Extinction of tigers - India


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Extinction of tigers - India

  2. 2. The Tiger- The Basics<br />Easily recognized by its coat of reddish-orange with dark stripes, the tiger is the largest wild cat in the world. <br />The scientific name for the tiger is Pantheratigris.<br />The big cat weighs up to 720 pounds (363 kilograms), stretches 6 feet (2 meters) long, and has a 3-foot- (1-meter-) long tail. <br />The powerful predator generally hunts alone, able to bring down prey such as deer and antelope.<br />
  3. 3. Facts about the Tiger<br />There are five subspecies of tiger:<br />Bengal<br />South China <br />Indochinese<br />Sumatran<br />Siberian<br />Three subspecies of tiger — Caspian, Bali, and Javan—are extinct.<br />Tigers that live in cold northern areas are usually bigger and heavier than those that live in tropical habitats.<br />Unlike most members of the cat family, tigers seem to enjoy water. They swim well and often soak in streams or pools of water to cool off. <br />
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  5. 5. Wacky Facts about the Tiger-Why it’s so special<br />No two tigers have exactly the same pattern of stripes.<br />A tiger retracts its claws as it walks, leaving no claw marks in its tracks.<br />Tigers hunt at night; they can see well in the dark.<br />A tiger's roar can be heard as far as two miles (three kilometers) away.<br />In captivity, a tiger can live to be 26 years old.<br />
  6. 6. Wacky facts continued<br />Tigers live alone, except for mothers and their young. A male and female tiger come together to mate, and then go their separate ways. <br />A female tiger may have from one to six cubs in a litter. The average is two or three. She raises them on her own. <br />The orange and black striped coat isn’t just for beauty but gives the cat a formidable disguise in dense undergrowth. <br />Tigers have a high level of social tolerance which means accidental disputes and fights are usually kept to a minimum. <br />Despite this clear boundaries between tiger territories are usually marked just incase,<br />With all this information in front of us the biggest threat to tigers are still human poachers who have sent the species into a downward spiral and on the verge of extinction.<br />
  7. 7. The Hidden Tiger Illusion<br />
  8. 8. A century back we started with about a lakh, today there are less than 5000 tigers in the world and less than 1200 in India<br />WHY DID THIS HAPPEN? <br />
  9. 9. Poaching and Hunting<br />
  12. 12. agricultural expansion<br />timber cutting, <br />new roads, <br />human settlement, <br />industrial expansion <br />hydroelectric dams<br />
  13. 13. Competition<br />
  14. 14. Tiger - Human Conflict<br />
  16. 16. Tiger Eyeball Pills- Take one a day to prevent convulsions <br />Tiger Gallstone Salve -Combine with honey and rub on abscesses as needed. <br />Tiger Bone Powder- Drink with wine at bedtime for spring tonic. <br />Tiger Whiskers Charm - Use as a protection against bullets. <br />Tiger Heart- Take three times a day at mealtimes for courage and cunning. <br />Tiger Tailbone Ointment - Mix with soap and rub on rashes. <br />Tiger Hair Repellent- Burn to drive away centipedes. <br />Tiger Skin- Sit on skin to reduce fever. <br />Tiger Brain Lotion - Mix with oil and rub on body to prevent acne and laziness. <br />Tiger Claw Amulet- Put in your pocket for courage. <br />Tiger Penis - Add to soup and take at bedtime for virility (used as an aphrodisiac)<br />Tiger Fat - Used as a cure for vomiting, dog bites, bleeding, hemorrhoids and scalp aliment in children.<br />Tigers Nose - Used as a cure for epilepsy and children convulsions.<br />
  17. 17.  The Genetic Threat

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  19. 19. Impact of Catastrophes<br />Small isolated populations are especially vulnerable to catastrophic events: natural disasters, such as forest fires, floods, hurricanes, and epidemics; and human-induced events, such as deforestation and conversion of habitat<br />Monsoon floods and hurricanes regularly kill some tigers in the Indian subcontinent.<br />
  20. 20. PROJECT TIGER<br />
  21. 21. Launch Of Project Tiger<br />During the tenure of late Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, an ambitious project to protect the population of Tigers in India was launched.<br />The “Project Tiger” was formed in 1972 and launched on 1st April 1973 at Jim Corbett National Park at Uttaranchal.<br />Project Tiger Scheme has been under implementation since 1973 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Government of India.<br />
  22. 22. The Project Tiger was established with an aim to provide tigers safe havens so that they are not killed. <br />This project enabled tigers to flourish as a species. <br />At the time of the commencement of the implementation of this project, there were only nine national parks. Gradually a total of 19 national parks came under the Project Tiger. <br />
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  24. 24. Aims of Project Tiger<br />To ensure maintenance of a viable population of tigers in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values.<br />To preserve, for all times, areas of such biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people.<br />
  25. 25. Early development:With the co-operation of the Indian Government, Project Tiger initially established 9 reserves, across different ecosystems. These were devoted specifically to saving the tiger and eliminating those factors which were contributing to the decline of the tiger:<br />
  26. 26. Tiger Reserves are constituted on a 'core-buffer' strategy.<br />The core area is kept free of biotic disturbances and forestry operations, where collection of minor forest produce, grazing, human disturbances are not allowed within. <br />
  27. 27. Reserve Operations of Project Tiger<br />Within the reserves, certain areas were designated as breeding grounds (core areas) and these were out of bounds to the public.<br />It was hoped that as tiger populations increased any surplus animals would migrate to neighboring forests.<br />To encourage this to happen, routes were established away from public view which allowed easy access to other forests. <br />Wide buffer zones protected the breeding areas and public access to these was limited. <br />
  28. 28. The grazing of domestic cattle was halted, as was the harvesting of forestry. <br />Entire villages were moved from the lands of their forefathers to areas where the people would no longer conflict with the wildlife. <br />Most went with little complaint. Waiting for them were new houses, more land, and community facilities.<br />
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  30. 30. SHIVALIK GANGETIC PLAINS<br /><ul><li>Stretches from a little west of the Yamuna River through southern Nepal to forests of Bhutan in the east.
  31. 31.   The tiger has become locally extinct in 29% of the districts of this landscape.
  32. 32. Currently the tiger occupies 5080 km2 of forested habitats with an estimated population size of 297 (259 to 335) in six separate populations.</li></li></ul><li>UTTARAKHAND<br />The forest cover of Uttarakhand is 24,536 km2 , comprising 46% of the geographic area Of the State.<br />  Forests of Tiger Conservation Priority I &II were 13,000 km2 in Uttrakhand.<br />  Currently tigers occupy 1901 km2 of these forests having tiger population of 178<br />Uttarakhand has a single major population of tigers constituted by the Corbett Tiger Reserve and its surrounding forests of Lansdowne, Kashipur, West part of Haldwani, North<br />Western Nainital and lower elevation area of Ranikhet comprising a occupied area of 1500<br />
  33. 33. UTTAR PRADESH<br />The forest cover of Uttar Pradesh is 14424 Km2 constituting 6% of the land area Of this forested habitat 3175 Km2 constitutes Potential Tiger habitat of Priority I and II.<br />  Tigers were found to occupy 2766 km2 of forests with an estimated population of 109 (91-127) in Uttar Pradesh.<br />  Within Uttar Pradesh tigers are distributed in one major population and three smaller <br />Populations<br />
  34. 34. BIHAR<br />The State of Bihar has a forest cover of 5,842 km2, comprising 6 % of the geographical area of the State.<br />  Tiger Conservation Priority I & II forests constituted 800 km2.<br /> Tiger occupancy was reported to be 510 km2 with an estimated tiger population of 10 (7-13) tigers.<br />Tiger population in the state of Bihar occurs as single population in Valmiki Tiger Reserve.<br />This population has a tiger occupancy of 510 km2 within India and is contiguous with<br />Chitwan National Park in Nepal.<br />
  35. 35. RAJASTHAN<br />Rajasthan has a forest cover of 21,292 km2 comprising 6% of the geographic area of the state.<br />  There is only a single tiger population in Rajasthan in the Ranthambore Tiger<br />Reserve. The contigious forest patch harbouring this population is 496 km2 with a recorded tiger occupancy in 344 km2<br />Ranthambore tigers have been reported to disperse through the<br />Narrow “ridge top” forest connectivity in the districts of Kota and Bundi towards the South-West.<br /> The total population of tigers in the state of Rajasthan was estimated to be 32 with a standard error range of 30-35 tigers<br />
  36. 36. MADHYA PRADESH<br />Madhya Pradesh has a forest cover of 80,717 km2, comprising 26% of the geographic area of the State.<br />  Madhya Pradesh reported tiger presence in 15,614 km2, leopard presence in 34,736 km2,<br />Dhole presence in 28,508 km2 and Sloth bear presence in 40,960 km2 of forested habitat.<br />
  37. 37. ORISSA<br />  The state has a total forest cover of 27,427 km2 with mapable tiger occupancy reported in 9,144 km2.<br /> Tigers were distributed in four larger occupied units, three smaller units and sporadic<br />Occurrences largely in Southern and Central part of the State.<br />
  38. 38. 1. Anti poaching Initiatives<br />
  39. 39. <ul><li>2. Strengthening of Tiger reserves:special strategy for monsoon patrollingfunding support to tiger reserve states for deployment of anti-poaching squads involving ex-army personnel/home guardsstrengthening of communication/ wireless facilities.</li></li></ul><li>3. Providing Financial Aid<br />
  40. 40. 4. To re-build Tiger reserves:As part of active management to rebuild Sariska and Panna tiger reserves where tigers have become locally extinct, reintroduction of tigers havebeen done.<br />
  41. 41. 5. Co-existence agenda in buffer / fringe areas with landscape approach<br />
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  43. 43. 6. Deciding inviolate spaces and relocation of villages from crucial tiger habitats within a timeframe by providing a better relocation package, apart from supporting States for settlement of rights of such people<br />
  44. 44. 7. Rehabilitation of traditional hunting tribes living in and around tiger reserves<br />
  45. 45. 8. Providing support to States for research and field equipments<br />
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  47. 47. 9. Supporting States for staff development and capacity building in tiger reserves.benefit local people<br />
  48. 48. 10. Mainstreaming wildlife concerns in tiger bearing forests outside tiger reserves, and fostering corridor conservation in such areas through restorative strategy involving local people to arrest fragmentation of habitats.<br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Alarming Reversal in tiger numbers<br /> Once Mrs. Gandhi was no longer in Government conservation of endangered species assumed a lesser importance. <br /> By the end of the 1980s, protections that had been put in place were fraying at the edges:<br />» Politicians listened more to the local farmers who wanted to clear forests and convert them for agricultural use.<br />» Buffer zones and access routes were encroached upon and forest areas once more fell to the axe.<br />
  51. 51. Along with these things the population of India had increased by 300 million people since the inception of Project Tiger. <br />Livestock numbers rose by 100 million animals. It was almost inevitable that in the face of these renewed threats tigers would once again begin to vanish at an alarming rate.<br />
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  53. 53. The Future<br />a) Use of Information and Communication technology in Wildlife Protection and Crime Risk Management in Tiger reserves.<br />
  54. 54. b) Tiger Habitat & Population Evaluation System for the Indian Sub Continent<br />
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Tiger Habitat & Population Evaluation System for the Indian Sub ContinentA 'Tiger Atlas of India' and a 'Tiger Habitat & Population Evaluation System for the country is being developed using the state- of - the - art technology.This involves:1. Mapping , data acquisition and GIS modeling 2. Field data collection and validation 3. Data Maintenance , Dissemination and Use<br />