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PDC+++ Module 3 Class 5 Aquaculture
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PDC+++ Module 3 Class 5 Aquaculture

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Normally we think of producing food or biomass with terraculture (growing in earth), but aquaculture (growing in water) can be many times more productive for the same surface area.   Therefore knowing …

Normally we think of producing food or biomass with terraculture (growing in earth), but aquaculture (growing in water) can be many times more productive for the same surface area.   Therefore knowing how Aquaculture works is important if we want to create super-productive systems.

In this class we explore the basic principles & various good examples of very productive aquaculture (& multifunctional) in different parts of the world.

Also we explore how we can start very small in order to add mini-aquaculture-systems which are very easy to install & maintain, in our surroundings.

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  • España se sitúa como el 9º país que más basura genera en la Unión Europea Los servicios de limpieza recogieron 575 kilos anuales de basura por persona Sólo reciclamos el 14% de los residuos, frente al 23% del conjunto de los 27 En cada kilómetro cuadrado de agua salada hay alrededor de 18.000 restos de plásticos flotando
  • Great Pacific Garbage Patch
  • dimethyl sulphide
  • fishing seas like we clear-cut forests, tuna, halibut, salmon, swardfish ... 90% all large fish populations have collapsed
  • Conviene incorporar islas para refugios Incluir estratificaciones superficiales sobre los bordes del estanque Incluir refugios para peces dónde la profundidad es menor de 3m Evitar plantar árboles grandes alrededor Cercar los estanques para protegerlos del ganado (y gallinas! si los estanques son pequeños)
  • fuera estanque .. perdidas
  • Mangroves – this is probably the best example of an integrated mari-culture. Mangroves are well known for their benefit to an ecosystem. Planted mangroves can improve fishery stocks, sea defence, improve water quality (trap and hold/break down pollutants or toxins flowing in to the area), provide wood for cooking, and ultimately provide ‘land’ if efficient in trapping silt for local people to reclaim and build houses on.
  • Isle of Man – Marine Reserve designation. As a means of protecting and enhancing fish stocks the Isle of Man thought a marine reserve should be set up. This caused huge concerns to the local fishermen who understood that they would be losing a valued fishing area. A good example of the benefits of an established(20 years old) statutory (no take) marine reserve is seen in New Zealand (Leigh Marine Reserve) However the Manx fishermen could not be convinced of the benefits that this would have on their fishery either in the present or in the future and apposed it vehemently. However they did have an interesting example of a no-take zone just off the shore in the form of navel practice bombing range. It was well know that large catches just outside the bombing range could be had and this was due to the increased fish and crustacean stock within the bombing range itself spilling out to the adjacent areas. However this did not convince them to put another no-take zone in there fishing range. They now have severe issues regarding over fishing in the Irish Sea. New Zealand – green lipped mussels and oyster beds, issues associated with these are hazard for other sea users, large chemical input via feed and disease control, immediate area often devoid of other sea life. Usually sited in sheltered bays and inlets and therefore poor water movement with restricted ‘flushing’ build up of toxic waste including faecal material on sea bed. Unsightly from the land, waste materials (feed bags, old netting etc.)often blown away from the site and snagged on land vegetation.
  • Mangroves help stabilize soils on tropical coasts.  The dense tangle of aerial roots of the red mangrove (left) cushions the impact of waves and protects the shoreline behind the mangroves from the full source of storms.  
  • Black Mangrove roots (in the foreground of the image to lower left, with red mangrove roots behind the trunk of the black mangrove tree) send up pneumatophores to supply the roots with oxygen (necessary in the anoxic soils around the mangroves).  These pneumatophores, however, also contribute to holding the soil in place.   Thus protected, the beach communities can continue succession.  If the mangroves and beach communities are destroyed by a major storm then succession will be reset.  The red mangrove seedling, below, if it survives and grows will be a vanguard for the beach community, extending it seaward another 10 meters or so.
  • Un elemento ... cuantas funciones podemos pensar para ello?
  • Islas de neumáticos para estanques de agua dulce
  • Acuacultura urbana
  • buenísimo mulch, fija nitrógeno
  • Transcript

    • 1. M3.5 pdc+++
      • Normally we think of producing food or biomass with terraculture (growing in earth), but aquaculture (growing in water) can be many times more productive for the same surface area.   Therefore knowing how Aquaculture works is important if we want to create super-productive systems.
      • In this class we explore the basic principles & various good examples of very productive aquaculture (& multifunctional) in different parts of the world.
      • Also we explore how we can start very small in order to add mini-aquaculture-systems which are very easy to install & maintain, in our surroundings.
      of the an integral exploration M3.5 acuaculture PDC + + +
    • 2. wangari maathai " If they had resources, they would not be killing each other over grazing ground and water " Kenia 1 april 1940 - 25 septemb er 2011 "Until you dig a hole, you plant a tree, you water it and make it survive, you haven't done a thing. You are just talking."
    • 3.
      • Oceans in Distress
      • Finca Veta LaPalma
      • Sepp Holzer Acuaculture
      • Some Marine Systems
      • Small Ponds
      • Rehydration Revolution
      an integral exploration M3.5 AQUACULTURE
    • 4. Over-fishing (collapsed stocks) Pollution oil plastics pollution from rivers (industry, sewage) Climate Change
    • 5. The over-fishing problem is a prime example of badly designed (or non-designed) system Positive feedback loops in the economy drive negative feedback loops in nature Economy = management of the home Ecology = knowledge of the home collapse
    • 6. A Great Challenge for All
      • In Spain we generate more than 550 kg of rubbish per person /yr
      • In the Canaries 750 kg per person /yr (3/4 of a ton)
      • There is no 'away'
      • In each square km of sea there are some 18,000 pieces of plastic floating ...
      • ... which kill a great amount of animals each day
    • 7. The Plastics Problem
      • The decomposition time of soft plastic & plastic fibers is between 20 & 50 years
      • The decomposition time of hard plastic is of more than 500 years
      • There are two huge dumps of floating plastics, gathered by the currents of the Pacific Ocean
      • Bigger than the USA in area
      search for the Great Pacific Garbage Patch in Internet
    • 8. Climate Change plankton absorbs 30-50% of the world's CO2 every other breath we take comes from the ocean scientists not sure how temperature raises might affect plankton negative feedback loops possible when they die, they deposit big stores of carbon on ocean floor (large carbon sink)
    • 9. Solutions
      • ALL solutions to ALL of our problems involve thinking & acting (DESIGNING) in RADICALLY new ways about EVERYTHING
      • Working with, not against Nature
      • Observing, OBSERVING, observing
      • Promoting fertile conections
    • 10.
      • Oceans in Distress
      • Finca Veta LaPalma
      • Sepp Holzer Acuaculture
      • Some Marine Systems
      • Small Ponds
      • Rehydration Revolution
      an integral exploration M3.4 AQUACULTURE
    • 11. Dan Barber (Chef) 2.5:1 'sustainable proteins' 30% chicken far out to sea ('a world onto ourselves') (fell out of love) farmed tuna, 15:1 feed ratio 90% large fish in oceans collapsed then he found a more sustainable fish farm ...
    • 12. Finca Veta la Palma Guadalquivir basin, Spain Miguel Medialdea biologist farm or ecosystem? 32 km sq expert in relationships
    • 13. 1,200 tons of  sea bass , bream, r ed mu llet an d  shrimp  e ach year. (37 tons per square kilometer) with no imported feed (all supplied by the ecosystem) How do they measure success? Health of the predators! important nature sanctuary water purification
    • 14. systems designers think in terms of & work with patterns (models) principles + much knowledge & observation of natural systems Miguel Medialdea biologist "I didn't know anything about fish ... I'm an expert in relationships"
    • 15. Basic Patterns the cycles of life Inorganic matter, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, phosporus Primary producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Excrement & organic matter Microorganisms bacteria phytoplancton zooplancton
    • 16. It is very common to use animal deposits to fertilize lakes & ponds in Asia chickens pigs In aquaculture systems we simply try to reproduce the abundance of nature
    • 17. waste feed urine feces other use in the farm waste bacteria inorganic nutrients fitoplancton zooplancton deitrus accumulates on bottom of tank fish feces the more faithfully we can replicate all types of fertile connections, the better the system will work our main aim as designers of sustainable systems is to create perennial polycultures (terrestrial or aquatic)
    • 18. inclined floor board floor in addition to supplying animal manures, we also plant edges of ponds with as many as possible bushes & trees which drop their fruit in the water insects of all types are important fish-food, as are smaller fish, tadpoles, etc.
    • 19.
      • Oceans in Distress
      • Finca Veta LaPalma
      • Sepp Holzer Acuaculture
      • Some Marine Systems
      • Small Ponds
      • Rehydration Revolution
      an integral exploration M3.5 AQUACULTURE
    • 20. Sepp Holzer Has created a Self-regulated System Where Water is the key element That produces: Moisture Drinking water Warmth Many different fish species Biodiversity Money Energy Supply And Beauty
    • 21. He Started observing how the pigs make ponds by wallowing in water pools (their motion creates an impermeable seal) So he creates his ponds in the same way moving & compressing the earth with big machines to make the impermeable layer
    • 22. Roots and trees create refuge for the small fish & juveniles (act as nurseries) Stones warm the water in summer and allow gas interchanges in winter
    • 23. ponds are protected from the wind & act as sun-traps sun is reflected by the pond surface, giving warmth & moisture to nearby terraces
    • 24. ponds are connected by diversion channels a mixture of shallow & deeper ponds allow for tadpoles to multiply away from danger & allow control of the ponds temperature Hot water from a shallow pond Cold water from a deep pond
    • 25. it is useful to place ponds in the fire-sector also Chinampas maximize edge
    • 26. Pond Profiles
    • 27.  
    • 28.  
    • 29.  
    • 30.
      • Oceans in Distress
      • Finca Veta LaPalma
      • Sepp Holzer Acuaculture
      • Some Marine Systems
      • Small Ponds
      • Rehydration Revolution
      an integral exploration M3.5 AQUACULTURE
    • 31. Aquatic biomes Pond Littoral Intertidal zone Mangrove forest Kelp forest Coral reef etc.
    • 32. New Zealand / Isle of Man A story...
      • NZ - no take zones
      • Improves the diversity, can improve the catch ratio adjacent to the reserves, Isle of Man example of the process for setting up reserves, community participation
    • 33.
      • Mangroves - a good example of an integrated marine system: improves diversity, acts as a nursery, provides wood fuel for community, cleans up river water passing through the mangrove system
    • 34. Mangroves help stabilize (& create) soils on tropical & sub-tropical coasts They are amongst the richest, most fertile (& probably the smelliest) biomes on Earth Principles & Functions increase edge biodiversity natural succession stacking relative location ...
    • 35.
      • Oceans in Distress
      • Finca Veta LaPalma
      • Sepp Holzer Acuaculture
      • Some Marine Systems
      • Small Ponds
      • Rehydration Revolution
      an integral exploration M3.4 WATER
    • 36. Pond or Lake Biomass Aquaculture Biodiversity BioControl Purifier Water collection & Storage Fire barrier Mirror Heat Deposit (Microclimate) Beauty, Health Leasure
    • 37. Water: priorities
      • Save it (what we already have) - do I need it? + USE gray waters
      • PLANT!!
      • SLOW its movement in the landscape - eg. animals: beavers with rivers; eg. humans with swales
      • DISPERSE in the landscape - small amounts in all parts generally better than large amounts in one part
      • SOAK or help it to get absorbed by the land
      • PLANT!!
      • Mulch in order to prevent soil evaporation
    • 38. plateau slopes valley river inflection point key-line defined by a spring frost limit place house under springs to collect water easily deep soils best place for woodland or forest garden finer soils due to erosion, plant permanent vegetation on slopes >12 + reforest in all slopes > 18 best zone for intensive commercial crops, fertile stable soils, easy to water best place for low intensity crop, arable good place to store water & / or for wind energy AQUACULTURE
    • 39. Tyre islands for fresh water ponds
    • 40. Mini Urban Aquaculture
    • 41.  
    • 42. Brisbane – Northey St. City Farm: biotope
    • 43. Ragman’s Lane Farm: Chinampa
    • 44. duck weed water hyacinth
    • 45.  
    • 46. Water Lily
    • 47. Azolla
    • 48.  
    • 49.  
    • 50. Fat mixed with water is not necessary and Can cause problems afterwards
    • 51. water hyacinth
    • 52.  
    • 53.
      • Oceans in Distress
      • Finca Veta LaPalma
      • Sepp Holzer Acuaculture
      • Some Marine Systems
      • Small Ponds
      • Rehydration Revolution
      an integral exploration M3.5 AQUACULTURE
    • 54. Life Boats We all live in life-boats -they are our Watersheds Do you know your watershed?
      • An EgoRestoration Project
      Brock Dolman
    • 55. As Brock says “Our critical head-waters (the human brain) needs a project of ego-restoration" & the life-boat of this restoration journey is our Watershed”   Poetically, our society has to undergo a “Reverential Rehidration Revolution" adjusting our water management patterns away from the “problem-causing systems of: Pave it, Pipe it, Pollute it ” toward a “solution-creating systems of: Slow it, Spread it, Sink it ” Hope lies in creating at world-level a “water literacy" installing a commitment to water-management based on the 4 Rs of the “Conservation Hydrology: Receive, Release, Recharge & Restore”
    • 56. Living Machines... to be continued ... Findhorn, Escocia
    • 57.
      • Oceans in Distress
      • Finca Veta LaPalma
      • Sepp Holzer Acuaculture
      • Some Marine Systems
      • Small Ponds
      • Rehydration Revolution
      an integral exploration M3.5 AQUACULTURE

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