A PORT BECOMES A WHEEL OF ECONOMY IF IT RUNS EFFICIENTLY. PORT IS IMPORTANT IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE. SINCE A SEAPORT IS THE NERVE OF FORIGN TRADE PERMITTING IMPORT OF GOODS , WHICH THE COUNTRY DOES NOT ITSELF PRODUCE IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITY AND THE EXPORT OF ITEMS WHICH THE COUNTRY HAS A SURPLUS OR HAS A COMPETITIVE EDGE TO PRODUCE CONTRIBUTING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ITS ECONOMY.BESIDES,A PORT IS ALSO A PLACE FOR THE PROVISION OF FURTHER SERVICES ,WHICH ADD VALUE TO THE PRODUCTS TRANSPORTED AND THUS HELPS THE INCREASING DEMAND OF TRADE. INDIA HAS A VAST COAST LINE OF ABOUT 7400 KILOMETERS SERVED BY 12 MAJOR PORTS AND ABOUT 185 MINOR PORTS AND PRIVATE PORTS.
THE MAJOR PORTS ARE THOSE PORTS WHICH ARE UNDER THE PREVIEW OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND THE MINOR PORTS ALSO KNOWN AS NON MAJOR PORTS.HOWEVER,ONLY 61 OF THE 185 MINOR PORTS PROVIDE ROUND THE YEAR BERTHING FACILITIES. MORE OVER ,INDIAN PORTS ACT (IPA) 1908 IS GOVERNNING ACT WHICH DEFINES THE JURISDICTION OF CENTER AND STATE GOVERNMENT OVER PORTS.THUS,INDIA HAS A LONG COASTLINE,SPANNING 7516.6 KILOMETERES,FORMING ONE OF THE BIGGEST PENENISULAS IN THE WORLD.IT IS SERVICED BY 13 MAJOR PORTS (12 BY GOVERNMENT AND 1 CORPORATE) AND 187 NOTIFIED MINOR AND INTERMEDIATE PORTS……………..!!
Chennai Port is an emerging hub port CHENNAI PORT on the east coast of India. This gateway port for all cargo has completed 128 years of service to Indias maritime trade. It was formerly known as Madras Port. The initial
piers were built in 1861, but the storms of 1868 and 1872 made them inoperative. So an artificial harbour was built and the operations were started in 1881.In the first couple of years the port registered traffic of 30,00,00,000 tonnes of cargo handling 600 ships. After independence the development activities of the port began.The topography of the port changed in 1964 when the Jawahar dock with capacity to berth 6 vessels to handle dry bulk cargoes was carved out on the southern side. The Chennai ports share of Iron ore export from India is 12 per cent.
It has handled 6,10,57,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010. In 1983, the port heralded the countrys first dedicated container terminal facility. Having the capability of handling fourth generation vessels, the terminal is ranked in the top 100 container ports in the world. Atulya Mira is the chairman of the port.
The Chennai port is one among the major ports having terminal shunting yard and running their own Railway operations inside the harbour on the east coast.
Cochin is the fastest growing maritime gateway to peninsular India. The Port of Cochin is located on the south west coast of India. It is situated on the Willingdon Island which is an artificial Island tucked inside the backwaters. It was established in 1926.
The Cochin port was formed naturally due the great floods of Periyar in 1341 AD, which choked the Muziris port (Kodungallur), one of the greatest ports in ancient world. Ever since the choking of Muziris, Cochin became one of the major ports with extensive trading relations Romans, Greeks and Arabs, all lured by the traditional spice wealth of the state
The port further attracted European colonialists like Portuguese, Dutch and finally British who extended their supremacy over Kochi Kingdom and the port city of Fort Kochi. The traditional port was located near Mattancherry (which still continues as Mattancherry Wharf). It has handled 1,74,29,000 tonnes of cargo fromApril 2009 to March 2010.
Amongst all major Indian ports, Cochin is the closest to the International East West Shipping routes. This geo-strategic location of Cochin gives it a distinct advantage. It is all-weather natural Port, it is located strategically close to the busiest international sea routes from the Gulf to Singapore and Europe to the Far East circuits.
The logistically sensitive port is emerging as the most preferred investment destination for maritime commerce. The chairman of Cochin port is N Ramachandran.
Ennore Port is the first port in India which is a public company. It is designed as Asias energy port, has only 86 employees. Ennore Port was originally conceived as a satellite port to the Chennai Port, primarily to handle thermal coal to meet the requirement of Tamil Nadu Electricity Board.
It was commissioned in 2001 and full-fledged operations were started since December 2002. It has handled 1,07,03,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010. The port has effectively taken over all the ore movement from the Chennai port. By 2016, the port is expected to have the capacity to handle over 80 million tonnes of cargo and its coal- handling capacity is expected to be about 43 million tonnes.
The port has adequate road and rail links. The port has obtained an in-principle approval from Southern Railway for providing rail connectivity to coal and iron ore stackyards. S Velumani is the chairman-cum-managing director of the port.
Jawaharlal Nehru Port The sea port is named after the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust is the busiest port in India
The port is run by the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, an organization entrusted with the operations of the large shipping port in Navi Mumbai, India and controlled by the Central Government of India. The port lies on the mainland, opposite the city of Mumbai across the Thane Creek. The port was created to augment the shipping capacity in Mumbai and provide an alternative to merchants wanting to save octroi charges imposed by the Brihanmum bai Municipal Corporation. JNPT also has daily ferry service to Gateway of India. The Central Industrial Security
Force is the designated security agency for the port. It is well connected to major highways and rail networks in India. The closest suburban railheads are CBD Belapur and Panvel. The port handles 65% of Indias container traffic.
Plumes of coal dust have become a part of everyday life in Visakhapatnam, the port city that handles a quarter of Indias coking coal imports by major ports. Coal is manually unloaded from vessels and shovelled onto trucks that take it to an open stack yard from where winds carry coal dust to the city.
But from October, a two-kilometre-long conveyor belt will transfer coal directly from vessels to rail wagons that will take the mineral to steel mills in Andhra Pradesh and other states. The Rs 600-crore mechanised coal handling facility is being built by Sterile Industries, a Vedanta group company, under a public-private partnership (PPP) agreement signed with the Visakhapatnam Port Trust in October 2010.
It will not only reduce coal-dust pollution in the city but also cut the turnaround time for vessels at the port. But the project is an exception in a sector where most ventures are running behind schedule. The government embarked on the PPP route for modernisation and expansion projects at major ports in the 1990s. India has 12 major ports, including in Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Chennai and Mumbai. These handled about three-fifths of Indias cargo traffic in 2011/12.
But they are choked to capacity and their market share has fallen from 74 per cent in 2003/04 to 61 per cent in 2011/12. The government aims to triple Indias total port capacity to 3.1 billion tonnes by 2020. This requires investment of roughly Rs 3 trillion (one trillion equals one lakh crore), mostly by the private sector.
Kandla is a seaport in Kutch district of Gujarat state in western India. It is located on the Gulf of Kutch and is one of major ports on the west coast. Kandla was constructed in the 1950s as the chief seaport serving western India, after the partition of India from Pakistan left the port of Karachi in Pakistan.
Kolkata is the oldest major port in the country.It is the only riverine port with two dock systems -- Kolkata dock system at Kolkata with the oil wharves at Baj Baja and a deep water dock system at Haldia dock complex. It was initially conceived to promote and protect the British colonial interest. The affairs of the port were brought under the administrative control of the government with the appoinment of a Port Commission in 1870.
The port remains one of the pioneering and most promising ports of India. It commands a vast hinterland that comprises almost half of the Indian states (whole of the eastern and north- eastern regions) and the two neighbouring countries - the Himalayan Kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan. Kolkata Dock System is situated on the left bank of the river Hooghly and has a comprehensive range of facilities to handle and transport various cargo including heavy lifts.
It also has the largest dry dock facilities in India. The Kolkata Port has been adjudged as the best managed port in the country recently . It has handled 4,62,95,000 tonnes (Haldia dock complex - 3,32,50,000 tonnes + Kolkata dock system - 1,30,45,000 tonnes) of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010.M L Meena is the chairman of Kolkata Port.
Mormugao Port is one of the oldest ports on the west coast of India. It is the premier iron ore exporting port of India with an annual throughput of around 26.74 million tonnes of iron ore traffic. It was commissioned in 1888. With the emergence of mining as a major industry in Goa, a master plan was evolved by the Portuguese for the
development of Mormugao The exploitation of iron ore Port as an iron ore terminal. mines in Goa on a commercial In accordance with this, in scale since 1947, brought about 1959 M/s Chowgule & Co. Pvt. revolutionary changes in the Ltd., was permitted to set up pattern of Mormugao Port Asias very first Mechanical traffic. Ore Handling Plant. The Mormugao was declared a Liberation of Goa on December major port in 1964. 19, 1961 marked the end of an Today, the iron exported epoch in Goan history. through Mormugao constitutes Mormugao Port, went 39 per cent of the total iron ore through a fair amount of exports from India. change as the emphasis shifted It has handled 4,88,47,000 to development of tonnes of cargo from April 2009 infrastructure. A couple of to March 2010. years after liberation, the port Praveen Agarwal is the was delinked from the Railway chairman of the port. management.
Mumbai Port was Mumbai port has three established as the Bombay enclosed wet docks. It also Port Trust on June 26, 1873. provides 63 anchorage Its first chairman was Col J points A Ballard. It has handled 5,45,43,000 It has completed 135 tonnes of cargo from April years of dedicated service to 2009 to March 2010. the nation. Rahul Asthana is the chairman of Mumbai Port. Mumbai port handles 11 per cent of the total sea-borne traffic of India. The deep waters in the harbour provide secure and ample shelter for shipping throughout the year.
The New Mangalore Port, the only major port of Karnataka was formally inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, on January 11, 1975. The provisions of the Major Ports Trust Act 1963 were applied to New Mangalore Port in 1980. The major commodities exported through the port are iron ore concentrates & pellets, iron ore fines, granite stones, containerised cargo etc. It has handled 3,55,28,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010.
The major imports of the port are crude and petroleum, oil and lubricants (POL) products, LPG, wood pulp, timber logs, finished fertilisers, liquid ammonia, phosphoric acid, other liquid chemicals, containerised cargo, etc. P Tamilvanan is the chairman of New Mangalore Port
Paradip Port is one of the major ports of India serving the eastern and central parts of the country. It is situated 210 nautical miles south of Kolkata and 260 nautical miles north of Visakhapatnam The port mainly deals with bulk cargo apart from other clean cargoes. Late Chief Minister of Orissa Biju Pattanaik is the founder father of Paradip Port. Jawaharlal Nehru the then Prime Minister of India laid the foundation stone of the Port on January 3, 1962.
The government of India took over the management of the port from the government of Orissa on 1st June 1965. It has handled 5,70,11,000 tonnes of cargo from April2009 to March 2010. The construction of the Iron ore berth was completedin1966. Government of India declared Paradip as theeighth major port of India on April 18, 1966 making itthe first major port on the east coast commissioned inindependent India.Biplav Kumar is the chairman of Paradip Port.
Considering the current situation of major ports in India as well as Maharashtra, It is very well seen that jnpt ports is performing very well as compared to the other Indian ports. We have no compare Indian ports to that of international ally exactly judge the short comings of the Indian ports the possible solutions to over come these problems.