SGML= Standard Generalized Markup Language. An ISO standard markup language.
the whole new era of web development
Nitish K. Sharma (@Nitish_KSharma)
Microsoft Certified Specialist for
What is HTML
What is XHTML
A brief history
HTML5 - New Features
Minimum HTML5 Document
Browser Support for HTML5
HTML5 development timeline
Main features of HTML5
HTML5 in mobile devices
3. What is HTML?
The classic HTML logo
HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for
creating web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web
HTML was proposed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in 1989.
It was first shown as HTML in late 1990.
It was made publicly available in late 1991 through a document ―HTML
Tags‖ by CERN.
HTML was proposed by ―Tim Berners-Lee‖
4. What is XHTML?
XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language) is a family of XML markup
languages that mirror or extend versions of the widely used Hypertext
Markup Language (HTML), the language in which web pages are written.
While HTML (prior to HTML5) was defined as an application of Standard
Generalized Markup Language (SGML), a very flexible markup language
framework, XHTML is an application of XML, a more restrictive subset of
XHTML 1.0 became a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
Recommendation on January 26, 2000. XHTML 1.1 became a W3C
Recommendation on May 31, 2001. XHTML5 is undergoing development as
of September 2009, as part of the HTML5 specification.
HTML5 will be the new standard for HTML.
The previous version of HTML, HTML 4.01, came in 1999. The web has
changed a lot since then.
HTML5 is still a work in progress. However, the major browsers support many
of the new HTML5 elements and APIs.
It is the fifth revision of the HTML standard and, as of December 2012, is a
W3C Candidate Recommendation.
Its core aims have been to improve the language with support for the
latest multimedia while keeping it easily readable by humans and
consistently understood by computers and devices (web
browsers, parsers, etc.).
HTML5 is also intended for ―Cross-platform‖ programming.
6. A brief history
HTML5 is a cooperation between the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and
the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG).
WHATWG was working with web forms and applications, and W3C was working
with XHTML 2.0. In 2006, they decided to cooperate and create a new version
Some rules for HTML5 were established:
•Reduce the need for external plugins (like Flash)
•Better error handling
•More markup to replace scripting
•HTML5 should be device independent
•The development process should be visible to the public
7. HTML5 - New Features
Some of the most interesting new features in HTML5:
•The <canvas> element for 2D drawing
•The <video> and <audio> elements for media playback
•Support for local storage
•New content-specific elements, like
<article>, <footer>, <header>, <nav>, <section>
•New form controls, like calendar, date, time, email, url, search
8. Minimum HTML5 Document
< title>Title of the document</title>
The content of the document......
9. Browser Support for HTML5
HTML5 is not yet an official standard, and no browsers have full HTML5
But all major browsers (Safari, Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer)
continue to add new HTML5 features to their latest versions.
According to a report released on 30 September 2011, 34 of the world's top
100 Web sites were using HTML5 – the adoption led by search engines and
10. Standardization process
2008 – First Public Working Draft
WHATWG published the First Public Working Draft of the specification on 22
January 2008. Parts of HTML5 have been implemented in browsers despite the
whole specification not yet having reached final Recommendation status.
2011 – Last Call
On 14 February 2011, the W3C extended the charter of its HTML Working Group with
clear milestones for HTML5. In May 2011, the working group advanced HTML5 to
"Last Call", an invitation to communities inside and outside W3C to confirm the
technical soundness of the specification.
11. Standardization process (contd.)
2012 – Working Draft
As of May 2012, the specification is back to Working Draft state at the
W3C. Ian Hickson of Google is the editor of HTML5. The criterion for the
specification becoming a W3C Recommendation is "two 100% complete
and fully interoperable implementations".Many parts of the
specification are stable and may be implemented in products.
In September 2012, the W3C proposed a plan to release a stable HTML5
Recommendation by the end of 2014 and an HTML 5.1 specification
Recommendation by the end of 2016.
12. HTML5 development timeline
13. Main features of
HTML5 introduces elements and attributes that reflect typical usage on
modern websites. Some of them are semantic replacements for common
uses of generic block (<div>) and inline (<span>) elements
Some deprecated elements from HTML 4.01 have been dropped, including
purely presentational elements such as <font> and <center>, whose effects
have long been superseded by the much more powerful Cascading Style
There is also a renewed emphasis on the importance of DOM scripting
The HTML5 syntax is no longer based on SGML despite the similarity of its
15. New APIs
In addition to specifying markup, HTML5 specifies scripting application programming
(DOM) interfaces are extended and de facto features documented. There are also
new APIs, such as:
HTML5 related APIs. The canvas element for immediate mode 2D drawing. See Canvas
2D API Specification 1.0 specification
Timed media playback
Offline Web Applications
Browser history management
MIME type and protocol handler registration
Web Storage, a key-value pair storage framework that provides behaviour similar to
cookies but with larger storage capacity and improved API.
16. HTML5 related APIs
XHTML5 is the XML serialization of HTML5. XML documents must be served
with an XML Internet media type such as application/xhtml+xml or
XHTML5 requires XML's strict, well-formed syntax. The choice between HTML5
and XHTML5 boils down to the choice of a MIME/content type: the media
type one chooses determines what type of document should be used.
In XHTML5, the HTML5 doctype html is optional and may simply be omitted.
HTML that has been written to conform to both the HTML and XHTML
specifications—and which will therefore produce the same DOM tree
whether parsed as HTML or XML—is termed "polyglot markup".
18. Differences from HTML 4.01 and XHTML
New parsing rules: oriented towards flexible parsing and compatibility; not based on SGML
Ability to use inline SVG and MathML in text/html
New elements: article, aside, audio, bdi, canvas, command, data, datalist, details, embed,
figcaption, figure, footer, header, hgroup, keygen, mark, meter, nav, output, progress, rp, rt,
ruby, section, source, summary, time, track, video, wbr
New types of form controls: dates and times, email, url, search, number, range, tel, color
New attributes: charset (on meta), async (on script)
Global attributes (that can be applied for every element): id, tabindex, hidden, data-* (custom
Deprecated elements will be dropped altogether: acronym, applet, basefont, big, center, dir,
font, frame, frameset, isindex, noframes, strike, tt
dev.w3.org provides the latest Editors Draft of "HTML5 differences from HTML 4", which provides a
complete outline of additions, removals and changes between HTML5 and HTML 4.
19. HTML5 in mobile devices
Cross-platform programming capabilities and off-line support of HTML5
20. HTML5 in app-development
HTML5 provides developers with tools such as Offline Web Storage, GeoLocation
API, Canvas Drawing, CSS3, and many more.
HTML5 applications run on Tizen, Firefox OS and WebOS without a browser.
In Windows 8, developers can build metro style apps using HTML5.
Windows 8 is first to bring HTML5 on client side app-development.
Metro-Style Apps on Windows 8.