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PDC+++ Module 3 Class 9 Trees II

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¿Why are trees so important? If we all plant some 10,0000 trees each we can prevent climate catastrophe, regenerate lost soils, increase biodiversity and preserve vital ecosystems & cycles. Trees …

¿Why are trees so important? If we all plant some 10,0000 trees each we can prevent climate catastrophe, regenerate lost soils, increase biodiversity and preserve vital ecosystems & cycles. Trees are the biggest and oldest living beings on Earth. But around 75% of the ancient forest are vanished for human action.
So it's urgent for us to know and understand trees, how to plant them, how to care for them,how to return them to their most important place in nature.In this class we will learn about tree biology and tree functions as well as their influence in our culture.

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  • Recent root excavation studies in the Environmental Horticulture Department at the University of Florida, IFAS, are beginning to suggest that a different generalized tree root model may be operating where a tap root may or may not exist, lateral roots extend far beyond the drip line, and fine roots are concentrated in the top 12 inches of soil with many in the top 2 inches. Existence of a tap root appears to be dependent on the tree species, tree age, soil profile and whether the tree was grown in the field from seed or transplanted from a nursery container. For instance, oaks will frequently develop a tap root, whereas maples often do not. The tap root can become less prominent as the tree ages and develops an extensive lateral root system. At planting, tap roots of container-grown plants are often cut, causing initiation of lateral branch roots. These roots either grow down to form multiple tap roots or stay fairly shallow, depending on soil condition. Roots grow close to the surface in soil that is highly compacted or low in oxygen content. This appears to be evident on tap-rooted and non-tap-root species. Therefore, in urban environments, where soil is often compacted, tap roots rarely can be found.
  • An arborist , or (less commonly) arboriculturist , is a professional in the practice of arboricultur e , which is t he cultivation , management, and study o f individual trees , shrubs , vines , and other pere nnial woody plants . Arbori sts g enerally focus on the heal th and saf ety of indiv idual plants and trees, rather than managing forests (the domains of Forestry and Silviculture ) or harvesting wood. An arbori st's scope of work is th erefore distinct from that of eit her a forester or a logger , though the professions share much in common.
  • An arborist , or (less commonly) arboriculturist , is a professional in the practice of arboricultur e , which is t he cultivation , management, and study o f individual trees , shrubs , vines , and other pere nnial woody plants . Arbori sts g enerally focus on the heal th and saf ety of indiv idual plants and trees, rather than managing forests (the domains of Forestry and Silviculture ) or harvesting wood. An arbori st's scope of work is th erefore distinct from that of eit her a forester or a logger , though the professions share much in common.
  • Equatorial rainforests, often considered the "real rainforest," are characterized by more than 80 inches (2,000 mm) of rain annually spread evenly throughout the year. These forests have the highest biological diversity and have a well-developed canopy "tier" form of vegetation. Roughly two-thirds of the world's tropical wet forests can be considered the equatorial type. These forests are near the equator where there is very little seasonal variation and the solar day is a constant length all year round. The greatest expanses of equatorial rainforest are found in lowland Amazonia, the Congo Basin, the Southeast Asian islands of Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. Tropical moist forests are found at a greater distance from the equator where rainfall and day length vary seasonally. These forests get "only" 50 inches (1,270 mm) of rain annually and are markedly distinguished from equatorial rainforests by a cooler dry season. During this dry season, many trees shed some or even all their leaves, creating a seasonal reduction of canopy cover and allowing more sunlight to reach the forest floor. The increased sunlight reaching the forest floor allows the growth of vigorous understory vegetation not found in lowland equatorial forest. Such moist forest is found in parts of South America, the Caribbean, West Africa, and Southeast Asia, especially Thailand, Burma, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka.
  • Equatorial rainforests, often considered the "real rainforest," are characterized by more than 80 inches (2,000 mm) of rain annually spread evenly throughout the year. These forests have the highest biological diversity and have a well-developed canopy "tier" form of vegetation. Roughly two-thirds of the world's tropical wet forests can be considered the equatorial type. These forests are near the equator where there is very little seasonal variation and the solar day is a constant length all year round. The greatest expanses of equatorial rainforest are found in lowland Amazonia, the Congo Basin, the Southeast Asian islands of Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. Tropical moist forests are found at a greater distance from the equator where rainfall and day length vary seasonally. These forests get "only" 50 inches (1,270 mm) of rain annually and are markedly distinguished from equatorial rainforests by a cooler dry season. During this dry season, many trees shed some or even all their leaves, creating a seasonal reduction of canopy cover and allowing more sunlight to reach the forest floor. The increased sunlight reaching the forest floor allows the growth of vigorous understory vegetation not found in lowland equatorial forest. Such moist forest is found in parts of South America, the Caribbean, West Africa, and Southeast Asia, especially Thailand, Burma, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka.
  • Transcript

    • 1. M3.9 PDC+++
      • ¿Why are trees so important? If we all plant some 10,0000 trees each we can prevent climate catastrophe, regenerate lost soils, increase biodiversity and preserve vital ecosystems & cycles. Trees are the biggest and oldest living beings on Earth. But around 75% of the ancient forest are vanished for human action.
      • So it's urgent for us to know and understand trees, how to plant them, how to care for them,how to return them to their most important place in nature.In this class we will learn about tree biology and tree functions as well as their influence in our culture.
      of the M3.9 Trees an integral exploration PDC + + +
    • 2.
      • The Basics
      • Growing & Maintaining Trees
      • Tree Guilds & Types of Forests
      • Culture, Stories, Society
      • Climbing the Tree
      an integral exploration M3.9 Trees
    • 3. There are 3 main ways of propagating trees: 1) from seed 2) from cutting 3) grafting Are Vitally Important! Tree Nurseries Oil palm tree nursery in Borneo >>
    • 4. the Green Belt Movement
      • Through creating their own tree nurseries – at least 6,000 throughout Kenya – and planting trees, women began to control the supply of their own firewood, an enormous power shift that also freed up time for other pursuits.
      GreenBelt Movement representatives visiting Haiti
    • 5. How to Plant a Tree A tree is a LONG-TERM project: easy to plant, not so easy that it survives & thrives for DECADES afterwards
    • 6. Respect root level + below any graft Plant depth is important Loosen out roots if they have become very constricted & twisted in the pot How to Plant a Tree
    • 7. How to Plant a Tree Hole wider than the pot, but not deeper (loosen lower soil by ripping or adding water + well rotted compost (worms will help dig) Swale around the tree roots & mulch + water frequently at first (don't drown)
    • 8. Watering Wherever possible it is important that the tree is watered naturally (rainwater) Swaling to collect & Mulching avoid evaporation from soil + increase microbial life 'Training' roots when young Roots can extend well beyond the drip-line, most stay in top 20cm, depends on soil compaction + where the water is
    • 9. 'Train' roots to range wide & deep for a storm-proof & draught-proof tree - when older - 'Biberón' to train roots when young Watering Check watering frequency with soil & tree type Text
    • 10.  
    • 11. Watering Newly planted trees & Established trees have quite different needs
    • 12. Pruning & Tree Care Arborist or arboriculturist Many arborists follow the concept of "harvesting the sun" when pruning fruit trees.
    • 13. No pruning can result in higher yields where the tree has never been pruned, but GOOD DESIGN is about adapting optimal methods & techniques to all sorts of different circumstances. Pruning & Tree Care
    • 14.
      • The Basics
      • Growing & Maintaining Trees
      • Tree Guilds & Types of Forests
      • Culture, Stories, Society
      • Climbing the Tree
      an integral exploration M3.9 Trees
    • 15. An apple guild Mulch plants (comfrey, artichoke, ..) Insectary plantas (fennel, dill, beebalm, etc.. Nutrient accumulators (chicory, yarrow, plantain Grass suppressing bulbs (daffodils, camas, garlic, chives Apple
    • 16.  
    • 17. Types of Forests Equatorial or the "real rainforest," > > 2,000 mm rain / yr > spread evenly in year > highest biological diversity > well-developed canopy "tier" form of vegetation. Tropical moist forests > greater distance from the equator > rainfall and day length vary seasonally > "only" 1,270 mm rain / yr > have a cooler dry season > many trees shed some or even all their leaves > more sunlight to reach the forest floor > South America, the Caribbean, West Africa, and Southeast Asia, especially Thailand, Burma, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka
    • 18. Types of Forests Temperate Deciduous Forests > It is no coincidence that a good deal of the human population is found in areas that once supported temperate forests .  > The soils are rich and easily converted to agriculture .  > The climate is warmer than the boreal forest, > yet not so warm as the tropics. Boreal forests o Taiga > absorb most of Co2 on Earth > world's largest terrestrial biome > lowest winter temperatures, short summers > young soils poor in nutrients > experienced some of the greatest temperature increases on Earth study in e-book PermaCultureScience.org
    • 19.
      • The Basics
      • Growing & Maintaining Trees
      • Tree Guilds & Types of Forests
      • Culture, Stories, Society
      • Climbing the Tree
      M3.9 Trees an integral exploration
    • 20. Protecting Trees
    • 21. Protecting Trees EarthFirst.org
    • 22. Protecting Trees Lappersfort in Belgium Tree Life Community Autonomous organization ¡Permaculture Techniques! Eviction Guest speaker Berry
    • 23. Protecting Trees Julia Butterfly Hill author of the book The Legacy of Luna and co-author of One Makes the Difference Since her tree sit, Hill has become a motivational speaker , a best-selling author and the co-founder of the Circle of Life Foundation and the Engage Network , a nonprofit that trains small groups of civic leaders to work toward social change 23yrs old, lived in Luna for 738 days
    • 24.
      • The Basics
      • Growing & Maintaining Trees
      • Tree Guilds & Types of Forests
      • Culture, Stories, Society
      • Climbing the Tree
      M3.9 Trees an integral exploration Part 2 of this class when Diego arrives!