The Nature of Learning! Photo courtesy of Ellen BannerNature of Learning Grant: Gaining a better understanding of wildlife at NNWR and the effects of climate change with the help of student NatureMapping.
The Nisqually Delta startedforming about 15,000 years ago.
The Nisqually Indians were the first people to live in the area.The Nisqually people were first known as “Squally-absch”,meaning “people of the grass country”.Americans later changed the spelling to Nisqually.
Medicine Creek Treaty TreeBefore and after the December 15, 2006 wind storm
!"#$%&($)%*#&+,(-& In 1904 A.L. Brown bought 850 acres along McAllister Creek, as well as 1,500 acres along the Nisqually River Delta, building a earthen dike to keep the salt water out of the low delta lands.
Many plans were proposed for the delta, including a landfill!"#$!$#%%&$!(%)$&*)(+$
Luckily, there were conservationists and activists who worked withstate and federal officials to protect the Delta from development.
In 1974, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service established Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge to be managed as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System.
Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge Restoration!
Nisqually Estuary Restoration!
How will climate change affectwildlife?!
Greenhouse gases (water vapor, CO2, CH4, N2O) play a ! critical role in determining global temperature ! Rapid increases in greenhouse gases are changing this natural balance
Projected Increases in PNW Temp! 14.4° F +5.9ºF (2.8-9.7ºF) 10.8° F +3.5ºF (1.6-5.2ºF) 7.2° F°C +2.2ºF (1.1-3.4ºF) 3.6° F 0°F • Rate of change expected to be 3x greater Changes relative • Warming expected in all seasons, greatest in summer to 1970-1999
Importance of Nisqually Wetlands!Wetlands function as:• sponges• as buffers!against storms• as sources of fresh water and food• excellent carbon storage!Disturbance of the Nisqually wetlands could release 45-89% of thecarbon that is being stored through sequestration (burial).
CO2 CO2 CO2 C O2
Floods Early peakWarm, low flowsstreamflow ??
Increased Flooding Events- Chehalis Flood!
King Tide in Olympia, WA January 21, 2010! Photo by G. Kaminsky!
In-stream Flows !
Snow-dependent Water Supply ! Snow-dependent Water Supply
Nearly every glacier in the Cascades and Olympics has retreated during the past 50-150 years!South CascadeGlacier, 1928 (top) and2000 (right)!Photos courtesy of Dr. Ed Josberger, USGSGlacier Group, Tacoma, WA
NatureMapping links diverse groups togetherRetired natural through active participation in science andresource the use of emerging technologies… Business…professionals…
Global Climate Change!Change will happen - willwe be prepared?Who is monitoring ?NatureMapping has always intended to beproactive. The Program goals mesh withcreating positive efforts to understandglobal climate change!
Invasive species! Didemnum vexillum
How does Nature Mapping help with Climate Change?!With your help, Nature Mapping willallow us to measure the biodiversity ofspecies found in Nisqually NationalWildlife Refuge!We can then ask questions such as:• Are there any changes in the types ofwildlife we are seeing?• Are we seeing wildlife not typical tothis area?• Have migration patterns been alteredby climate change?
Founded in 1992 to:! • Map and measure biodiversity with the help of schools and general public. Participants are asked to tell us: “What do you see and where do you see it?” • Provide the skills necessary to collect and apply communities’ research data for local conservation efforts • Integrate NatureMapping into schools so they become long-term wildlife monitors • Help communities develop their biodiversity “report cards” 37
./0&1$&)2&3,(24&Biological – It is home to hundreds of species of unique flora and fauna!Cultural – It is a source of food and survival to indigenous and immigrant societies!Spiritual/Intrinsic – It has been apart of many religious traditions for thousands of years! It is also valued in its ability to provide spiritual renewal…Economic – A variety of foods are harvested and sold locally and around the world which feeds back into our economy!
Technological Tools:!NatureTrackerGIS! 39
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Data Collection Form!
What to expect when you visit…! • During the NatureMapping activity your group will be split up into smaller groups • Be respectful, walk around the refuge quietly so you don’t startle the wildlife. • Please make sure to turn your NatureMapping data in to your group leader! Remember, the best way to see wildlife is to be very quiet and to be very observant!
How Can You Help?! • Reduce your carbon footprint- • use less water • use less electricity- be smart! • bike, bus, and walk • recycle • Restoration work • Water quality monitoring • Nature Mapping