Dif ferentiated Instruction Adapted by N. Beaumont November 2012
“Our task is to provide an education for the kinds of kids we have, not the kinds of kids we used to have, or want to have, or the kids that exist in our dreams.” ~K. P. Gerlach
Teachers are thelifeblood of ournation. They educateour children, theyprepare ourworkforce, and shapetomorrows citizens
FACT: Our nation’s schoolstoday are educating thelargest, most diverse studentpopulation ever, to higherstandards than ever before. This is the reason why the need for Differentiated Instruction is so necessary
Differentiated Instruction Defined“Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophybased on the premise that teachers should adaptinstruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through thecurriculum lockstep, teachers should modify theirinstruction to meet students’ varying readinesslevels, learning preferences, and interests.Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety ofways to ‘get at’ and express learning.” Carol Ann Tomlinson
What is differentiation?Differentiation isclassroom practicethat looks eyeballto eyeball withthe reality thatkids differ, and the most effective teachers do whatever it takes to hook the whole range of kids on learning. -Tomlinson (2001)
Differentiation is responsive teachingrather than one-size- fits-all teaching.
“It means teachers proactively plan varied approaches to whatstudents need to learn, how theywill learn it, and/or how they willshow what they have learned in order to increase the likelihood that each student will learn as much as he or she can, as efficiently as possible.”
Differentiation doesn’t suggest that a teacher can be all things to all individuals all the time. It does, however, mandate that a teacher create a reasonable range of approaches to learning much of the time, sothat most students find learning a fit much of the time.
“Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time.Once you have a sense of what each student knows and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.”
At its most basic level,differentiating instruction means “shaking up” what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.
Differentiation Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs Guided by general principles of differentiation Meaningful tasks Flexible grouping Continual assessment Teachers can differentiate through Building CommunityQuality Curriculum Content Process Product Affect/Environment According to students’ Readiness Interest Learning Profile Through a variety of instructional strategies such as: RAFTS…Graphic Organizers…Scaffolding …Cubing…Tic-Tac-Toe…LearningContracts….Tiering… Learning/Interest Centers… Independent Studies…Intelligence Preferences..Orbitals..Complex Instruction…ETC.
Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom• The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter.• The clear about what in subject matter.• The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student• The builds upon student differences. differences.• Assessment and instruction are inseparable.• Assessment and instruction are inseparable.• The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to• The adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning profile. student readiness, interests, and learning profile.• All students participate in respectful work.• All students participate in respectful work.• Students and teachers are collaborators in learning.• Students and teachers are collaborators in learning.• Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and• Goals of maximum growth and individual success. individual success.• Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.• Flexibility is the hallmark of differentiated classroom.
Assumptions We Need To Have…• Students differ as learners and need appropriate challenge, success, and learning experiences• It’s unlikely that we will achieve challenge, success, and instructional fit for each learner by ignoring student differences
Assumptions We Need To Have…• Attending to student differences requires a flexible approach to teaching• Successful attention to student differences must be rooted in solid curriculum and instruction
Assumptions We Need To Have…• There are many routes to achieving high quality curriculum taught in ways that attend to student differences and build community• Developing differentiated classrooms calls on us not so much to develop a bag of tricks as to rethink teaching and the power of learning
Differentiation is a Response toBeliefs About Teaching and Learning • We probably underestimate the capacity of every child as a learner • Students should be a the center of the learning process. • All learners require meaningful, powerful, and engaging schoolwork to develop their individual capacities so that they can become fulfilled and productive members of society • A major emphasis in learner development is competition against oneself and not against someone else for progression
Discussion QuestionWhat are you alreadydoing to differentiate instruction in your classroom?
WE MUSTREMEMBER THAT…Excellent differentiatedclassrooms are…excellent FIRST anddifferentiated SECOND!
Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom• Assessment drives instruction. (Assessment information helps the teacher map next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole.)• Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout the unit and as the unit ends.• Teachers assess student readiness, interest and learning profile.
Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom• Assessment is part of “teaching for success.”• Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to their own growth.• Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer competition.• Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than grades.
WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED? READINESS INTEREST LEARNING PROFILE • Interest Surveys • Areas of Strength Content • Interest Centers and WeaknessSkills • Work Preferences Knowledge • Self-Selection • Self Awareness Concepts
Most teachers assess students at theend of an instructional unit or sequence.When assessment and instruction areinterwoven, both the students and theteacher benefit. The next slide suggestsa diagnostic continuum forongoing assessment.
Pre-assessment Is...Any method, strategy or process used to determine astudent’s current level of readiness or interest in order toplan for appropriate instruction.• provides data to determine options for students• helps determine differences before planning•helps teacher design activities that are meaningful andchallenging•allows teachers to meet students where they are•identifies starting point for instruction•identifies learning gaps• makes efficient use of instructional time
Examples of Pre-Assessments: What Do You Want to Learn About Rome? Name: _______________________These are some of the topics we will be studying in our unit on Ancient Rome.We want to know what you want to learn about. Number your choices from 1to 8. Make sure that 1 is your favorite and 8 is your least favorite.____ geography____ government (laws)____ agriculture (foods they grew)____ architecture (buildings)____ music and art____ religion and sports____ roles of men, women, and children What Can You Tell Us About Rome?1. What country is Rome in? ________________________________________________2. What does the word civilization mean?_______________________________________ _________________________________________________________________.3. Can you give us some examples of different civilizations? ________________________ __________________________________________________________________.4. Can you name any famous Roman people? ___________________________________ __________________________________________________________________.5. Many things in our country and culture came from the Romans. Can you think of any? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________.
Examples of Pre-Assessments: How Do You Like to Learn?1. I study best when it is quiet. Yes No2. I am able to ignore the noise of other people talking while I am working. Yes No3. I like to work at a table or desk. Yes No4. I like to work on the floor. Yes No5. I work hard by myself. Yes No6. I work hard for my parents or teacher. Yes No7. I will work on an assignment until it is completed, no matter what. Yes No8. Sometimes I get frustrated with my work and do not finish it. Yes No9. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to have exact steps on how to complete it. Yes No10. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to create my own steps on how to complete it. Yes No11. I like to work by myself. Yes No12. I like to work in pairs or in groups. Yes No13. I like to have unlimited amount of time to work on an assignment. Yes No14. I like to have a certain amount of time to work on an assignment. Yes No 15. I like to learn by moving and doing. Yes No 16. I like to learn while sitting at my desk. Yes No
Formative Assessment Is...A process of accumulating information about a student’sprogress to help make instructional decisions that willimprove his/her understandings and achievement levels.• Depicts student’s life as a learner• used to make instructional adjustments• alerts the teacher about student misconceptions “early warning signal”• allows students to build on previous experiences• provides regular feedback• provides evidence of progress•a aligns with instructional/curricular outcomes
Summative Assessment Is...A means to determine a student’s mastery andunderstanding of information, skills, concepts, orprocesses.• Should reflect formative assessments that precede it• should match material taught• may determine student’s exit achievement• may be tied to a final decision, grade or report• should align with instructional/curricular outcomes• may be a form of alternative assessment
.“Teaching facts inisolation is liketrying to pumpwater uphill.” (Carol Tomlinson)
Flexible GroupingStudents are part of many different groups (and alsowork alone) based on the match of the task to studentreadiness, interest, or learning style.Teachers may create skills based or interest basedgroups that are heterogeneous or homogeneous inreadiness level. Sometimes students select work groups,and sometimes teachers select them. Sometimes student group assignments are purposeful and sometimes random.
RAFTRAFT is an acronym that stands forRole of the student. What is the student’s role: reporter, observer, eyewitness, object?Audience. Who will be addressed by this raft: the teacher, other students, a parent, people in the community, an editor, another object?Format. What is the best way to present this information: in a letter, an article, a report, a poem, a monologue, a picture, a song?Topic. Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a specific event?
RAFT Activities Role Audience Format Topic Semicolon Middle Schoolers Diary entry I Wish You Really Knew Where I Belong ure ts rat Ar ite ge& L gua Huck Finn Tom Sawyer Note hidden in a tree A Few Things You Should n La knot Know Rain Drop Future Droplets Advice Column The Beauty of Cycles Lung Cigarettes Public Service What you do to me! Announcement ce ien Reporter Public Obituary Hitler is Dead Sc Water The Sun A love letter I think you are hot Thomas Current Residents of Full page Newspaper If I Could Talk to You Now ry Jefferson Virginia Ad s to Hi Fractions Whole Numbers Petition To Be Considered A Part of the Family A word problem Students in your Set of Directions How to Get to Know Me class h at M
Diner Menu – PhotosynthesisAppetizer (Everyone Shares)•Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.Entrée (Select One)•Draw a picture that shows what happens during photosynthesis.•Write two paragraphs about what happens during photosynthesis.•Create a rap that explains what happens during photosynthesis.Side Dishes (Select at Least Two)•Define respiration, in writing.•Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a VennDiagram.•Write a journal entry from the point of view of a greenplant.•With a partner, create and perform a skit that shows thedifferences between photosynthesis and respiration.Dessert (Optional)•Create a test to assess the teacher’s knowledge ofphotosynthesis.
TIC-TAC-TOE Choice Board For a Book ReportDraw a picture Perform a play Write a song of the main that shows the about one of character. conclusion of a the main story. events. Write a poem Make a poster Dress up asabout two main that shows the your favorite events in the order of events character and story. in the story. perform a speech telling who you are.Create a Venn Write two Write two diagram paragraphs paragraphs comparing and about the main about thecontrasting the character. setting.introduction to the closing.
Learning Contract #1 Name _______________________My question or topic is:To find out about my question or topic…I will read: I will look at and listen to: I will write: I will draw: I will need:Here’s how I will share what I know:I will finish by this date:
Learning Contract #2 To demonstrate what I have learned about ____________________, I want to _ Write a report _ Design a mural _ Put on a demonstration _ Write a song _ Set up an experiment _ Make a movie _ Develop a computer presentation _ Create a graphic organizer or diagram _ Build a model _ OtherThis will be a good way to demonstrate understanding of this concept because______________________________________________________________To do this project, I will need help with______________________________________________________________My Action Plan is________________________________________________The criteria/rubric which will be used to assess my final product is _______________________________________________________________________My project will be completed by this date _____________________________Student signature: ________________________________ Date __/__/__Teacher signature: ________________________________ Date __/__/__
Squaring OffWhole Group Assessment1. Place a card in each corner of the room with one of the following words or phrases that are effective ways to group according to learner knowledge.Rarely ever Sometimes Often I have it!Dirt road Paved road Highway Yellow brick road2. Tell the students to go to the corner of the room that matches their place in the learning journey.3. Participants go to the corner that most closely matches their own learning status and discuss what they know about the topic and why they chose to go there. Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
YES Yes/No Cards NO • Using a 4x6 index card the student writes YES on one side and NO on the other. • When a question is asked the students hold up YES or NO. 1. Ask the students if they know the following vocabulary words and what they mean. 2. Call out a word. If a student is holding a YES they may be called on to give the correct answer. 3. Remind them that if they don’t know the words it is OK because they will be learning them. 4. You can do the same thing with conceptual ideas, etc.Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’tFit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Thumb It!• Have students respond with the position of their thumb to get an assessment of what their current understanding of a topic being studied.• Where I am now in my understanding of ______? Up Sideways Down I know a lot I know some I know very littleGregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t FitAll. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Fist of Five Show the number of fingers on a scale, with 1 being lowest and 5 the highest. Ask, How well do you feel you know this information? 5. I know it so well I could explain it to anyone. 4. I can do it alone. 3. I need some help. 2. I could use more practice. 1. I am only beginning.Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’tFit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Teacher prepared pretestsKWL charts and other graphic organizersWriting prompts/samplesQuestioningGuess BoxPicture InterpretationPredictionTeacher observation/checklistsStudent demonstrations and discussionsInitiating activitiesInformational surveys/Questionnaires/InventoriesStudent interviewsStudent products and work samplesSelf-evaluationsPortfolio analysisGame activitiesShow of hands to determine understandingDrawing related to topic or contentStandardized test informationAnticipation journals
What Zone Am I In? Too Easy On Target Too Hard• I get it right away… • I know some things… • I don’t know where to • I have to think… start…• I already know how… • I have to work… • I can’t figure it out…• This is a cinch… • I have to persist… • I’m spinning my• I’m sure to make an • wheels… A… I hit some walls… • I’m missing key skills…• I’m coasting… • I’m on my toes… • I feel frustrated…• I feel relaxed… • I have to re-group… • I feel angry• I’m bored… • I feel challenged… • This makes no sense…• No big effort • Effort leads to necessary… success… • Effort doesn’t pay off… THIS is the place to be… THIS is the achievement zone…
Cubing 1. Describe It Look at the subject closely (perhaps with your senses in mind). 2. Compare It What is it similar to? What is it different from? 3. Associate It What does it make you think of? What comes to your mind when you think of it? Perhaps people? Places? Things? Feelings? Let your mind go and see what feelings you have for the subject. 4. Analyze It Tell how it is made. If you can’t really know, use your imagination. 5. Apply It Tell what you can do with it. How can it be used? 6. Argue for It or Against It Take a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want—logical, silly, anywhere in between.
Ideas for Kinesthetic Cube• Arrange _________into a 3-D collage to show_________• Make a body sculpture to show__________________• Create a dance to show_______________________• Do a mime to help us understand_________________• Present an interior monologue with dramatic movement that________________________• Build/construct a representation of________________• Make a living mobile that shows and balances the elements of __________________• Create authentic sound effects to accompany a reading of ________________• Show the principle of _____________with a rhythm pattern you create. Explain to us how that works.
Ideas for Cubing in Math…• Describe: how you would solve_____________• Analyze: how this problem helps us use mathematical thinking and problem solving.• Compare or Contrast: this problem to one on p._____• Demonstrate: how a professional (or just a regular person) could apply this kind of problem to their work or life.• Change: one or more numbers (elements, signs) in the problem. Give a rule for what that change does.• Create: an interesting and challenging word problem from the number problem. (Show us how to solve it too)• Diagram or Illustrate: the solution to the problem. Interpret the visual so we understand.
Differentiated Instruction as… THE GREATEQUALIZER!!!
The Equalizer1. Foundational Transformational Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications2. Concrete Abstract Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials3. Simple Complex Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals4. Single Facet Multiple Facets Directions, Problems, Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections5. Small Leap Great Leap Application, Insight, Transfer6. More Structured More Open Solutions, Decisions, Approaches7. Less Independence Greater Independence Planning, Designing, Monitoring8. Slow Pace of Study, Pace of Thought Quick
Map Lecture Book List PuzzleDiagram Editorial Calendar ModelSculpture Painting Coloring Book TimelineDiscussion Costume Game ToyDemonstration Placement Research Project Article DiaryPoem Blueprint TV Show PosterProfile Catalogue Song MagazineChart Dialogue Dictionary ComputerPlay Newspaper Film ProgramDance Scrapbook Collection PhotographsCampaign Lecture Trial TerrariumCassette Questionnaire Petition Drive Machine TeachingQuiz Show FlagBanner Scrapbook Book LessonBrochure Graph Prototype Mural SpeechDebate Debate Award ClubFlow Chart Museum CartoonPuppet Show Learning Center Recipe BiographyTour Advertisement Test Review Invention
Begin Slowly – Just Begin!Low-Prep Differentiation High-Prep DifferentiationChoices of books Tiered activities and labsHomework options Tiered productsUse of reading buddies Independent studiesVaried journal Prompts Multiple texts Alternative assessmentsOrbitals Learning contractsVaried pacing with anchor options 4-MATStudent-teaching goal setting Multiple-intelligence optionsWork alone / together CompactingWhole-to-part and part-to-whole explorations Spelling by readinessFlexible seating Entry PointsVaried computer programs Varying organizersDesign-A-Day Lectures coupled with graphic organizersVaried Supplementary materials Community mentorships Interest groupsOptions for varied modes of expression Tiered centersVarying scaffolding on same organizer Interest centersLet’s Make a Deal projects Personal agendasComputer mentors Literature CirclesThink-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profile StationsUse of collaboration, independence, and cooperation Complex InstructionOpen-ended activities Group InvestigationMini-workshops to reteach or extend skills Tape-recorded materialsJigsaw Teams, Games, and Tournaments Choice BoardsNegotiated Criteria Think-Tac-ToeExplorations by interests SimulationsGames to practice mastery of information Problem-Based LearningMultiple levels of questions Graduated Rubrics Flexible reading formats Student-centered writing formats
Reform must come from within, not from without. WE, are the Agents of Change… nothing can change unless we change ourselves and our ways of teaching James Gibbons
We Need To Ask Ourselves… Do all students have access to thetools, knowledge and guidance that they need to succeed?If not, what can we do to give them those tools?
Where do I Go From Here?Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your ClassroomStartslowlyOrganize classroom spaceFind out student interests
Where do I Go From Here? Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your ClassroomUse technologyStart class with familiar tasks (Do Now)Start student port(data)folios
Investing StudentsStudents must “buy-in” to what you’re doingProvide choice to studentsAdjust physical environment sit visually impaired at front of room arrangement of desks quiet/safe areaIncrease student accountability
THINK ABOUT ON-GOING ASSESSMENTSTUDENT DATA TEACHER DATA Anecdotal recordsOpen response test Observation by checklistOral response Skills checklistPortfolio entry Class discussionExhibition Small group interactionCulminating product Teacher – studentQuestion writing conferenceProblem solving Assessment stations Exit cardsJournal Entry Performance tasks andShort Answer Test rubrics