Introduction toPhilosophyLogic and Criticalthinking Ben Villareal III Part 1
The Nature of PhilosophyThe word philosophy literally means love of wisdom.
It was coined by Pythagoras, one of the sages of ancient Greece, born about the year 584 B.C.
The Branches of PhilosophyLogic is the attempt to codify the rules of rational thought. Logicians explore the structure of arguments that preserve truth or allow the optimal extraction of knowledge from evidence.
Epistemology is the study of knowledge itself. Epistemologists ask, for instance, what criteria must be satisfied for something we believe to count as something we know, and even what it means for a proposition to be true.
Metaphysics is the study of the nature of things. Metaphysicians ask what kinds of things exist, and what they are like.
Ethics is the study of the nature of right and wrong and good and evil, in terms both of considerations about the foundations of morality, and of practical considerations about the fine details of moral conduct.
Cosmology The study of the origin and the nature of the universe.Aesthetics The study of concepts of art and beauty. Concerned with questions like why do we find certain things beautiful, what makes things great art, so on.
Social Political PhilosophyThe study of man and his place in society.
Zoon Politikon – Man is a Political Animal
Philosophy of EducationA branch, mainly concerned with what is the correct way to educate a person. Classic works include Rousseaus Emile.
We are born weak, we need strength; helpless weneed aid; foolish we need reason. All that we lackat birth, all that we need when we come to mansestate, is the gift of education. (Jean JacquesRousseau, Emile)
Philosophy of HistoryIt is the philosophical study of history, particularly concerned with the question whether history (i.e. the universe and/or humankind) is progressing towards a specific end?
Philosophy of Language Basically concerned with how our languages affect our thought. Wittgenstein famously asserted that the limits of our languages mark the limits of our thought.
Other New Branches of Philosophy1. Philosophy of Sports2. Philosophy of Science3. Philosophy of Law4. Philosophy of Mind
Philosophical InquiryIt employs rational inference as its main instrumentality. Hence, it is experiential, but chiefly rational.
The Demands of PhilosophyPhilosophical inquiry is verydemanding, suitable only forthose who possess a fair degreeof courage, humility, patience anddiscipline.
The Rewards of PhilosophyBut if philosophy is so demanding, why should anyone even bother with it?
What is philosophy of man? is the study of man, an attempt to investigate man as person and as existent being in the world; man’s ultimate nature.
On the Uses of PhilosophyThere is a pleasure in philosophy, and alure even in the mirages of metaphysics,which every students feels until thecoarse necessities of physical existencedrag him from the heights of thoughtinto the mart of economic strife andgain.
To be a philosophers, is not merely to have subtle thoughts, nor even to found a school, but so to love wisdom as to live, according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust.” Thoreau