Malaysian Education System


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Malaysian Education System

  2. 2. ABOUT MALAYSIA Federation of Malaysia consists of :  Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) Location:  Between 2deg – 7deg north of Equator  South East Asia  Borders Thailand (North), Singapore (South), Indonesia (South) and Philippines (East) Area:  127,355 sq miles (329,847 km²) Population:  29,768, 915  Malay 50.4%  Chinese 23.7%  Indigenous 11%  Indian 7.1%, others 7.8% (2004 est.)
  3. 3. Major Cities:  KUALA LUMPUR (capital) 1.493 million  Penang(Georgetown)  Johor Bahru  Ipoh Languages:  Bahasa Malaysia (official)  English  Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan)  Tamil (Indian) Literacy:  definition: age 15 and over can read and write  93.1% literacy rate  School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)  13 years  Education Expenditure:  5.1% of GDP ABOUT MALAYSIA
  4. 4. ABOUT MALAYSIA Government Type:  Constitutional Monarchy  Nominally headed by paramount ruler (commonly referred to as the king) and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house Independence:  31 August 1957 (from the UK) Economy:  Malaysia, a middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Industries:  Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics and semi-conductors, timber processing  Sabah - logging, petroleum and natural gas production;  Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum and natural gas production, logging
  5. 5. EARLY EDUCATION  Prior to British colonization, education was informal  Limited to acquiring survival skills COLONIZATION  PORTUGUESE (1511-1641) - Limited impact on Education  DUTCH (1641-1824) - NO impact on Education  BRITISH (1824-1942 and 1945-1957)  Significant influence on development of education  Development of English, Malay, Chinese, Tamil and religious education  Divide and Rule - Did not promote ethnic unity  JAPANESE  Significant influence on relationship between ethnic groups  School curriculum promoted Japanese culture and values
  6. 6. ENGLISH SCHOOLS – PRE JAPANESE OCCUPATION  Establishment of English schools in Malaya was led by the British government, individuals and Christian missionaries.  Opportunity to spread Christianity among the locals.  Curriculum emphasized preparing students for the Cambridge Overseas School Certificate  Opportunity to further their education at the diploma level at Kings Edward Medical College VII (1912) in Singapore, Raffles College (1919) or at degree level at the University of England  Earliest schools established were the Penang Free School (1816) in Pulau Pinang, Victoria Institution (1893) and St. John’s Institution (1893)in Kuala Lumpur, as well as the Methodist Boys’ School (1897) in Selangor.  The Malay College Kuala Kangsar (MCKK) was founded in 1905 to cater for Malay aristocrats.
  7. 7. VERNACULAR MALAY SCHOOLS – PRE JAPANESE OCCUPATION British Government set up Malay schools to teach Malay children to become better farmers than their parents. The curriculum emphasized on reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and physical education  The first Malay school was established in 1855 in Gelugur, Penang  The first Malay Girls’ School in Teluk Belanga also in Penang
  8. 8. VERNACULAR CHINESE SCHOOLS – PRE JAPANESE OCCUPATION The Chinese were brought to Malaya from mainland China to work at the tin mines in urban areas. The curriculum, textbooks and teachers were brought in from China The first Chinese school was set up in Malacca in 1816 by group of missionaries from London Curriculum included History, Geography, Science, Mathematics, Ethics, Writing, Physical Education and Music
  9. 9. VERNACULAR TAMIL SCHOOLS – PRE JAPANESE OCCUPATION  The Indians were brought into Malaya to work in estates and plantations  The development and growth of Tamil schools was thus closely linked to the opening of rubber estates, coffee, sugar-cane and coconut plantations  Textbooks and teachers were brought in from India while the curriculum was adapted from the Indian curriculum.  Parents opted to send their children to English schools as they had better facilities and resources.  By 1930, there were four types of Tamil schools namely, government schools, estate schools, Indian community private schools and the Christian missionary private schools.
  10. 10. DURING JAPANESE OCCUPATION (1942-1945)  The Japanese army continued the vernacular schools introduced by the British  Added the Japanese language into the curriculum.  Established the Nippon-Go school which emphasized on Japanese culture and values.  Education at the secondary level was replaced with the establishment of technical schools and technical college  Local teachers were given training in the teaching of the Japanese language
  11. 11. PRE-INDEPENDENCE EDUCATION – BRITISH (1945-1957)  Absence of uniformity in the provision of education  Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil schools used their respective medium of instruction, curricula, books and teachers  Children of different ethnic background could only study together in the English schools  Teachers for the Chinese and Tamil schools were brought in from China and India SEGREGATION EXISTED AMONG THE ETHNIC GROUPS
  12. 12. POST-INDEPENDENCE EDUCATION – POST 1957  Prior to independence, there was awareness amongst the leaders and the locals for the need to replace the education systems left behind by the colonists with one common education system for all.  This awareness resulted in the Razak Report 1956  The Education Committee Report 1956 established an education system that incorporated national characteristics and guaranteed a place in schools for all children regardless of their ethnic or religion.  The education policies as outlined in the Razak Report were the foundation in the formulation of a national education system that placed high emphasis on national unity.
  13. 13. CHALLENGES AND POLITICS  At the time of independence, the segregated system of primary school was accepted by the government as an integral part of the national education system.  Coexistence of alternative streams of education alongside mainstream education provided different enrolment choices resulting in different educational paths  At the time of independence there were three types of secondary schools using Malay, English, and Chinese as the medium of instruction  Government was concerned of further ethnic segregation caused by the Chinese secondary schools which flourished under British rule
  14. 14. CHALLENGES AND POLITICS  Education Act of 1961 required all secondary schools to use Malay or English as the medium of instruction faced strong objection from Chinese  Still today 60 Chinese secondary schools had opted not to comply with the Education Act of 1961 – comprising of 55,000 students  The vernacular primary schools have persistently been singled as the main cause of ethnic polarization in Malaysia  The ‘divide and rule’ policy implemented by the British resulted in socio- economic disparity which benefitted the Chinese and affected the educational sector  The racial riots of 13 May 1969 caused by intense discontent over the socioeconomic and education disparity between the Malays and the Chinese resulted in the aggressive setting up of educational institutions of higher learning for the Malays.
  15. 15. DESEGREGATION EFFORTS  1980s, the government began establishing integrated schools by bringing together the three language media primary schools that were located in the same vicinity  1990s, Vision schools implemented where the children of 3 major race would be administered by the 3 different races – a combined vernacular school concept BOTH EFFORTS REJECTED AND NOT SUPPORTED – BY THE CHINESE FOR FEAR OF LOSING THEIR ETHNIC HERITAGE  Movement by the government to make the national primary schools the schools of choice has nevertheless been viewed apprehensively among non-Malays, especially by Chinese educationists.  The above measures were seen as a threat to the survival of Chinese primary schools.
  16. 16. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION "Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large."
  18. 18. ASPIRATIONS  Access: Every child in Malaysia deserves equal access to an education that will enable that child to achieve his or her potential  Quality: All children will have the opportunity to attain an excellent education that is uniquely Malaysian and comparable to the best international systems.  Equity: Top-performing school systems deliver the best possible education for every child, regardless of geography, gender, or socioeconomic background.  Unity: As students spend over a quarter of their time in school from the ages of 7 to 17, schools are in a key position to foster unity.  Efficiency: The Malaysian education system has always been well-funded, yet improvements in student outcomes have not always matched the resources channeled into the system.
  19. 19. IN CONCLUSION In order for Multi-Ethnic Malaysia to achieve the Vision, Mission and Aspiration of the National Education Philosophy and foster unity: TOTAL Desegregation of the educational system (SCHOOLS) complete structural revamp of the vernacular schools One common medium of instructions across all schools – both primary and secondary ENGLISH AND BAHASA MALAYSIA LANGUAGE MUST BE MADE PRIORITY AS MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTIONS CHINESE AND INDIAN LANGUAGES AND CULTURE BE MADE AS A SUBJECT IN SCHOOLS
  20. 20. BIBLIOGRAPHY Raman, S. R., & Sua, T. (2010). Ethnic segregation in Malaysia's education system: enrolment choices, preferential policies and desegregation. Paedagogica Historica, 46(1/2), 117-131. Segawa, N. (2007). Malaysia's 1996 Education Act: The Impact of a Multiculturalism- type Approach on National Integration. SOJOURN: Journal Of Social Issues In Southeast Asia, 22(1), 30-56. Education in Malaysia: A Journey to Excellence / prepared by the Educational Planning and Research Division. Ministry of Education Malaysia. Includes index ISBN 978-983-9522-21-1 Central Intelligence Agency (US) , factbook/geos/my.html Welcome to (n.d.). Education Malaysia. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from
  21. 21. BIBLIOGRAPHY Lambert, T. (n.d.). A SHORT HISTORY OF MALAYSIA. A Brief History of Malaysia. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from Journal of Educational Administration; Educational development and reformation in Malaysia: past, present and future; Rahimah Haji Ahmad Professor and Dean, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia Malaysia Demographics Profile 2013. (2013, February 21). Index Mundi. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from Tourism Malaysia. (n.d.). Fast Facts, General, People and languages, Currency, Weather, Public Holiday, Practicalities. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from s.aspx?page=1 Encyclopedia of the Nations. (n.d.).Malaysia. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from