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Recognizing emergencies for volunteers
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Recognizing emergencies for volunteers


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  • 1. 10/26/2011
  • 2. A medical emergency is a condition or circumstance requiring immediate actionon behalf of someone who has been injured or suddenly taken ill.
  • 3.  Emergencies can also be categorized as  life-threatening  non-life-threatening10/26/2011
  • 4. A life-threatening emergency is anillness or injury that impairs a victim’sability to circulate oxygenated bloodto all the parts of his or her body. 10/26/2011
  • 5.  A non-life- threatening emergency is a situation that does not have an immediate impact on a victim’s ability to circulate oxygenated blood, but still requires medical attention. 10/26/2011
  • 6. •Personal safety1 •Recognize immediately life2 threatening injuries •Do no further harm3 •Call for medical assistance early4 10/26/2011
  • 7.  Reasons people give for not helping are called barriers to action. They include— Presence of bystanders. Uncertainty about the victim. Nature of the injury or illness. Fear of disease transmission. Fear of doing something wrong. 10/26/2011
  • 8.  This is your first priority Assess the scene and ensure that it is safe for you You shall not be helping anyone by walking into an unsafe site just creating a double problem 10/26/2011
  • 9.  Your primary role as a volunteer in an emergency includes— Recognizing that an emergency exists. Deciding to act. Taking action by alerting the doctor. Giving care until help arrives. 10/26/2011
  • 10.  Symptom  Something that the patient tells you he or she is feeling or experiencing Sign  Something that you observe in a patient (e.g., a change in skin color, an increase in respiration rate) 10/26/2011
  • 11.  Any heart attack warning sign: Left sided chest pain Any stroke warning sign: Slurred speech, facial droop Difficulty breathing. Shortness of breath. Not being able to say 4 or 5 words between breaths. Fainting. Loss of consciousness. 10/26/2011
  • 12.  Change in mental status, such as unusual behavior or confusion. Sudden or severe pain anywhere in the body. Bleeding that won’t stop. Severe or persistent vomiting. Coughing up or vomiting blood. Fits 10/26/2011
  • 13.  Conditions that are life threatening include: Unconsciousness. Not breathing or trouble breathing. No signs of life (normal breathing, movement or a pulse). Severe bleeding. 10/26/2011
  • 14.  Follow the emergency action steps: CHECK  The scene and the victim. CALL  Alert the doctor who is within your vicinity (try to be discreet not to cause panic). CARE  For the victim. 10/26/2011
  • 15.  As a volunteer, one of your top priorities is to ensure that the victim receives more advanced medical care as soon as possible. 10/26/2011
  • 16.  Alert the doctor who is nearest to you Make the alert discreet so as not to cause alarm to those in the area This can lead to panic which is always detrimental in any situation 10/26/2011
  • 17.  Ask yourself…“In what other ways can I give help?”:  If victim is conscious, reassure the person – talking and touching the victim helps to reduce the anxiety: Attempt to learn the victim’s name. Get at the victim’s eye level. Speak slowly and clearly. 10/26/2011
  • 18.  If a victim is fitting or having a seizure  DO NOT PANIC!! Stay calm  Prevent injury by ensuring that there is nothing within reach that could harm the person  Make the person comfortable but do not try to stop the fit by holding them  Keep onlookers away  Do not put anything in the persons mouth  Do not give anything to eat or drink etc  Call for help  Be sensitive and supportive and ask others to do the same 10/26/2011
  • 19.  After seizure place the person on the left (Recovery position) so prevent aspiration incase of vomiting Say with the person until they recover 10/26/2011
  • 20.  Signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia  Excessive urination  Excessive thirst, dry mouth, and dry skin  Acetone breath (fruity smell)  Blurred vision and headache  Rapid pulse  Lower blood pressure  Loss of consciousness
  • 21.  Hyperglycemia response steps 1. If the patient is conscious, ask when he or she last ate, whether he or she has taken insulin, and whether he or she brought insulin along. Purpose: If the patient has already eaten but has not taken insulin, the patient needs insulin immediately. 2. Retrieve the patient’s insulin if it is available. If he or she is able, the patient should self-administer the insulin. 3. Call for emergency assistance if necessary. 4. Provide basic life support (CPR) if the patient loses consciousness
  • 22.  Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia  Mood changes  Hunger  Perspiration  Increased anxiety  Possible unconsciousness
  • 23.  Hypoglycemia response steps 1. If the patient is conscious, ask when he or she last ate, whether he or she has taken insulin, and whether he or she brought insulin along. 2. Give a concentrated form of carbohydrate, such as a sugar packet, cake icing, or concentrated orange juice. Purpose: The sugar in these substances are absorbed rapidly into the bloodstream. 3. Call for emergency assistance if necessary. 4. Provide basic life support if the patient becomes unconscious.
  • 24.  If the victim is conscious and alert, introduce yourself. If the victim is unconscious, call immediately alert the Dr. in the crowd. DO NOT PANIC! 10/26/2011
  • 25.  If unconscious, try and create space for the attending doctors activities Do not cause a commotion which leads to anxiety by those around hence panic 10/26/2011
  • 26.  After doctor reviews then he determines if victim is to be transferred Do not transport a victim— When the trip may aggravate the injury or illness or cause additional injury. When the victim has or may develop a life- threatening condition. If you are unsure of the nature of the injury. With a life-threatening condition or if there is a possibility of further injury, let the dr. make the decision. 10/26/2011
  • 27.  Moving a victim can be done in a variety of ways, some of which are shown here Remember:  Do not make injury worse by moving victim  Do not move a victim with spinal injury  Do not leave unconscious victim alone  Do not move victim without stabilizing the injured part 10/26/2011
  • 28.  Lumbar spine bears weight of body; 85% of back injuries occur there Discs between vertebrae may deteriorate, move, or slip out of place Injuries can result from improper lifting and carrying 10/26/2011
  • 29.  Use leg muscles, not back muscles  Using the back can damage muscles and discs between vertebrae Bend at the knees and hips  Don’t round the hips
  • 30.  Keep weight as close to the body as possible to maintain balance Do not twist the body Keep feet shoulder-width apart for stability 10/26/2011
  • 31.  Call for additional help if necessary Use an even number of people to maintain balance 10/26/2011
  • 32.  Keep weight as close to the body as possible Know the weight limitations of equipment If the lifting situation is unsafe, don’t move the patient 10/26/2011
  • 33. ImproperLifting:Back bent 10/26/2011
  • 34. ImproperLifting:Twisting 10/26/2011
  • 35. ProperLifting:Squat orpowerlift 10/26/2011
  • 36. Squat, bending at the knees10/26/2011
  • 37. Use a power grip10/26/2011
  • 38. Stand up while locking your back 10/26/2011
  • 39.  Consider the weight of the object being lifted Know your limitations 10/26/2011
  • 40.  Work as a team Communicate with others! (including the patient) 10/26/2011
  • 41.  Unconscious patients who have not suffered trauma should be placed in a sidelying or recovery position.  Helps keep the airway open  Allows secretions to drain from the mouth 10/26/2011
  • 42.  One-person walking assist  Help the patient stand.  Have the patient place one arm around your neck and hold the patient’s wrist.  Put your free arm around the patient’s waist and help the patient to walk.10/26/2011
  • 43.  Two-person walking assist  Useful if the patient cannot bear weight  The two rescuers completely support the patient.10/26/2011
  • 44.  Used when the wheeled stretcher cannot be moved into a small space  Smaller and lighter than a wheeled stretcher  Can be carried in the same ways that a wheeled stretcher is carried10/26/2011
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  • 50.  As a volunteer one of the activities you are required to perform is to ensure that the crowd is under control 10/26/2011
  • 51.  Leave enough open space for people to maneuver Eliminate areas which encourage people to squeeze in such as closed-in areas 10/26/2011
  • 52.  Protect off-limits areas with temporary fencing, ropes, or rows of potted plants. Movable screens or walls also work effectively. Guide crowds with visually appealing pathways. Lay out rules ahead of time. Be sure to be polite, and make sure all everyone knows what is expected of them. 10/26/2011
  • 53.  In every emergency, follow the emergency action steps: CHECK—CALL—CARE. CHECK first for any life-threatening conditions. When possible, the victim should always be checked in the position in which he or she is found. ALERT/call the doctor CARE for the conditions you find. Questions? 10/26/2011
  • 54. CHECK CALL CARE10/26/2011