PDC+++ Module 3 Class 10 Forest Gardens I

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At about the time humankind discovered agriculture, forests covered about 50% of the land area on planet Earth.  Now they barely cover some 30%, & falling.   This is now the single most urgent physical repairing of the environment we need to engage in, as forests are so vital for every aspect of life on Earth, safeguarding the vital cycles of air, water, earth, stabilizing the local & global climate, creating soil & habitats for a huge number of species, sustaining entire economies & our health.

 
Forests play a key vital role on many levels as they are so basic & even primal for humans. In this class we get intimately acquainted with Forests, their make-up, how they work & especially we learn how to design Forest Gardens: our future human habitat, if we are to survive & thrive as humans

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  • Peggy Lemaux Cooperative extension specialist in plant biotechnology at theUniversity of California at Berkeley I would nominate the basic formula for photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O + sunlight/chlorophyll -> O2 + C6H12O6. Why is this so important? Because without this chemistry, life on earth would not be possible. Glucose (C6H12O6) is the basic energy source for all living organisms. The oxygen released as a photosynthetic byproduct, principally of phytoplankton, provides most of the atmospheric oxygen vital to respiration in plants andanimals. And animals, in turn, produce carbon dioxide (C02) necessary forplants. Therefore, photosynthesis is considered the ultimate source oflife for nearly all plants and animals, by providing the energy required to drivetheir metabolic processes. Without this important reaction, life on this planet would cease.
  • The Garden of the Hesperides is Hera 's orchard in the west, where either a single tree or a grove of immortality-giving gold en apples gre w. The apples were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to her as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus . The Hesperides were given the task of tending to the grove, but occasionally plucked from it themselves. Not trusting them, Hera also placed in the garden a never-sleeping, hundred-headed dragon named Ladon as an additi onal safeguar d. Ho wever, in the mythology surrounding the Judgement of Paris , the Goddess of D iscord Eris manage d to enter the garden, pluck a golden apple , in scribe it "To the most beautiful" (Ancient Greek: Kall istei) and roll it into the wedding party (which she had not been invited to), in effect causing the Trojan Wars .
  • The Garden of the Hesperides is Hera 's orchard in the west, where either a single tree or a grove of immortality-giving gold en apples gre w. The apples were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to her as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus . The Hesperides were given the task of tending to the grove, but occasionally plucked from it themselves. Not trusting them, Hera also placed in the garden a never-sleeping, hundred-headed dragon named Ladon as an additi onal safeguar d. Ho wever, in the mythology surrounding the Judgement of Paris , the Goddess of D iscord Eris manage d to enter the garden, pluck a golden apple , in scribe it "To the most beautiful" (Ancient Greek: Kall istei) and roll it into the wedding party (which she had not been invited to), in effect causing the Trojan Wars .
  • The Garden of the Hesperides is Hera 's orchard in the west, where either a single tree or a grove of immortality-giving gold en apples gre w. The apples were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to her as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus . The Hesperides were given the task of tending to the grove, but occasionally plucked from it themselves. Not trusting them, Hera also placed in the garden a never-sleeping, hundred-headed dragon named Ladon as an additi onal safeguar d. Ho wever, in the mythology surrounding the Judgement of Paris , the Goddess of D iscord Eris manage d to enter the garden, pluck a golden apple , in scribe it "To the most beautiful" (Ancient Greek: Kall istei) and roll it into the wedding party (which she had not been invited to), in effect causing the Trojan Wars .
  • The Garden of the Hesperides is Hera 's orchard in the west, where either a single tree or a grove of immortality-giving gold en apples gre w. The apples were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to her as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus . The Hesperides were given the task of tending to the grove, but occasionally plucked from it themselves. Not trusting them, Hera also placed in the garden a never-sleeping, hundred-headed dragon named Ladon as an additi onal safeguar d. Ho wever, in the mythology surrounding the Judgement of Paris , the Goddess of D iscord Eris manage d to enter the garden, pluck a golden apple , in scribe it "To the most beautiful" (Ancient Greek: Kall istei) and roll it into the wedding party (which she had not been invited to), in effect causing the Trojan Wars .
  • PDC+++ Module 3 Class 10 Forest Gardens I

    1. 1. M3.10 PDC+++ <ul><li>At about the time humankind discovered agriculture, forests covered about 50% of the land area on planet Earth.  Now they barely cover some 30%, & falling.   This is now the single most urgent physical repairing of the environment we need to engage in, as forests are so vital for every aspect of life on Earth, safeguarding the vital cycles of air, water, earth, stabilizing the local & global climate, creating soil & habitats for a huge number of species, sustaining entire economies & our health. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Forests play a key vital role on many levels as they are so basic & even primal for humans. In this class we get intimately acquainted with Forests, their make-up, how they work & especially we learn how to design Forest Gardens: our future human habitat, if we are to survive & thrive as humans </li></ul>of the an integral exploration M3.10 Forest Gardens PDC + + +
    2. 2. <ul><li>Importance of Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Mythologies </li></ul><ul><li>How to Design Edible Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Forest Gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Storying - WoodLand of the Future </li></ul>M3.10 Forest Gardens an integral exploration
    3. 3. Wangari Maathai &quot;Until you dig a hole,  plant a tree,  you water it  & you make it survive,  you haven't done a thing.   You're just talking&quot; It's a matter of life and death for this country. The Kenyan forests are facing extinction and it is a man-made problem.
    4. 4. <ul><li>Importance of Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Mythologies </li></ul><ul><li>How to Design Edible Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Forest Gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Storying - WoodLand of the Future </li></ul>M3.10 Forest Gardens an integral exploration
    5. 5. Forest importance Alter runoff Prevent soil erosion Negative ionization That atracts Positive ions Biomass, Interaccions Safeguard from the wind Increase rainfall, Modify Weather conditions Transpiration Products
    6. 7. Wind-Forest interaction
    7. 8. Rain-Forest interaction
    8. 9. Trough gas exchange, forest keep and oxigenate atmosphere and an Active water-vapour cycle essential for life. Winds deflected over the forest cause compresion in the streamlines of the wind, So there are more water vapour per volume and the air is cooled. Both conditions are conducive to rain. Rain-Forest interaction Hot and dry air Cold and humid air Cooled and humidified Heated, dehumidified And released by the tree crowns
    9. 10. The impact on the canopy Causes evaporation and don't Reach the ground directly Avoiding erosion Trees intercept rain. Till all Leaves are wet no droplet reach The ground.
    10. 11. Forest-weather interaction Evaporation takes place in the costs and air currents carry the moist air when it hit the tops of the trees form water droplets. condensation can reach 80-86% of Total rainfals. Forest create clouds. This water is richer in nutrients that come from the forest. The release of water through the Pores of trees and other plants Condensation Rehumidification of streamlines Transpiration
    11. 12. temperature down 3-5 degrees C air humidity up 10% cloud cover up 11.5% rainfall up 25% 137 species of birds (up from 5) 9 species of primates 3000 people getting income Lestari project class 3.2
    12. 13. CO2 + H2O + sun/chlorophyll -> O2 + C6H12O6 Forest are Carbon sinks & Energy generators
    13. 15. <ul><li>Importance of Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Mythologies </li></ul><ul><li>How to Design Edible Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Forest Gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Storying - WoodLand of the Future </li></ul>M3.10 Forest Gardens an integral exploration
    14. 16. The Garden of Eden
    15. 17. the first famous Forest Garden of history? The Tree of Knowledge of Good & Evil The Tree of Life
    16. 18. the first famous Forest Garden of history? The Tree of Life
    17. 19. The Tree of Life BioDiversity & InterConnection
    18. 20. The Garden of the Hesperides
    19. 21. Ladon the Dragon protects the Tree of the Golden Apples - the Tree of Life, or of Immortality - a wedding present from Gaia
    20. 22. Safeguards very precious, magical things
    21. 23. Inspired ancient & modern artists & our imagination because primal & very attractive The Garden of the Hesperides
    22. 24. <ul><li>Importance of Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Mythologies </li></ul><ul><li>How to Design Edible Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Forest Gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Storying - WoodLand of the Future </li></ul>M3.10 Forest Gardens an integral exploration
    23. 25. Forest Gardens/Edible Woodlands What are they? <ul><li>ecosystems that imitate the structure & functioning of a natural forest </li></ul><ul><li>but they provide us with food & other resources </li></ul><ul><li>edible tree, bush & herb species are selected </li></ul><ul><li>& other support species (wind protection, parasites, leguminous, mulch) </li></ul><ul><li>Design: aims to become self-maintaining & we will have to do very little maintenance </li></ul>
    24. 26. it is only by devolving responsability & self-regulating functions that a stable life system can evolve Policy of Responsibility (to devolve power) The role of a beneficial authority is to devolve function & responsability to life & to people; if it's successful, no more authority is needed. The role of a successful design is to create a system that self-regulates
    25. 27. Forest Structure (various levels) Perennial Plants Soil not tilled LOTS of Diversity Products: Fruits, Nuts, Leaves, Wood, Medicine, Beauty Little Maintenance Work High Total Yield Habitat for WildLife Edible Forest
    26. 28. Mulch Vegetable Cover Insects, toads, hedgehog, birds,… • Habitat • Food Plants • Water (ponds) • No cats (predators) Some inportant aspects of Edible Forests Covered Soil Niches for Fauna Aromatic Plants Polyculture
    27. 29. • ÁRBOLES ALTOS • ÁRBOLES BAJITOS • ARBUSTOS • MATAS • HIERBAS • TUBÉRCULOS, RAÍCES, SETAS • TREPADORAS <ul><li>• Tall Trees </li></ul><ul><li>• Lower Trees </li></ul><ul><li>• Shrubs </li></ul><ul><li>• Herbs </li></ul><ul><li>• Roots </li></ul><ul><li>• Soil Cover </li></ul><ul><li>• Climbers </li></ul>The 7 Layers: Form or Structure of Edible Forests
    28. 30. <ul><li>Each one is different (no recepies) </li></ul><ul><li>in general - use design principles & methodology: </li></ul><ul><li>Observe, observe, OBSERVE, esp. good complete &quot;client interviews&quot; (careful with who is the 'client/clients' in each case) </li></ul><ul><li>Accellerate Natural Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from / Imitate Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Start very Small </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental Design </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>Forest Gardens/Edible Woodlands How are they Created?
    29. 31. How does the Edible Forest illustrate these Principles? - Stacking - High-Lows - Cycling Energy - Unlimited Imagination - Diversity - Connexion Strategies
    30. 32. How it can start “ with whatever you've got” Observe the emergent Design or Deduction from Nature Establishing a system: an area is fenced & a mix of species is planted & protected from pasture animals. Only ducks, geese & some annual crops are harvested
    31. 33. Incremental Design The system evolves to a semi-mature stage. Chickens are introduced occasionally Observe, OBSERVE, observe adapting all the time, continuously
    32. 34. A mature system provides forrage, wood & animal products + is self-sufficient in production of mulch & fertilizer. A mature system requires maintenance more than an input of energy & has a variety of sellable yield. Only Maintenance
    33. 35. But there are many other ways... depending on what you've got when starting <ul><li>Eg.. </li></ul><ul><li>if you already have the canopy or the shrub layer </li></ul><ul><li>if you need to start by fertilizing the soil & it's appropiate to use chicken tractors </li></ul><ul><li>starting with guilds </li></ul><ul><li>small or large scales </li></ul><ul><li>start with a standard garden ... </li></ul>
    34. 36. In the old farm ... we focused on anti-erosio strategies * mini-max * an element (Event) fulfils multiple functions 1) news at the end of the day 2) food for goats 3) prune trees 4) observe finca / design together / client interview 5) sunset viewing 6) water storage 7) anti-erosion structures 8) wildlife refuges 9) wood stores (twigs) 10) physical excercise * problem is the solution goat rutine every day gets boring ... ... multifunction * fluctuations completely different situation to now ...
    35. 37. But in the new farm ... we focused on designing the gardens (food!) Creating a Garden of Eden starting with OUR particular conditions & characteristics
    36. 38. < The Vision > The Mission < Methodology Principles
    37. 39. < 2005 < Chicken Tractored 2006 Starting > > 2006 > Lots of food > < Sara designed & implemented the first phase of the garden 2010 2009 < now Semi-Forest
    38. 40. <ul><li>Importance of Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Mythologies </li></ul><ul><li>How to Design Edible Forests > Part 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Forest Gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Storying - WoodLand of the Future </li></ul>M3.10 Forest Gardens an integral exploration <ul><li>> Part 2 </li></ul>

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