scott Peck defines love: ''The will to extend oneself for the purpose of nurturing one's own or another's spiritual growth.'' If love is the motive behind life, does that mean love makes the trees grow, flowers bloom, birds sing and the Earth revolve on its axis? Looks like it, doesn't it? The maxim that God is love is the literal truth. The Universe was created through love and it is love that keeps it going. Conversely, entropy creates indifference. When entropy becomes really high, we stop caring about any aspect of life: how we look, what we wear, what others are feeling, even about whether to live itself. It is probably no coincidence that depressives lose interest in living and that many of them even to succumb to suicide. The scientist-mystic Teilhard de Chardin had predicted that a time would come when we would perceive that love was a force in the universe as real as gravity. Makes sense, doesn't it?
  • A theory does not change into a scientific law with the accumulation of new or better evidence. A theory will always remain a theory; a law will always remain a law.[
  • Thermal energy , thermal energy in transit is called heat Chemical ener gy El ectri c en ergy R adi ant energy, t he energy of e l ectromagnetic ra d iation Nuclea r energy Magn et ic energy Elast ic energy Sound en ergy M e chanical energy Luminous e nergy Mas s (E=mc²)
  • Cuarto principio de la energética En el campo de la energética ecológica, H.T. Odum considera la máxima potencia como el cuarto principio de la energética. El propio Odum propuso el principio de máxima adquisición de potencia ( Maximum empower ) como corolario del principio de máxima potencia y consideró que éste describía las tendencias auto-organizativas evolucionarias. Energetics (also called energy economics ) is the study of energy under transformation . Because energy flows at all scales, from the quantum level to the biosphere and cosmos, energetics is a very broad discipline, encompassing for example thermodynamics , chemistry, b io lo gical ene rge tics, bi o c h emistry a nd ecolo gica l en er ge tic s . Where each bra nch of energetics beg ins and ends is a topic of consta nt debat e. For examp le, Lehninger (1973, p. 21) c ontended that when th e science of thermodynamics deals with energy exchanges of all types, it can be called energetics.
  • Cuarto principio de la energética En el campo de la energética ecológica, H.T. Odum considera la máxima potencia como el cuarto principio de la energética. El propio Odum propuso el principio de máxima adquisición de potencia ( Maximum empower ) como corolario del principio de máxima potencia y consideró que éste describía las tendencias auto-organizativas evolucionarias. Quinto principio de la energética El factor de calidad de la energía se incrementa jerárquicamente. Basándose en estudios de la cadena alimentaria ecológica, Odum propuso que las transformaciones energéticas forma unas series jerárquicas que se miden por el incremento de  transformidad  (en inglés  transformity ) (Odum 2000, p.246). Los flujos de energía desarrollan redes jerárquicas en las cuales, los nuevos flujos energéticos entrantes interactuan y son transformados mediante trabajo en formas de energía de mayor calidad que realimentan acciones amplificadoras, ayudando a maximizar la potencia del sistema (Odum 1994, p.251)
  • Fifth principle of energetics The energy quality factor increases hierarchically. From studies of ecological food chains, Odum proposed that energy transformations form a hierarchical series measured by Transformity increase (Odum 2000, p. 246). Flows of en ergy develop hierarchical webs in which inflowing energies interact and are transformed by work processes into energy forms of higher quality that feedback amplifier actions, helping to maximise the power of the system" — (Odum 1994, p. 251) In 1987 Scienceman proposed that the phrases, "energy quality", "energy quality factor", and "energy transformation ratio", all used by H.T.Odum, be replaced by the word " transformity " (p. 261). This approach aims to solve a long standing issue about the relation of qualitative phenomena to quantitative phenomena often analysed in the physical sciences, which in turn is a synthesis of rationalism with phenomenology. That is to say that it aims to quantify quality.
  • A holarchy , in the terminology of Arthur Koestler , is a hierarchy of ho lons – wh ere a holo n i s both a part and a whol e. The term was coined in Koestler's 1967 book The Ghost in the Machine . The term, spelled holoarchy, is al so used extens ively by Ameri can philo sopher and writer Ken Wilber . [1] Ej. De Bono sobre PAGAR a empleados que inventan formas de hacer obsoletos sus trabajos ... más cosecha
  • creacción consciente NO es dejarse arrastrar por los sentimientos, ni las masas, ni las ‘creencias’
  • Para maximizar la potencia en una actividad económica, recursos locales son usados y cambiados por recursos adicionales. Por ejemplo, consideremos una propiedad en la cual la zafra es plantada en la mejor época del año. Los mejores fertilizantes son utilizados y cuando la zafra sea cosechada, las personas la comprarán. Esta propiedad producirá suficiente retorno financiero para que el hacendado viva bien, mantenga el suelo y repita el proceso año tras año. Él también podrá expandir su sistema comprando haciendas menos eficientes. La exitosa administración de la propiedad sobrevivirá y será copiada por otros propietarios. Debido a que su trabajo ayuda a incrementar el consumo de la energía de toda la economía, este comportamiento es sustentado por la economía y sobrevive.
  • each US $ is equivalent to some 1,000,000,000,000 Solar emergy joules
  • propósito o función ... ej. sistema digestivo, (respiratorio, sanguíneo ... cuerpo> vivir, reproducirse, comer..) Ej. De Bono sobre PAGAR a empleados que inventan formas de hacer obsoletos sus trabajos ... más cosecha
  • Odum's ecosystem approach: * analyses ecosystem elements and processes in terms of energy flows, storages, transformations, feedbacks, and sinks. * incorporates non-living and living elements of the natural environment. and * incorporates human systems and economies as an integral part of the natural world.
  • que pero nos permite visualizar y CONTABILIZAR quien gana y quien pierde ... toda contabilidad al final tiene a que ver con la JUSTICIA de un sistema (y la injusticia NO es sostenible)
  • Los sistemas que maximizan la potencia también son sistemas que retroalimentan a un sistema mayor, del cual hacen parte. Por ejemplo, las especies en un ecosistema están organizadas para ser parcialmente responsables del uso de todo el sistema de energía. En sistemas grandes, como la vegetación, un árbol usa energía solar para que sus hojas aumenten en tamaño y en número, y puedan captar mas energía del sol. El proceso del árbol auxilia el sistema de la vegetación, produciendo nutrientes, construyendo un micro-clima estable, reciclando nutrientes y proporcionando comida a los animales. Así, el árbol maximiza ambos: su propia potencia y la potencia de un sistema mayor al cual pertenece.
  • That giant sucking sound you hear in the background is the emerging economies vacuuming up all the cash from developed economies. Nothing shows it quite as clearly or as strikingly as the following map: The map shows each country by gold and foreign currency reserves minus external debt. It is based on 2009 data from the CIA Factbook (click chart for a much larger version in a new tab). Europe and the US are deep red while emerging economies like China, Brazil and Saudi Arabia are green. I was surprised to see Japan not in the red. But the other developed countries such as Norway, Canada and Australia were orange. No surprise there as these countries have benefited from the secular bull market in commodities.
  • PDC+++ Module 4 Class 4 H. T. Odum

    1. 1. + PDC Module 4 of the PDC++++ + Energy & EcoTechnology We dedicate this Module to the Mother &Class Father of Integral Permaculture: Dana Meadows & Howard Odum, two original M4.4 pioneers who helped humanity makeEnergy great strides in understanding systemic thinking, in all four quadrants. Howard T. Odum studied in great detail the energy flows & interactions in complex life systems, creating a simple pattern-language that serves as a powerful model for understanding how ecosystems work, in useful detail. This model includes visible as well as invisible components of a system, & is so holistic that human economy as well as minerals & weather processes can be accounted for. He also proposed a new & provocative law of thermodynamics that includes Life. In this class we will explore the basics of this work and explore how it is an essential base of Integral Permaculture.
    2. 2. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer Importance of Theory Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
    3. 3. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer Importance of Theory Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
    4. 4. The Importance of Theory + Experience:Chefs & Recepy Followers Great chefs dont follow Aristotle: recepies, they create & improvise The problem is that young people know the theory but dont have experience, & the old people have experience & have forgotten the theory. The two TOGETHER are essentialBecause they know the THEORY (chemistry & physicsof the ingredients) intimately+they have much, varies & detailed EXPERIENCE inapplying it
    5. 5. 7 Energetics Principles4 Laws of Thermodynamics + 3 Additional from Odum 1. Zeroth principle of energetics If two thermodynamic systems A and B are in thermal equilibrium, and B and C are also in thermal equilibrium, then A and C are in thermal equilibrium. 2. First principle of energetics The increase in the internal energy of a system is equal to the amount of energy added to the system by heating, minus the amount lost in the form of work done by the system on its surroundings. 3. Second principle of energetics The total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time, approaching a maximum value. 4. Third principle of energetics As a system approaches absolute zero of temperature all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value or zero for the case of a perfect crystalline substance.
    6. 6. 7 Energetics Principles4 Laws of Thermodynamics + 3 Additional from Odum1. Fourth principle of energetics There seem to be two opinions on the fourth principle of energetics:In the field of ecological energetics H.T. Odum considered maximum power, the fourth principle of energetics. Odum also proposed the Maximum empower principle as a corollary of the maximum power principle, and considered it to describe the propensities of evolutionary self- organization.1. Fifth principle of energetics The energy quality factor increases hierarchically. From studies of ecological food chains, Odum proposed that energy transformations form a hierarchical series measured by Transformity increase (Odum 2000, p. 246). Flows of energy develop hierarchical webs in which inflowing energies interact and are transformed by work processes into energy forms of higher quality that feedback amplifier actions, helping to maximise the power of the system" — (Odum 1994, p. 251)2. Sixth principle of energetics Material cycles have hierarchical patterns measured by the energy/mass ratio that determines its zone and pulse frequency in the energy hierarchy. (Odum 2000, p. 246). M.T. Brown and V. Buranakarn write, "Generally, energy per mass is a good indicator of recycle-ability, where materials with high energy per mass are more recyclable" (2003, p. 1).
    7. 7. & Energy Theory is VERY important because quite counter-intuitive ... Ref: Chris Martensons Crash Course & what our societys practice is BASED ON
    8. 8. The Energy Lawsreview - in picturesConservation of Energy
    9. 9. The Energy Laws review - in picturesConservation of EnergyEntropy
    10. 10. The Energy Laws review - in picturesAcceleration of EntropyByhigher energy transformationsfrom one form to another& more inefficiency (heat loss)in the transformations(INDUSTRIAL processesare typically hot - NATURESarent - see biomimicry)
    11. 11. The Energy Laws review - in picturesLife? The Mother Eros Goddess in ancient times was arepresentation of Life-Death Thanatos
    12. 12. Aristotle:mothers kill the weakest ... The problem is that young people know the theory but dont have experience, & the oldAND ALSO people have experience & have forgotten thefiercely defend their young theory. But THEORY is often also WAY ahead in time
    13. 13. The Energy Lawsreview - in picturesLife?Chaos Theory Fractals, attractors
    14. 14. A Natural Succession Pattern Increase of Life / Efficiency / Fertility > general direction of EvolutionThe work of ecologist HowardOdum a Life & Deathprovided a theoretical storyframework and conceptualtoolwhich was critical in the = an energy economicsdevelopment of the storypermaculture concept.
    15. 15. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer• Importance of Theory Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
    16. 16. Howard T. Odum “As sometimes attributed to past cultures, people may again find glory in being an agent of the earth” Odum was a scientist, teacher, an agent of the earth, and an Integral permaculturist “If the bewildering complexity of human knowledge developed in the 20th century is to be retained and well used, unifying concepts are needed to consolidate the understanding of systems of many kinds and to simplify the1924,Chapel Hill, North teaching of general principles” Carolina2002, Gainesville, Florida
    17. 17. Odum developed a large part of his work together with his brother Eugene, a biologist an also a systems ecology pioneer They wrote the first Ecology Textbook everYou can search for “Eugene Odum” in the e-book www.PermaCultureScience.org and watch an interview with him
    18. 18. Odum left an incredible legacy in many fields associated with ecology, systems, and energetics.He studied ecosystems all over the world, and pioneered the study of several areas, some of which are now distinct fields of research: Ecological modeling (Odum 1960a); Ecological engineering (Odum et al. 1963); Ecological economics (Odum 1971); Estuarine ecology (Odum and Hoskins 1958); Tropical ecosystems ecology (Odum and Pidgeon 1970); General systems theory
    19. 19. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer• Importance of Theory• Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
    20. 20. EnergyEnergy Transformation ProcessThe ability to do work…and WORK is defined as any useful energy transformationone type of energy is transformed into another kind of energy, with some beingturned into a non-usable form (no longer has the potential to do further work)
    21. 21. energy SOURCES • Solar energy • Wind energy • Bio energy • Geothermal energy • Tidal energy FORMS of energy • Nuclear energy • Hydroelectric energy • Fossil fuels • Thermal energy • Chemical energy • Electric energy • Radiant energy Potential • Nuclear energy • Magnetic energy & Kinetic • Elastic energy • Sound energy In Class 4.6 we will go deeper intorenewable sources of energy + mixtures • Mechanical energy • Luminous energy • Mass (E=mc²)
    22. 22. Not all forms of energy are equivalents... Thermic = electricity = quemical = …. X X XIn its ability to do work flexibility convertibility Not all energy has the same quality Ease of transportation concentration
    23. 23. In order to compare we need another concept of energyEmergy: energy (of the same form) needed directly orindirectly to do something Usually expressed in solar energy form Units: Solar Joules or emjoules
    24. 24. Emergy Intensities The ratio between emergy input and output The lower the value >> the more efficient is the processExpressed in:- sej/J ------> transformities- sej/g ------> specific emergy- sej/$ ----- > emergy dollars
    25. 25. An Eg. 300.000 emjoules are needed to produce a joule of electric energy
    26. 26. Using a conversion factorwe can express emergy in its economic equivalent An Eg.Every dollar spent in the USeconomy has embodied in it 1xE12 sej.
    27. 27. Environmental support of human economy...Environmental support of human economy...
    28. 28. Trough the emergy evaluation (emergy synthesis) we can:Evaluate the fitness and efficiency of a systemCompare between development alternativesFind out which is the more efficient way to use a resource.And it give us the ability to analyze complex systems integratingthe human economic resources and the “free” naturalresources.
    29. 29. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer• Importance of Theory• Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
    30. 30. 4th Law of Thermodynamics The Maximum Empower Principle <<< Can you figure out what this diagram might represent by the next class?Systems maximize power by:1) developing storages of high-quality energy, This is HD Odums work2) feeding back work from storages to increase inflows,3) recycling materials as needed,4) organizing control mechanisms that keep the system adapted and stable,5) setting up exchanges for needed materials,6) Contributing work to the next larger system >> 5th Law: All Systems are organized hierarchically
    31. 31. 4th Law of Thermodynamics The Maximum Empower Principle • Fourth Principle of Energetics • In the field of ecological energetics H.T. Odum considered maximum power,Systems maximize power by: the fourth principle of energetics.1) developing storages of high-quality energy,2) feeding back work from storages to increase inflows, • Odum also proposed the Maximum empower principle3) recycling materials as needed, as a corollary of the maximum4) organizing control mechanisms that keep the system power principle, andadapted and stable, considered it to describe the propensities of evolutionary5) setting up exchanges for needed materials, self-organization.6) Contributing work to the next larger system
    32. 32. More Flowers, more 4th Law of Honey, Wax larvae Thermodynamics The Maximum Empower Principle Pollen, nectar, > fruit Recycle, Hibernate, SwarmSystems maximize power by:1) developing storages of high-quality energy,2) feeding back work from storages to increase inflows,3) recycling materials as needed,4) organizing control mechanisms that keep the systemadapted and stable,5) setting up exchanges for needed materials,6) Contributing work to the next larger system
    33. 33. 4th Law of Thermodynamics The Maximum Empower Principle“In time,through the process of trial and error,complex patterns of structure and processeshave evolved...the successful ones survivingbecause they use materials and energies wellin their own maintenance,and compete well with other patternsthat chance interposes.” H.T. Odum
    34. 34. 5th Law of Energetics The Energy Quality Factor increases hierarchicallyFrom studies of ecological food chains,Odum proposed that energy transformations In 1987 Scienceman proposed that the phrases,form a hierarchical series measured by Transformity increase > "energy quality",(Odum 2000, p. 246). > "energy quality factor", andFlows of energy develop hierarchical webs > "energy transformation ratio", all used by H.T.Odum,in which inflowing energies interact and are transformed be replaced by the word "transformity" (p. 261).by work processes into energy forms of higher quality That is to say that it aims tothat feedback amplifier actions, quantify quality.helping to maximize the power of the system"— (Odum 1994, p. 251)
    35. 35. 5th Law… All systems are organized hierarchicallyEnergy flows of the universe are organized into energy transformationhierarchies.The position in the energy hierarchy can be measured by the amountof energy required to produce something Example: The techno–human “food-chain”
    36. 36. More about Systems StructuresHierarchy eagle Energy Quantity Holarchy Energy Quality 2) complex systems in turn are made up of sub- Holons systems rabbit 3) & sub-systems organize themselves into nested hierarchies (holarchies) herbs
    37. 37. Energy Transformation Hierarchy Spatial view of units and their territories Energy networks including transformation and feedbacksAggregation of energy network into an energy chainBar graph of the energy flows of the levels in the energyhierarchy Bar graph of solar transformities
    38. 38. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer Importance of Theory Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
    39. 39. There are lots of Fertile Connections yet to make!! Odums Work is not yet applied to designing Economies >> & this is a very important job for the next generation of Integral Permaculture Designers eg. What would an integration of the work of Silvio Gessell (M5.2) & Howard Odums + Dana Meadows (M4.5) work look like? Because it will be very likely produce important break- throughs ....“If the bewildering complexity of human knowledgedeveloped in the 20th century is to be retained and well used, unifying concepts are needed to consolidate the understanding of systems of many kinds and to simplify the teaching of general principles." knowledge >> general principles
    40. 40. Use of Energy & ResourcesExponential Growth of the EconomyLoss of BioDiversityPopulationPollution knowledge >> general principles Could it be that Cr we needed all ea this excess tiv nt e sce energy to get to De al A truly understand sce nt sustainability stri Indu engineering Post-Industrial Sustainable AS A Culture SPECIES? David Holmgren
    41. 41. Eg.2 -Multinationals asefficient predators NOT inevitable, just a good use of patternTo maximize power of an economic activity,local resources > used & exchanged for additional resources.Ej. Good land planted with addition of fertilizers > people buy lots of produce.> Good profits > buy more inefficient land > repeat process many times.> Successful management survives + copied by others.> Because their work helps to increase energy consumption of the whole economy> this behavior sustained by the economy & survives > keeps feeding off others ..
    42. 42. 1) developing storages of high-quality energy,2) feeding back work from storages to increase inflows,Each US $ is equivalent to some1,000,000,000,000 Solar emergy joules
    43. 43. 2) complex systems haveEnergy Hierarchies ... in turn sub-systems Multinationals 3) & sub-systems are organized in nested Companies hierarchies 1) have components Small Businesses > US at this level >
    44. 44. Odums Contribution toSystems Science  Howard Odum “Energy Basis for Man and Nature”  A base of PermaCulture (diploma work)  his contribution:  Ecosystems as flows of energy  Incorporate living & non-living elements  Incorporating human systems & economies as an integral part of the natural world An un-comfortable fit > sometime un-popular even with ecologists ...
    45. 45. Developed a "systems language" insymbols P a t h w a y L in e : a f lo w o f e n e r g y , o f te n w ith a f lo w o f m a te r ia ls . S O U R C E : o u ts id e s o u r c e o f e n e r g y ; a f o r c in g f u n c tio n . S T O R A G E : a c o m p a r tm e n t o f e n e r g y s to r a g e w ith i n th e s y s te m s to r in g q u a n tity a s th e b a la n c e o f in f lo w s a n d o u tf lo w s
    46. 46. systems pattern language IN T E R A C T IO N : p r o c e s s w h ic h c o m b in e s d if f e r e n t ty p e s o f e n e r g y f lo w s o r m a te r ia l f lo w s to p r o d u c e a n o u tf lo w in p r o p o r tio n to a f u n c tio n o f th e in f lo w s . P R O D U C E R : u n it th a t c o lle c ts a n d tr n a s f o r m s lo w - q u a lity e n e r g y u n d e r c o n tr o l in te r a c tio n s o f h ig h e r q u a lity f lo w s . . C O N S U M E R : u n it th a t tr a n s f o r m s e n e r g y q u a lity , s to r e s it, a n d f e e d s it b a c k a u to c a ta ly tic a lly to im p r o v e in f lo w
    47. 47. source Q ui ckTi m e™ and a TI FF ( LZW) decom pr ess or ar e needed t o s ee t hi s pi ct ur e. processproducer consumer storage 47
    48. 48. Emergy Accounting shrimp harvest +1092* losses to local region - 602 losses for Ecuador - 1100 gains for the USA + 710 Accounting * in millons of Em$ per year
    49. 49. There are lots of Fertile Connections yet to make!!Odums Work is not yet appliedto designing Ecologies, either>> which is crucial if were to create really thriving, long-term sustainable IntegralPermaculture Designseg. What would a truly mature International "Permaculture" Community look like?>> "Permaculture" in the general sense: everyone who is working towards a sustainableculture. Systems that maximize power are also systems that feed-back to a bigger system. Eg. a tree uses solar energy to increase leaf area ... in this process the tree supports the vegetation system, increasing nutrients, creating a stable micro-climate, cycling nutrients > & providing animal food. Thus the tree maximizes own power & the power of the system it belongs to.
    50. 50. The Big General Pattern that KILLS IDEAS- BIODIVERSITY & connection seems to be our INABILITY to Resolve Conflics Fear of Discussion Avoidance Get Impatient DemonizingMinimizing No adequate Technology & Dont Knowledge Listen knowledge >> general principles
    51. 51. & how will all this interactwith these other high energystores stories ..Petrol
    52. 52. & how will all this interact with these other high energy stores stories .. MoneyEach country by gold and foreign currency reserves minus external debt.It is based on 2009 data from the CIA Factbook Source: Wikipedia
    53. 53. & how will all this interactwith these other high energystores stories .. ¿Knowledge?

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