MADE BY :- VEER SINGHGRADE VIII CSANSKAR SCHOOL
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, the concentration and the persistence.
AIR POLLUTION AND ITS HARMFUL EFFECTS Air pollution:- the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Air pollution is harmful as it has a significant risk factor for multiple health conditions including respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer, according to the WHO. The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency room visits, more hospital admissions and premature death.
SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION:- NATURAL AND MAN-MADE MAN MADE:- "Stationary Sources" include smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) etc. "Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc. Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry management. Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other solvents Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane. Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry. NATURALLY MADE:- Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earths crust. Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires Vegetation, in some regions, emits environmentally significant amounts of VOCs on warmer days. Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates
WATER POLLUTION AND SOURCES• Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.• SOURCES ARE:-POINT SOURCES ARE FACTORIES, MINES AND POWER PLANTS.NON-POINT SOURCES INCLUDE POLLUTION FROM GARDENS, STREETS, ETC.DOMESTIC SEWAGE IS THE UNTREATED SEWAGE WHICH RUNS INTO LAKES AND RIVERS.INDUSTRIAL INFLUENTS ARE BREWERIES, TANNERIES AND DYING.AGRICULTURAL DISCHARGE INCLUDE FERTILISERS AND PESTICIDES.OIL SPILLS ARE THE LEAKAGE OF PETROLEUM INTO THE SEA.
CONSERVE WATER• The 3r’s must be adopted which are – reduce, reuse and recycle.• Conserve forest and plant trees.• Adopt water harvesting technique.• Close tap while brushing.• Us bucket instead of shower.• Use bucket to wash car instead of pipe.• Water plants before or after sunset as it reduces the rate of evaporation .
CONTROL OF AIR AND WATERPOLLUTION Automobiles should be checked. Lead free petrol should be used. Automobiles should work on CNG. Switch to fuels like solar energy, hydropower and wind energy instead of fossil fuels. Domestic sewage is 99.9 percent pure water, while the other 0.1 percent are pollutants. Although found in low concentrations, these pollutants pose risk on a large scale. In urban areas, domestic sewage is typically treated by centralized sewage treatment plants. Animal excreta must be used in gas plants. Wastes must not be thrown in open drains. If oil slick if formed in lake it must be skimmed of as soon as possible. Solid organic waste must not be thrown in water bodies but can be used in biogas plants.