Inquirephilo11
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  • A look at the historical development of the field will help us to answer this question. On the standard way of telling the story, humanity's first systematic inquiries took place within a mythological or religious framework: wisdom ultimately was to be derived from sacred traditions and from individuals thought to possess privileged access to a supernatural realm. However, starting in the sixth century BCE, there appeared in ancient Greece a series of thinkers whose inquiries were comparatively secular (see " The Milesians and the Origin of Philosophy ").
  • 1. Doing philosophy requires courage , because one never knows what one will find at the end of a philosophical investigation. 2. Doing philosophy requires humility, because to do philosophy one must always keep firmly in mind how little one knows and how easy it is to fall into error. The very initiation of philosophical inquiry requires one to admit to oneself that one may not, after all, have all of the answers. 3. Doing philosophy requires both patience and discipline, because philosophical inquiry requires long hours of hard work. One must be prepared to commit huge amounts of time to laboring over issues both difficult and subtle.
  • 1. Doing philosophy requires courage , because one never knows what one will find at the end of a philosophical investigation. 2. Doing philosophy requires humility, because to do philosophy one must always keep firmly in mind how little one knows and how easy it is to fall into error. The very initiation of philosophical inquiry requires one to admit to oneself that one may not, after all, have all of the answers. 3. Doing philosophy requires both patience and discipline, because philosophical inquiry requires long hours of hard work. One must be prepared to commit huge amounts of time to laboring over issues both difficult and subtle.
  • To be sure, one can perhaps be happy , at least in the same way as a well-fed dog is happy, if one manages to make it all the way through life without questioning anything. Philosophical inquiry, on the other hand, can be disquieting, offering no guarantee that your hard work will yield the conclusions you hope for.Even worse, philosophy gives you no guarantee that your investigations will yield any conclusion at all: at the end of the day, you may find yourself not only minus the certainties with which you began, but also with nothing else to put in their place.
  • For philosophy should arrive practical results for the better well-being and of course for the society itself, so this is how philosophy is intended, it is solely intended for the ultimate nature of man, its inherent qualities.
  • Lure-temp to do something or to go somewhere Mirage-optical illusion Mart-market

Inquirephilo11 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Introduction toPhilosophyLogic and Criticalthinking Ben Villareal III Part 1
  • 2. The Nature of PhilosophyThe word philosophy literally means love of wisdom.
  • 3. It was coined by Pythagoras, one of the sages of ancient Greece, born about the year 584 B.C.
  • 4. The Branches of PhilosophyLogic is the attempt to codify the rules of rational thought. Logicians explore the structure of arguments that preserve truth or allow the optimal extraction of knowledge from evidence.
  • 5. Epistemology is the study of knowledge itself. Epistemologists ask, for instance, what criteria must be satisfied for something we believe to count as something we know, and even what it means for a proposition to be true.
  • 6. Metaphysics is the study of the nature of things. Metaphysicians ask what kinds of things exist, and what they are like.
  • 7. Ethics is the study of the nature of right and wrong and good and evil, in terms both of considerations about the foundations of morality, and of practical considerations about the fine details of moral conduct.
  • 8. Cosmology The study of the origin and the nature of the universe.Aesthetics The study of concepts of art and beauty. Concerned with questions like why do we find certain things beautiful, what makes things great art, so on.
  • 9. Social Political PhilosophyThe study of man and his place in society.
  • 10. Zoon Politikon – Man is a Political Animal
  • 11. Philosophy of EducationA branch, mainly concerned with what is the correct way to educate a person. Classic works include Rousseaus Emile.
  • 12. We are born weak, we need strength; helpless weneed aid; foolish we need reason. All that we lackat birth, all that we need when we come to mansestate, is the gift of education. (Jean JacquesRousseau, Emile)
  • 13. Philosophy of HistoryIt is the philosophical study of history, particularly concerned with the question whether history (i.e. the universe and/or humankind) is progressing towards a specific end?
  • 14. Philosophy of Language Basically concerned with how our languages affect our thought. Wittgenstein famously asserted that the limits of our languages mark the limits of our thought.
  • 15. Other New Branches of Philosophy1. Philosophy of Sports2. Philosophy of Science3. Philosophy of Law4. Philosophy of Mind
  • 16. Philosophical InquiryIt employs rational inference as its main instrumentality. Hence, it is experiential, but chiefly rational.
  • 17. The Demands of PhilosophyPhilosophical inquiry is verydemanding, suitable only forthose who possess a fair degreeof courage, humility, patience anddiscipline.
  • 18. The Rewards of PhilosophyBut if philosophy is so demanding, why should anyone even bother with it?
  • 19. What is philosophy of man? is the study of man, an attempt to investigate man as person and as existent being in the world; man’s ultimate nature.
  • 20. Part II
  • 21. On the Uses of PhilosophyThere is a pleasure in philosophy, and alure even in the mirages of metaphysics,which every students feels until thecoarse necessities of physical existencedrag him from the heights of thoughtinto the mart of economic strife andgain.
  • 22. To be a philosophers, is not merely to have subtle thoughts, nor even to found a school, but so to love wisdom as to live, according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust.” Thoreau
  • 23. Is Philosophy effective?