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1. 1. 312011 ……………..4/……………………..
2. 2. 4011.– 11 1 302 7 { 1 , 3, 5 , 7 , 9 }3 ( 8 + 22 )2 102456 > 37 98 { 1 , 2 }
3. 3. 910 xx2 - x11 { } = { 1 , 2 , 3 }12 { 0 } { , 0 }13141516 2 -3x2 - x = 6171819 12 6202. 5………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. 4. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. 5. 21.1.1 0 6……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….
6. 6. ……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.2 9 10 10 9……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….
7. 7. ……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.3 -1……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….
8. 8. ……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.4 1 { 1 , 2 } 1 { 1 , 2 }……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..
9. 9. …………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.5……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..
10. 10. …………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.6 2 4 6 2 4 + 6……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..
11. 11. …………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.7 3 32……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….
12. 12. ……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.8……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….
13. 13. ……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.9 13 13 113……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….
14. 14. ……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.10 { 3 } { 3 , 4 } 3 { 3 , 4 }……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..
15. 15. …………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.11 ( 2 + 6 ) + 4 = 12 12 = 2(5) + 2……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..
16. 16. …………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.12 6……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..
17. 17. …………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.13……………………………………………………………………………………..
18. 18. ……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.14……………………………………………………………………………………..
19. 19. ……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..1.15 1 13……………………………………………………………………………………..
20. 20. ……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………..2.2.1 4 + 9 = 10 + 3
21. 21. 2.2 -7 > 62.3 x2 + 1 = 0
22. 22. 2.4 { 3 , 4 } { 1 , 3 , 4 , 5 }2.5 {{2}} {2}2.6 -3 + 6 -3 + 6
23. 23. 2.7 152.82.9 2
24. 24. 2.10 5 253.pq3.1 p
25. 25. 3.2 p q3.3 p q3.4 p q3.5 p q
26. 26. 3.6 p ( p q )3.7 p q31. p , q , r , s t1.1 ( p q ) r…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
27. 27. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.2 ( p r ) (t s )…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.3 ( p s ) (q r )…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
28. 28. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.4 [ ( p q ) t ]…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.5 [ ( r s) p ]…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
29. 29. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.6 ( p q ) ( r t )…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.7 ( r q ) (s t )…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
30. 30. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.8 ( p q) ( r s )…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.9 ( s p ) ( q r )…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
31. 31. 1.10 ( q r ) ( p s )…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.11 [( p q) ( t r )] s…………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.12 [( p q ) ( t s )] [(q r) s]
32. 32. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.13 p,q,rT,F,F[ p (p q)] [q r) (p r)]……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1.14 p,q,rT,F,F
33. 33. (p q) r………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2. p , q , r s2.1 p q( p q ) ( p q )……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….2.2 ( p q )[ p ( q) ( p q )] [ ( p q ) ( p q )]p q
34. 34. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
35. 35. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….2.3 [ p ( q r )] ( s r)p , q , r s………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
36. 36. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………….2.4 (r t) [ (s t)] Tr,s,t………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
37. 37. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
38. 38. 1. p , q , r s1.1 p ( q p )p q1.2 ( p q ) ( p q )p q1.3 p ( p q )p q
39. 39. 1.4 q [ p ( q p )p q1.5 ( q p ) rp q r1.6 ( q r ) ( r p )p q r
40. 40. 1.7 [( p q ) ( p s )] ( r s )p q r s
41. 41. 51.1.1 ( p q ) r( p r ) ( q r ) ( p r ) ( q r )………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
42. 42. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
43. 43. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1.2 ( p r ) ( q r )( p q ) r ( p q ) r………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
44. 44. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
45. 45. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
46. 46. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1.3 [( p q) ( q r )( p q ) ( q r ) p ( q r )………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
47. 47. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
48. 48. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1.4 p [q (r p )( p q ) r ( p q ) r
49. 49. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
50. 50. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
51. 51. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1.5 p ( q p )p ( p q ) p ( p q )………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
52. 52. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
53. 53. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
54. 54. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………1.6 p q( p q ) ( q p) ( p q ) ( qp)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
55. 55. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
56. 56. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2.2.1 (ab = 0 a 0 ) b = 0………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
57. 57. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
58. 58. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
59. 59. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2.2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
60. 60. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
61. 61. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2.3 a a aa2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
62. 62. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
63. 63. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
64. 64. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2.4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
65. 65. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
66. 66. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2.5 xy < 0 ( x < 0 y < 0 )
67. 67. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
68. 68. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
69. 69. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………3.( (1 p q p q2 p q p q3 p q p q4 p q p q5 p q ( p q ) ( q p )6
70. 70. 7 2 + 1 = 3 3 3 2 + 1 =38 A A6
71. 71. 1. [ (p q)] [( p q)]………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
72. 72. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
73. 73. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2. ( p q ) [( p q ) ( p q)]………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
74. 74. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
75. 75. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………3. ( p q ) ( p q )………………………………………………………………………………………………………
76. 76. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
77. 77. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
78. 78. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4. [( p q) ( p r )] [ p ( q r )………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
79. 79. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
80. 80. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
81. 81. 5. [( p r ) ( q r )] [( p q ) r ]………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
82. 82. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
83. 83. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6. [ p ( q r )] [( p q ) r………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
84. 84. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
85. 85. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
86. 86. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………7. [( p q ) p ] p………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
87. 87. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
88. 88. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8. [ ( p ( p q)) ( p q)]………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
89. 89. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
90. 90. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
91. 91. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………9. ( p q ) q………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………‒