1. Sensory, attentional and perceptual process.
BY: NITIKA VERMA
CLASS: 11TH –C
ROLL NO: 45
2. The process by which we recognise, interpret,
or give meaning to the information provided by
sense organs is called PERCEPTION.
Perception is the organisation, interpretation,
and identification of sensory information in order
to represent and understand the enviornment.
1. The process of receiving
It is by,
4. Top-Down Processing: Information processing guided by
higher-level mental processes.
As when we construct perceptions drawing on our
experience and expectations.
Bottom-Up Processing: Analysis that begins with the sense
receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of
is a complex process by which an
individual selectively absorbs or assimilates
the stimuli in the environment, cognitively
organizes it in a specific fashion and then
interprets the information to give a meaning
to the environment
beings are not just mechanical and
passive recipients of stimuli from the
external world. They are CREATIVE BEINGS,
and try to understand the external world in
their own ways.
needs and desires of a perceiver strongly
influence his/her perception. One can fulfil the needs
and desire through various ways.
-One way is to perceive objects as a picture as
something which will satisfy the needs.
phenomenon of perceptual
familiarisation or perceptual generalisation
reflects a strong tendency to see what we
expect to see even when the results do not
accurately reflect external reality.
EXAMPLE: If your milkman delivers your
milk daily at 5:30AM , any knocking at the
door at that time is likely to be perceived as
the presence of the milkman even if it is
refers to a consistent way of dealing with
our enviornment. It significantly affects the
way we perceive the enviornment.
-Most extensivly used in studies is :
1. FIELD INDEPENDENT
2. FIELD DEPENDENT
experiences and learning
opportunities available to people in different
cultural settings also influence their
-People coming from pictureless enviornment
fail to recognise objects in pictures.
Gestalt theory focuses
on the mind’s
The word "Gestalt" has
no direct translation in
English, but refers to "a
way a thing has been
gestellt ; i.e., ‘placed,’
or ‘put together’";
include "form" and
followed the basic
principle that the whole
is greater than the sum
of its parts.
In viewing the "whole," a
cognitive process takes
place – the mind makes
a leap from
parts to realizing the
The principle of proximity
The principle of similarity
The principle of continuity
The principle of smallness
The principle of symmetry
The principle of surroundedness
The principle of closure
14. • The Gestalt law of proximity states that "objects or shapes that are
close to one another appear to form groups“
• Even if the shapes, sizes, and objects are radically different, they will
appear as a group if they are close together.
Similarity occurs when objects look similar to one
another. People often perceive them as a group or
Our mind groups similar elements to an entity.
The similarity depends on form, color, size and
brightness of the elements.
Continuation occurs when the eye is compelled to
move through one object and continue to
"tend to continue shapes beyond their ending
to this principle, smaller areas
tend to be seen as figures against a larger
principle suggest that symmetrical
areas tend to be seen as figures against
to this principle, the areas
surrounded by others tend to be perceived
Gestalt theory seeks completeness; when
shapes aren’t closed, we tend to add the
missing elements to complete the image
Although the panda is not complete, enough is
present for the eye to complete the shape.
When the viewer's perception completes a
shape, closure occurs.