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PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy
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PDC+++ Module 4 Class 3 Energy

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What are the fundamental Energy Laws? …

What are the fundamental Energy Laws?

There are some basic energy laws the ignorance of which lead us to make very big & avoidable mistakes, as global as peak oil or as individual as believing our salvation will come from 'free energy'. Not understanding the basic laws that govern energy also lead us to staying permanently confused & therefore open to being manipulated with regards to any new technology or 'new miracle fuel' that is proposed. No progress can be made in terms of future energy choices if the majority of the population cannot distinguish myth from science in these important areas, and in this class we aim to firmly lay the foundations for understanding energy, which are also the foundation of any good sustainable design.

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  • Module 4. Despite the fact that many 'Technological Improvements' haven't managed to improve the quality of life for the majority of people, but have brought more problems & pollution, we still keep expecting the arrival of a more modern technology, perhaps more ecological, that will restore & reverse the damage made.    In fact, it is possible, but not without having more citizens with a better understanding & a wider vision of what technology is, & who also understand some basic science necessary in order to be able to think for ourselves on these subjects.
  • What is Energy? (César) & About Nature's Laws (Stella)The Zeroth Law: About Temperature >> César The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation >>> StellaThe Second Law: Entropy always Increases >>> CésarThe Fourth Law: The Power Principle >> Stella
  • What is Energy? (César) & About Nature's Laws (Stella)The Zeroth Law: About Temperature >> César The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation >>> StellaThe Second Law: Entropy always Increases >>> CésarThe Fourth Law: The Power Principle >> Stella
  • A theory does not change into a scientific law with the accumulation of new or better evidence. A theory will always remain a theory; a law will always remain a law.[
  • Thermal energy , thermal energy in transit is called heat Chemical ener gy El ectric energy R adiant energy , t he energy of el ectromagnetic ra diation Nuclea r energy Magnetic energy Elast ic energy Sound energy Me chanical energy Luminous e nergy Mass ( E= mc² )
  • Thermal energy , thermal energy in transit is called heat Chemical ener gy El ectric energy R adiant energy , t he energy of el ectromagnetic ra diation Nuclea r energy Magnetic energy Elast ic energy Sound energy Me chanical energy Luminous e nergy Mass ( E= mc² )
  • What is Energy? (César) & About Nature's Laws (Stella)The Zeroth Law: About Temperature >> César The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation >>> StellaThe Second Law: Entropy always Increases >>> CésarThe Fourth Law: The Power Principle >> Stella
  • A theory does not change into a scientific law with the accumulation of new or better evidence. A theory will always remain a theory; a law will always remain a law.[
  • A theory does not change into a scientific law with the accumulation of new or better evidence. A theory will always remain a theory; a law will always remain a law.[
  • What is Energy? (César) & About Nature's Laws (Stella)The Zeroth Law: About Temperature >> César The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation >>> StellaThe Second Law: Entropy always Increases >>> CésarThe Fourth Law: The Power Principle >> Stella
  • The first law of thermodynamics may be expressed by several forms of the fundamental thermodynamic r elation for a closed system: Incre ase in internal energy of a system = heat supplied to the system - work done by the system . U = Q - W For a thermodynamic cycle , the net heat supplied to the system equa ls the net work don e by the system. More specifi call y, the First Law encompasses the following thre e principles: The law of conservation of energy This states that energy can be neither created nor des troyed. However, energy can chang e forms, and energy can flow from one place to another. The total energy of an isolated system remains the same. The flow of heat is a form of energy transfer. (In other words, a quantity of heat that flows from a hot object to a cold object can be e xpressed as an amount of energy being transferred from the hot object to the cold object.) Performing work is a form of energy transfer. (For example, when a machine lifts a heavy object upwards, some energy is transferred from the machine to the object. The object acquires its energy in the form of gravitational potential energy in this example.) Combining these three principles gives the first law of thermodynamics
  • Thermal energy , thermal energy in transit is called heat Chemical ener gy El ectric energy R adiant energy , t he energy of el ectromagnetic ra diation Nuclea r energy Magnetic energy Elast ic energy Sound energy Me chanical energy Luminous e nergy Mass ( E= mc² )
  • so technology is, quite literally, the 'stuff of life'!   Basics Basic s of Cells Diff erent Cell Types Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells - Eukaryote Examples Se arch | Advanced     Go! Glossary Website Internet Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells (f rom the Greek meaning truly nuclear) comprise all of the life kingdoms except monera. They can be easily distinguished through a membrane-bound nucleus. Diagram of an animal cell. Eukaryotic cells also contain many internal membrane-bound structures called organelles. These organelles such as the mitochondrion or chloroplast serve to perform metabolic functions and energy conversion. Other organelles like intracellular filaments provide structural support and cellular motility. The function of individual organelles is described in detail in the Cell Anatomy Section .
  • First law of thermodynamics : Heat and work are forms of energy transfer. While energy is invariably conser ved , the internal energy of a closed system changes as heat and work are transferred in or out of it. Equivalently, perpetual motion machines of the first kind are impossibl e.
  • What is Energy? (César) & About Nature's Laws (Stella)The Zeroth Law: About Temperature >> César The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation >>> StellaThe Second Law: Entropy always Increases >>> CésarThe Fourth Law: The Power Principle >> Stella
  • The first law of thermodynamics may be expressed by several forms of the fundamental thermodynamic r elation for a closed system: Incre ase in internal energy of a system = heat supplied to the system - work done by the system . U = Q - W For a thermodynamic cycle , the net heat supplied to the system equa ls the net work don e by the system. More specifi call y, the First Law encompasses the following thre e principles: The law of conservation of energy This states that energy can be neither created nor des troyed. However, energy can chang e forms, and energy can flow from one place to another. The total energy of an isolated system remains the same. The flow of heat is a form of energy transfer. (In other words, a quantity of heat that flows from a hot object to a cold object can be e xpressed as an amount of energy being transferred from the hot object to the cold object.) Performing work is a form of energy transfer. (For example, when a machine lifts a heavy object upwards, some energy is transferred from the machine to the object. The object acquires its energy in the form of gravitational potential energy in this example.) Combining these three principles gives the first law of thermodynamics
  • What is Energy? (César) & About Nature's Laws (Stella)The Zeroth Law: About Temperature >> César The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation >>> StellaThe Second Law: Entropy always Increases >>> CésarThe Fourth Law: The Power Principle >> Stella
  • A perpetual motion machine of the first kind produces work without the input of ener gy . It thus violates the first law of thermodynamics: the law of con servation of energy .
  • A perpetual motion machine of the second kind is a machine which spontaneously converts thermal energy into mechanical work. When the thermal energy is equivalent to the work done, this does not violate the law of conservation of energy. However it does violate the more subtle second law of thermodynamics (see also entropy ). The signature of a perpetual motion machine of the second kind is that there is only one heat reservoir involved, which is being spontaneously cooled without involving a transfer of heat to a cooler reservoir. This conversion of heat into useful work, without any side effect, is impossible, according to the second law of thermodynamics.
  • The patent office never knowingly grants patents for perpetual motion, but some have slipped by under other titles. John Sutliff of Huntsville, Missouri received a patent in 1882 for what was simply titled “Motor”. It had a water tank, a lever, a bulb filled with air and several moving parts but no fuel or other source of power (U.S. patent 257,103).
  • What is Energy? (César) & About Nature's Laws (Stella)The Zeroth Law: About Temperature >> César The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation >>> StellaThe Second Law: Entropy always Increases >>> CésarThe Fourth Law: The Power Principle >> Stella
  • During self-organization, systems are guided by the Maximum Empower Principle… Self-organization tends to develop network connections that use energies in feedback actions to aid the process of getting more resources or using them more efficiently...
  • During self-organization, systems are guided by the Maximum Empower Principle… Self-organization tends to develop network connections that use energies in feedback actions to aid the process of getting more resources or using them more efficiently...
  • & i got too depressed + run out of space to add 5 & 6 in more detail ... This is how this is NOT A MATTER OF 'OPINION' BUT OF SCIENCE ...
  • & i got too depressed + run out of space to add 5 & 6 in more detail ...
  • What is Energy? (César) & About Nature's Laws (Stella)The Zeroth Law: About Temperature >> César The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation >>> StellaThe Second Law: Entropy always Increases >>> CésarThe Fourth Law: The Power Principle >> Stella
  • Transcript

    • 1. + Module 4 of the PDC+++ PDC+ + Energy & EcoTechnology We dedicate this Module to the Mother &Class Father of Integral Permaculture: Dana Meadows & Howard Odum, two original M4.3 pioneers who helped humanity makeEnergy great strides in understanding systemic thinking, in all four quadrants. What are the fundamental Energy Laws? * There are some basic energy laws the ignorance of which lead us to make very big & avoidable mistakes, as global as peak oil or as individual as believing our salvation will come from free energy. * Not understanding the basic laws that govern energy also lead us to staying permanently confused & therefore open to being manipulated with regards to any new technology or new miracle fuel that is proposed. * No progress can be made in terms of future energy choices if the majority of the population cannot distinguish myth from science in these important areas, and in this class we aim to firmly lay the foundations for understanding energy, which are also the foundation of any good sustainable design.
    • 2. M4.3 Energy * What are theFundamental Energy Laws? What is Energy? & About Natures Laws The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation The Second Law: Entropy always Increases The dream of perpetual motion The Fourth Law: The Power Principle
    • 3. M4.3 Energy * What are theFundamental Energy Laws? What is Energy? & About Natures Laws The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation The Second Law: Entropy always Increases The dream of perpetual motion The Fourth Law: The Power Principle
    • 4. Energy Energy Transformation ProcessThe ability to do work…and WORK is defined as any useful energy transformationone type of energy is transformed into another kind of energy, with some being turned into a non-usable form (no longer has the potential to do further work)
    • 5. WORK 1Joule = 1 Newton x 1 meter 1J= 1N x m = (kg x m/seg2) x m
    • 6. DistinguishThere are two between Energybasic FORMS SOURCES of energy: & FORMS of Potential Energy & Kinetic + mixtures of • Thermal energy, thermal energy the two in transit is called heat • Chemical energy • Electric energy • Radiant energy, the energy of electromagnetic radiation • Nuclear energy • Magnetic energy • Elastic energy • Sound energy • Mechanical energy • Luminous energy • Mass (E=mc²)
    • 7. energy SOURCES • Solar energy • Wind energy • Bio energy • Geothermal energy • Tidal energy FORMS of energy • Nuclear energy • Hydroelectric energy • Fossil fuels • Thermal energy • Chemical energy • Electric energy • Radiant energy • Nuclear energy Potential • Magnetic energy & Kinetic • Elastic energy • Sound energy In Class 4.6 we will go deeper into + mixtures • Mechanicalrenewable sources of energy energy • Luminous energy • Mass (E=mc²)
    • 8. M4.3 Energy * What are theFundamental Energy Laws? What is Energy? & About Natures Laws The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation The Second Law: Entropy always Increases The dream of perpetual motion The Fourth Law: The Power Principle
    • 9. The Laws of NatureLaws or Principles are rules - & the rules orLaws of Nature are not negotiableLike Theories or Models, Laws or Principlescan can be used to predict the behavior of thenatural world.But Theories explain how something works,whereas Laws say what always happensLaws RULE
    • 10. The Energy LawsThe 3 Laws of ThermodynamicsThe Maximum Power Principle (4th Law)Hierarchically Organized Systems (5th Law)The 4th & 5th are still only Proposals! (byOdum :)
    • 11. M4.3 Energy * What are theFundamental Energy Laws? What is Energy? & About Natures Laws The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation The Second Law: Entropy always Increases The dream of perpetual motion The Fourth Law: The Power Principle
    • 12. 1st Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed
    • 13. 1st Law: Energy cannot be created or destroyed it just changes from one form to another Eg.someone riding a bicycle chemical kinetic(potential) energy energy heat
    • 14. 1st Law: Energy cannot be created or destroyed But it CAN & does change from one form to another (what Life is all about) & the things that do this changing are what we call "technologies"
    • 15. 1st Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyedFirst law of thermodynamics put in more scientific terms (wikipedia):Heat and work are forms of energy transfer.While energy is invariably conserved,the internal energy of a closed system changesas heat and work are transferred in or out of it.Equivalently, perpetual motion machines of the first kind are impossible.
    • 16. M4.3 Energy * What are theFundamental Energy Laws? What is Energy? & About Natures Laws The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation The Second Law: Entropy always Increases The dream of perpetual motion The Fourth Law: The Power Principle
    • 17. 2nd Law of ThermodynamicsIn all real energy transformations, some energyloses its ability to do workWe sometimes speak loosely of energy Transformationbeing “used up” whereas what is really 1J St oragemeant is that the potential for doingwork is consumed, while the calories of 100 J 4Jenergy inflows and outflowing are the 3Jsame. 97 J 100 J
    • 18. 2nd Law: Entropy increases with time.Entropy, or disorder of the system, is the measure ofthe amount of energy not able to do work.
    • 19. Most processes to obtain Energyhave a lot of Entropy associatedwith them
    • 20. M4.3 Energy * What are theFundamental Energy Laws? What is Energy? & About Natures Laws The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation The Second Law: Entropy always Increases The dream of perpetual motion The Fourth Law: The Power Principle
    • 21. Perpetual Motionis motion that continues indefinitely without anyexternal source of energy;impossible in practice because of friction.Can also be described as ...the motion of a hypothetical machine which,once activated, would run forever, unless subject toan external force or to wear. & they have a very long history!There is a scientific consensus that perpetual motionin an isolated system would violate the first &/or Perpetual machine by Villard de Honnecourt, ca. 1230second law of thermodynamics.
    • 22. As we search for new energy sources, were often faced with "miracle cure" proposals & it really helps to know about Vectors +know how to apply some basic science Magnetic to Kinetic?
    • 23. It seems that theyfascinate theGreen/Purple meme One characteristic of the mean green meme is an incapacity to understand symmetry (& to reject science): It wants Equality but doesnt really want to Work for it, neither does it Value the Effort that was needed to create all its privileges ("know the price of everything & the value of nothing")
    • 24. Perpetual Motion Machine of the First KindThe perpetual machines of the first kind wouldviolate the first law of thermodynamics, the lawof conservation of energy.So, they would produce more energy than whatthey consume, working eternally once switchedon.Many of these designs use magnets as freeenergy sources, & assume there is no friction.Therefore, although these inventions cannotwork eternally, they are sometimes able to workby themselves for long times, as long as they arenot required to do any work on theirenvironment.
    • 25. Perpetual Motion Machine of the Second KindThe perpetual machine of the secondkind is one which spontaneously Look for this PATTERNconverts thermal energy into in some of the solutions (or proposals -mechanical work. or causes?) of the crisis ...The signature of a perpetual motionmachine of the second kind is thatthere is only one heat reservoirinvolved, which is beingspontaneously cooled withoutinvolving a transfer of heat to a coolerreservoir.This conversion of heat into usefulwork, without side effect, isimpossible, according to the secondlaw of thermodynamics.
    • 26. Einstein worked as a Patents Office Clerk & often was faced with the Eternal Engine proposals: humans trying to get something out of nothing Applying the energy laws provided him with lots of spare time Short-handfor the Laws of Thermo- dynamics: "theres no free lunch in Nature"
    • 27. M4.3 Energy * What are theFundamental Energy Laws? What is Energy? & About Natures Laws The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation The Second Law: Entropy always Increases The dream of perpetual motion The Fourth Law: The Power Principle
    • 28. 4th Law of Thermodynamics The Maximum Empower PrincipleSelf-organizationtends to develop network connectionsthat use energies in feedback actionsto aid the process ofgetting more resourcesor using them more efficiently...
    • 29. 4th Law of Thermodynamics The Maximum Empower Principle“In time,through the process of trial and error,complex patterns of structure and processeshave evolved...the successful ones survivingbecause they use materials and energies wellin their own maintenance,and compete well with other patternsthat chance interposes.” H.T. Odum
    • 30. Something Most of our Technologies achieve withOppression (not with Good Design) & this Efficiency network Results in
    • 31. 4th Law of Thermodynamics The Maximum Empower Principle <<< Can you figure out what this diagram might represent by the next class? This is HD Odums workSystems maximize power by: & Class 4.3 is all about him1) developing storages of high-quality energy,2) feeding back work from storages to increase inflows,3) recycling materials as needed,4) organizing control mechanisms that keep the system adapted and stable,5) setting up exchanges for needed materials,6) Contributing work to the next larger system >> 5th Law: All Systems are organized hierarchically
    • 32. Consumers MINIMIZE power (to the Transition) by:1) SCATTERING storages of high-quality energy, "Consumerism" =2) feeding back work from storages to DECREASE inflows,3) NOT recycling materials as needed,4) are PART OF the organizing control mechanisms that The Maximumkeep The System adapted and stable, Dis-Empowering5) DESTROY exchanges for needed materials, Principle6) Contribute their work to the DESTRUCTO-system (max consumption for min overall benefit)Example of the (zillions of ..) Eco-Student Travelers1) give their valuable money to transport multinationals, instead of to Transition Projects2) transition projects are starved of money (high-quality energy) & over-supplied with volunteeringoffers (usually very low-quality energy: non-skilled work that requires large amounts of professional work to superviseif it is to be effective = decrease inflows)3) there is often no recycling even of information/knowledge/discoveries (from one project to another, eg.easily achievable by keeping good portfolios but requires climbing out of the me, me, me mentality to a genuine wemind-set)4) thus is this type of eco-tourism turned into the arms of mass-distraction & The System is fedby the very people who want to learn to change it, whilst energy is drained from the Transition
    • 33. Consumers MINIMIZE power (to the Transition) by:1) SCATTERING storages of high-quality energy, "Consumerism" =2) feeding back work from storages to DECREASE inflows,3) NOT recycling materials as needed,4) are PART OF the organizing control mechanisms that The Maximumkeep The System adapted and stable, Dis-Empowering Principle5) DESTROY exchanges for needed materials, or6) Contribute their work to the DESTRUCTO-system Minimum Power PrincipleCan you think of some othertypical green examples?"running off to the bush" to set up myown sustainable project "being self-sufficient": making all our own bread, shoes, etc. from raw materials
    • 34. more on this in ... M4.3 Howard Odum & Module 5 on EcoEconomies! Energy Laws ARE EcoEconomy Laws
    • 35. M4.3 Energy * What are theFundamental Energy Laws? What is Energy? & About Natures Laws The first Law: No Energy Destruction or Creation The Second Law: Entropy always Increases The dream of perpetual motion The Fourth Law: The Power Principle

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