PDC+++ Module 2 Class 10 Design Techniques II

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Which design techniques do I have at my disposal & how do I know when to apply them? PART 2 of 2

There are a great number of design methods & it is important to choose those that are best suited to your particular circumstances & objectives.

In this class we look at some of those methods & talk about the criteria to take into account for their use.

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  • . ¿Qué técnicas de diseño tengo a mi disposición y cómo se cuando aplicarlas? Parte 1     Existen multitud de métodos de diseño y es importante elegir el que mejor se ajuste a las circunstancias y objetivos. En está clase veremos algunos de esos métodos y hablaremos de los criterios para utilizarlos.
  • Approximate and true golden spirals: the green spiral is made from quarter-circles tangent to the interior of each square, while the red spiral is a golden spiral, a special type of logarithmic spiral . Overlapping portions appear yellow . The length of the side of a larger square to the next smaller square is in the golden ratio .
  • People see winter as a cold and gloomy time in nature. The days are short. Snow blankets the ground. Lakes and ponds freeze, and animals scurry to burrows to wait for spring. The rainbow of red, yellow and orange autumn leaves has been blown away by the wind turning trees into black skeletons that stretch bony fingers of branches into the sky. It seems like nature has disappeared. n eed caption But when I went on a winter hiking trip in the Catskill Mountains in New York, I noticed something strange about the shape of the tree branches. I thought trees were a mess of tangled branches, but I saw a pattern in the way the tree branches grew. I took photos of the branches on different types of trees, and the pattern became clearer. The branches seemed to have a spiral pattern that reached up into the sky. I had a hunch that the trees had a secret to tell about this shape. Investigating this secret led me on an expedition from the Catskill Mountains to the ancient Sanskrit poetry of India; from the 13th-century streets of Pisa, Italy, and a mysterious mathematical formula called the "divine number" to an 18th-century naturalist who saw this mathematical formula in nature; and, finally, to experimenting with the trees in my own backyard. My investigation asked the question of whether there is a secret formula in tree design and whether the purpose of the spiral pattern is to collect sunlight better. After doing research, I put together test tools, experiments and design models to investigate how trees collect sunlight. At the end of my research project, I put the pieces of this natural puzzle together, and I discovered the answer. But the best part was that I discovered a new way to increase the efficiency of solar panels at collecting sunlight! My investigation started with trying to understand the spiral pattern. I found the answer with a medieval mathematician and an 18th-century naturalist. In 1209 in Pisa, Leonardo of Pisano, also known as "Fibonacci," used his skills to answer a math puzzle about how fast rabbits could reproduce in pairs over a period of time. While counting his newborn rabbits, Fibonacci came up with a numerical sequence. Fibonacci used patterns in ancient Sanskrit poetry from India to make a sequence of numbers starting with zero (0) and one (1). Fibonacci added the last two numbers in the series together, and the sum became the next number in the sequence. The number sequence started to look like this: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34... . The number pattern had the formula Fn = Fn-1 + Fn-2 and became the Fibonacci sequence. But it seemed to have mystical powers! When the numbers in the sequence were put in ratios, the value of the ratio was the same as another number, φ, or "phi," which has a value of 1.618. The number "phi" is nicknamed the "divine number" (Posamentier). Scientists and naturalists have discovered the Fibonacci sequence appearing in many forms in nature, such as the shape of nautilus shells, the seeds of sunflowers, falcon flight patterns and galaxies flying through space. What's more mysterious is that the "divine" number equals your height divided by the height of your torso, and even weirder, the ratio of female bees to male bees in a typical hive! (Livio) The spiral o n tr ees showing the Fibonacci Sequence Ai d an studied le af arrangments Aidan measuring the spiral patt e r n In 1754, a n a tu ra l ist named Charles Bonnet obs erved that pl a n ts sprout branches and leaves in a pattern, c al led phyllotaxis. Bonnet saw that t ree branches and leaves had a mathematical spiral pattern that could be shown as a fraction. The amazing thing is that the mathematical fractions were the same numbers as the Fibonacci sequence! On the oak tree, the Fibonacci fraction is 2/5, which means that the spiral takes five branches to spiral two times around the trunk to complete one pattern. Other trees with the Fibonacci leaf arrangement are the elm tree (1/2); the beech (1/3); the willow (3/8) and the almond tree (5/13) (Livio, Adler). I now had my first piece of the puzzle but it did not answer the question, Why do trees have this pattern? I had the next mystery to solve. I designed experiments that attacked this question, but first I had to do field tests to understand the spiral pattern. I built a test tool to measure the spiral pattern of different species of trees. I took a clear plastic tube and attached two circle protractors that could be rotated up and down the tube. When I put a test branch in the tube, I aligned the zero degree mark on one compass to match up with the first offshoot branch. I then moved and rotated the second compass up to the next branch spot. The second compass measured the angle between the two spots. I recorded the measurement and then moved up the branch step-by-step. I collected samples of branches that fell to the ground from different trees, and I made measurements. My results confirmed that the Fibonacci sequence was behind the pattern. But the question of why remained. I knew that branches and leaves collected sunlight for photosynthesis, so my next experiments investigated if the Fibonacci pattern helped. I needed a way to measure and compare the amount of sunlight collected by the pattern. I came up with the idea that I could copy the pattern of branches and leaves with solar panels and compare it with another pattern. Diagram of tree model that Aidan made with his computer. I designed and built my own test model, copying the Fibonacci pattern of a n oak tree. I studied my results with the compass tool a nd figured out the bran c h angles. The pattern was about 137 degrees and the Fibona cci sequence was 2/5. Then I built a model using this pattern from PVC tubing. In place of leaves, I used PV solar panels hooked up in series that produced up to 1/2 volt, so the peak output of the model was 5 volts. The entire design copied the pattern of an oak tree as closely as possible. Aidan building his solar "tree" collector The flat-panel collector I needed to compare the tree design pattern's performance. I made a second model that was based on how man-made solar p a nel arrays are designed. The second model was a flat-panel array that was mounted a t 45 degrees. It had the s ame type and number of PV s o la r panels as the tree design, and the same peak voltage. My idea was to track how much sunlight each model collected under th e s ame conditions by watchi ng how much voltage each model made. I measured the performance of each model with a data logger. This recorded the voltage that each model made over a period of time. The data logger could download the measurements to a computer, and I could see the results in graphs. The two models collecting sunlight Graph: Tree Design Graph: Standard Solar Winter test showing energy collection of the tree and the flat-panel collector Graph comparing the two solar collector designs A typical solar collector I set the two model s in the same location in my backyar d facing the southern sky and measu r e d their output ove r a couple of month s . I moved the test loc ation around to vary t h e conditions. The sunlight conditions were also i m po rtant. I started my measure ments i n October and tested my models through December. At that time of year th e winter solstice was coming, and the Sun was mov ing in t o a lower declination i n the sky. The amo u nt of sunshine was short e ni ng. So I was testing the Fibonacci pattern under the most difficult circumstances for coll ecting sunlight. I compared my results on graphs, and they were interesting! The Fibonacci tree design performed better than the flat-panel mode l . The tree design made 20% more electricity and c ollected 2 1/2 more hours of sunlight during the day. But the most interesting results were in December, when the Sun was at its lowest point in the sky. The tree design made 50% more electricity, and the collection time of sunlight was up to 50% longer! I had my first evidence that the Fibonacci pattern helped to collect more sunlight. But now I had to go back and figure out why it worked better. I also began to think that I might have found a new way to use nature to make solar panels work better. I learned that making power from the Sun is not easy. The photovoltaic ("PV") array is the way to do it. A photovoltaic array is a linked collection of multiple solar cells. Making electricity requires as much sunlight as possible. At high noon on a cloudless day at the equator, the power of the Sun is about 1 kilowatt per square meter at the Earth's surface (Komp). Sounds easy to catch some rays, right? But the Sun doesn't stand still. It moves through the sky, and the angle of its rays in regions outside the equator change with the seasons. This makes collecting sunlight tricky for PV arrays. Some PV arrays use tracking systems to keep the panels pointing at the Sun, but these are expensive and need maintenance. So most PV arrays use fixed mounts that face south (or north if you are below the equator). Fixed mounts have other problems. When a PV array is shaded by another object, like a tree or a house, the solar panels get backed up with electrons like cars in a traffic jam, and the current drops. Dirt, rain, snow and changes in temperature can also hurt electricity production by as much as half! (Komp) I began to see how nature beat this problem. Collecting sunlight is key to the survival of a tree. Leaves are the solar panels of trees, collecting sunlight for photosynthesis. Collecting the most sunlight is the difference between life and death. Trees in a forest are competing with other trees and plants for sunlight, and even each branch and leaf on a tree are competing with each other for sunlight. Evolution chose the Fibonacci pattern to help trees track the Sun moving in the sky and to collect the most sunlight even in the thickest forest. I saw patterns that showed that the tree design avoided the problem of shade from other objects. Electricity dropped in the flat-panel array when shade fell on it. But the tree design kept making electricity under the same conditions. The Fibonacci pattern allowed some solar panels to collect sunlight even if others were in shade. Plus I observed that the Fibonacci pattern helped the branches and leaves on a tree to avoid shading each other. My conclusions suggest that the Fibonacci pattern in trees makes an evolutionary difference. This is probably why the Fibonacci pattern is found in deciduous trees living in higher latitudes. The Fibonacci pattern gives plants like the oak tree a competitive edge while collecting sunlight when the Sun moves through the sky. My investigation has created more questions to answer. Why are there different Fibonacci patterns among trees? Is one pattern more efficient than another? More testing of other types of trees is needed. I am testing different Fibonacci patterns now. I am improving my tree design model to see if it could be a new way of making panel arrays. My most recent tries with a bigger test model were successful. The tree design takes up less room than flat-panel arrays and works in spots that don't have a full southern view. It collects more sunlight in winter. Shade and bad weather like snow don't hurt it because the panels are not flat. It even looks nicer because it looks like a tree. A design like this may work better in urban areas where space and direct sunlight can be hard to find. But the best part of what I learned was that even in the darkest days of winter, nature is still trying to tell us its secrets!
  • fibonacci series solar panels http://universitam.com/academicos/?p=11155
  • A Systems Engineering solution begins by accurately identifying the needs, goals, and objectives of your project. Some definitions "An interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems" [6] — INCOSE handbook, 2004. "System engineering is a robust approach to the design, creation, and operation of systems. In simple terms, the approach consists of identification and quantification of system goals, creation of alternative system design concepts, performance of design trades, selection and implementation of the best design, verification that the design is properly built and integrated, and post-implementation assessment of how well the system meets (or met) the goals." [7] — NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, 1995. "The Art and Science of creating effective systems, using whole system, whole life principles" OR "The Art and Science of creating optimal solution systems to complex issues and problems" [8] — Derek Hitchins, Prof. of Systems Engineering, former president of INCOSE (UK), 2007. "The concept from the engineering standpoint is the evolution of the engineering scientist, i.e., the scientific generalist who maintains a broad outlook. The method is that of the team approach. On large-scale-system problems, teams of scientists and engineers, generalists as well as specialists, exert their joint efforts to find a solution and physically realize it...The technique has been variously called the systems approach or the team development method." [9] — Harry H. Goode & Robert E. Machol, 1957. "The systems engineering method recognizes each system is an integrated whole even though composed of diverse, specialized structures and sub-functions. It further recognizes that any system has a number of objectives and that the balance between them may differ widely from system to system. The methods seek to optimize the overall system functions according to the weighted objectives and to achieve maximum compatibility of its parts." [10] — Systems Engineering Tools by Harold Chestnut, 1965.
  • A Systems Engineering solution begins by accurately identifying the needs, goals, and objectives of your project.
  • . ¿Qué técnicas de diseño tengo a mi disposición y cómo se cuando aplicarlas? Parte 1     Existen multitud de métodos de diseño y es importante elegir el que mejor se ajuste a las circunstancias y objetivos. En está clase veremos algunos de esos métodos y hablaremos de los criterios para utilizarlos.
  • PDC+++ Module 2 Class 10 Design Techniques II

    1. 1. Class 2.10 of the PDC+++ Which design techniques do I have at my disposal & how do I know when to apply them? PART 2 of 2 There are a great number of design methods & it is important to choose those that are best suited to your particular circumstances & objectives. In this class we look at some of those methods & talk about the criteria to take into account for their use.
    2. 2. Class2.10 PDC+++ PDC+++ PDC+++ PDC+++ Application of Principles Natural Patterns Guild Creation Systems Engineering Political Changes Holocracy Which design techniques do I have at my disposal & how do I know when to apply them?
    3. 3. Class2.10 PDC+++ Application of Principles Natural Patterns Guild Creation Systems Engineering Political Changes Holocracy Which design techniques do I have at my disposal & how do I know when to apply them?
    4. 4. PRINCIPLES Ecology taken from the natural sciences: biology, chemistry, physics, etc. Attitude from our experience, philosophy, psychology, common sense, etc. Design from engineering, technical design architecture, IT, cybernetics, etc. M1 M3 M2
    5. 5. Mini-Max minimum effort For maximum yield
    6. 6. Biological resources Local Appropriate Technology Care for the Earth
    7. 8. CYCLING ENERGY Schematic view of the energy flowing through the valley system SOURCE DRAIN
    8. 9. SOURCE DRAIN
    9. 11. Class2.10 PDC+++ Application of Principles Natural Patterns Guild Creation Systems Engineering Political Changes Holocracy Which design techniques do I have at my disposal & how do I know when to apply them?
    10. 12. Natural Patterns See videos in E-book: www. PermaCultureScience.org
    11. 13. Fibonacci Series: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34 , etc. ... The red one is the aural spiral
    12. 14. SPIRALS
    13. 16. Always ask: What CAUSES this pattern? How is it formed?
    14. 17. Faster Slower
    15. 19. Strength Patterns
    16. 20. All are Growth Patterns
    17. 21. & Mini-Max Patterns
    18. 22. Aidan Dwyer 13 years New York
    19. 23. Experimental model With control model
    20. 26. FRACTALS
    21. 28. The Snowflake Man
    22. 30. FRACTALS
    23. 32. FRACTALS
    24. 33. FRACTALS
    25. 35. ECKMAN SPIRALS
    26. 36. VON KARMAN TRACES (mushroom shaped)
    27. 42. mushroom shape
    28. 44. CONCENTRIC CIRCLES
    29. 49. MANDALAS
    30. 53. RAMIFICATION FROM THE CENTER
    31. 54. DENDRITIC SHAPES
    32. 61. OTHER PATTERNS
    33. 65. Applying natural patterns in the Design
    34. 70. Pond with watercress parsley coriander thyme tarragon sage oregano rosemary violets chamomile chives parsley mint calendula transversal section AA
    35. 76. Investigation Challenge: Why is this shape so strong?
    36. 77. circle: max area min perimeter Sphere: max volume min surface
    37. 78. Class2.10 PDC+++ Application of Principles Natural Patterns Guild Creation Systems Engineering Political Changes Holocracy Which design techniques do I have at my disposal & how do I know when to apply them?
    38. 79. Writes Talks Timer Support Groups
    39. 80. Guilds in Design A harmonious assembly of species around a central element (plant or animal) This assembly acts to assist health, aid our work in management, or buffer adverse environmental effects
    40. 81. Controlling pests, disease, hazards Save - energy accumulator Mimic the behavior and benefit of natural cycles-processes-patterns cause mutual benefits, create balance Yield without extra inputs Create a healthy habitat Encourage natural succession USES BENEFITS SYNERGIES
    41. 82. Crop Associations One plant attract other plant's predators Help with pest control Provide Nutrients Creating open soil surface conditions or providing mulch Reduce roots competition Provide physical shelter from Frost, sunburn, wind... To Facilitate Harvest
    42. 83. Some Associations GARLIC : prevents parasites and fungal diseases in all plants - don't use with legumes and cabbage. GARLIC, ONION or LEEK with CARROT: against the flies of both CORN with BEANS and CUCURBITS (not squash) against aphids. The beans can climb the maize & cucurbits grow below to keep weeds at bay. Although that may attract mildew. CARROTS WITH PEAS : The secretion of the roots of the first promotes the growth of the latter. CABBAGE with TOMATOES : Tomatoes mask the smell of cabbage and vice versa, preventing pests of both. Also the shape of cabbage can blend in with the tomatoes.
    43. 84. POTATOES benefit from a previous BEANS rotation to prevent fungal diseases. Comfrey also does very well around. SALAD with CELERY : lettuce in summer will benefit from the shadows & their roots do not compete for nutrients. CABBAGES & other BRASSICA with CLOVER : the latter repels cabbage butterfly BORAGE goes well with TOMATOES, ZUCCHINI and STRAWBERRY BASIL repels insects and goes well with TOMATOES and PEPPERS
    44. 86. Some Antagonists GARLIC, ONIONS, LEEKS go very poorly with LEGUMES because the first interfere with the fixing of nitrogen of the latter SUNFLOWER - Reduce the production of nearby plants, but also attract pest predators + changes the shape of the garden, misleading pests As a general rule do not plant species of the same family together, as they are affected by the same pests.
    45. 88. Physical Complementarity • Some plants like sunshine and other a bit of shadow in Summer. Lettuce & carrots can be planted with some plants that give them some shadow. • There are plants with deep roots and others with more superficial ones, these can be combined. Eg. TOMATOES & LETTUCES. • Plants with different maturation times can also be combined. Eg. CARROTS AND RADISHES. • Some insects recognize plants by their silhouette or odor and these can be camouflaged by other plants
    46. 89. Animal Associations GROUND FORAGERS FOR CLEARING THE ORCHARDS HENS DUCKS THAT CONTROL MOLLUSK POPULATION INSECTIVORES (birds)
    47. 91. FUKUOKA CLAY PELLETS • CLAY • TREE SEEDS • SUPPORT SEEDS • COMPOST
    48. 92. Class2.10 PDC+++ Application of Principles Natural Patterns Guild Creation Systems Engineering Political Changes Holocracy Which design techniques do I have at my disposal & how do I know when to apply them?
    49. 93. Systems Engineering Design methods Needs Goals Objectives
    50. 95. Class2.10 PDC+++ PDC+++ PDC+++ PDC+++ Application of Principles Natural Patterns Guild Creation Systems Engineering Political Changes Holocracy Which design techniques do I have at my disposal & how do I know when to apply them?
    51. 96. being designed ... Inspired by "Deep Green Resistance" Derreck Jensen Lierre Keith Aric MacBay
    52. 97. Observe carefully the historical patterns "If you don't know your history you're condemned to repeat it" Arnold J. Toynbee (british historian) Deduction from Nature Natural Patterns Natural Successions Pattern Language Apply Self-Regulation & Accept Feedback Which factors worked & did NOT work in all resistance movements to date?
    53. 98. Class2.10 PDC+++ PDC+++ PDC+++ PDC+++ Application of Principles Natural Patterns Guild Creation Systems Engineering Political Changes Holocracy Which design techniques do I have at my disposal & how do I know when to apply them?
    54. 99. Holacracy = self-organized teams (circles) structured in a holarchy (nested hierarchy) of different levels. Each circle defines & assigns roles needed to achieve aims Different levels are connected by a double-link They look for a “workable” decision at any one time Dynamic steering = feedback and continuous self-regulation, any decision can be revised at any time Common Vision
    55. 106. ... and methods of your own invention ... Design Methods
    56. 107. We want to see your presentation!! With your Process + your conclusions Sketches PMIs Motivation Vision & Mission Resources 2 Design Projects You have 15 minutes for your presentation Have option of asking for direct feedback or not Necessary to finish M2
    57. 108. Class 2.10 of the PDC+++ Which design techniques do I have at my disposal & how do I know when to apply them? PART 2 of 2 There are a great number of design methods & it is important to choose those that are best suited to your particular circumstances & objectives. In this class we look at some of those methods & talk about the criteria to take into account for their use.

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