forehead(n): The part of the face above the eyebrows and below the hairline.
The inner and somewhat concave part of the human hand
*Upper arm (n):
The section of an arm from the elbow to the shoulder.
*Unbearable (adj): so unpleasant or painful.
* Migraine(n): A severe headache, usually affecting only one side of the head, and often .accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances *Analgesics(n): Any medicine, such as aspirin, that reduces pain without inducing unconsciousness.
* Heal(n): To become healthy again. * Relieve(v): Make an unpleasant situation better . e.g. This injection should relieve the pain.
* Hypnosis(n): State like deep sleep when someone's mind & action can controlled by another person. * Stabbing(adj): (used about a pain ) sudden & strong e.g. when you feel like someone push a knife into you.
* Acupuncture (n): A way of treating or stopping pain by putting thin needles into part of the body. * Throbbing(v): To beat strongly
* Mild(adj): Not strong . * Bladder(n):The part of the body where waste liquid (urine) collects before leaving the body.
A disease or illness that’s caused by germs. * Diaphragm(n): The muscle between your lung & stomach That help you to breath.
Back Ground What is Pain?! Pain is an essential survival mechanism, for it warns us that something is wrong.
Types of Pain.. 1- Acute:is a short-time pain e.g. when you cut your self it’ll heal & goes in a short time 2- Chronic : is a long-time pain. e.g. like someone who has a Rheumatism
3- Referred : pain that is felt in a different part of the body from where the pain is caused e.g.when someone feels a heart attack, he feels pain in their left shoulder, arm or hand 4- Neuropathic: damage to the remaining nerves. e.g.when someone amputate a limb he still feels pain in that place
Kinds of Pain.. 1/ A throbbing pain: comes and goes rhythmically. 2/ A sharp pain: is strong and sudden. 3/ A burning pain: feels like fire. 4/ A stabbing pain : feels like something sharp is stuck into you.
5/ A shooting pain : travels fast along part of your body. 6/ A dull pain : is steady and not too painful. 7/ A gnawing pain : feels like it's eating you. 8/ A cramping pain : feels like a muscle is being squszed.
Levels of Pain.. How many times the pain occurs ? Frequency of pain)) Occasional / frequent / constant
A numerical scale : . ( 0 means no pain & 10 is the worst pain you can imagine )
The verbal pain scale: Uses verbal lines in colours ranging from light blue ( no pain ) to bright red ( sever pain ).
How to treat pain..? * 1-we instinctively deal with pain by rubbing the part that hurts. This suggests to scientists that stimulating touch signals closes a ( gate ) to pain signals. Physiotherapy & acupuncture take advantage of this phenomenon. * 2-The gate can also be shut by the release of pain-relieving opioids, either produced naturally by the body. Or introduced artificially in the form of analgesics like Aspirin & Morphine. * 3-Psychological stress can temporarily shut off pain too , e.g. footballer may continue to play despite injury & a soldier continue to fight despite wounds.
Laboratory Medicine (9) Presented by : Elham Aqeel. Bashair Al-Thbiti. Supervised by : Tr: NisreenYamany