SOCIAL MARKETING  How the Nisqually River Council can  apply this model to behavior change.                               ...
AGENDA FOR THE DAY •  Overview of Social Marketing •  Draft a Social Marketing Plan for a    target audience and single de...
DEFINITIONS   FORMAL: “ A process that applies   marketing principles and   techniques to influence   target audience   be...
DEFINITIONS: INFORMAL    Influencing Public Behaviors for Good                                            4
IT’S ALL ABOUT BEHAVIORS  •    Eat 5 fruits and vegetables a day.  •    Move right for sirens and lights.  •    Exercise 3...
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS  •  IMPROVING     HEALTH  •  PREVENTING     INJURIES  •  PROTECTING     THE ENVIRONMENT  •  INVOLVING...
YEAR 2009 REPORT CARD U.S.:   HEALTH  •  Each day, 3400+ youth tried first cigarette  •  50,000 people died from colon can...
YEAR 2009 REPORT CARD:   SAFETY  •  More than 3,000 children and     teens died from gunshot wounds  •  Close to 11,000 pe...
YEAR 2009 REPORT CARD:  ENVIRONMENT   • 50 billion plastic bags end up in the   ocean every year   • More than 6 million a...
YEAR 2009 REPORT CARD:COMMUNITY  •  3+ million dogs in shelters were not     adopted.  •  More than 6,000 people on waitin...
HOW DIFFERS •  Commercial Sector Marketing     –  Typically goods and services     –  For a profit     –  Benefit of share...
HOW DIFFERS  From Education:  –  Education typically just informs  –  Social Marketing is intent on influencing     behavi...
CREDIT TO JAY KASSIRER, DAVE WARD, EVERETT ROGERS                                                    13
WHY IT’S A 1000 TIMESHARDER HARDER.       We ask people to . . . .  •    Be uncomfortable  •    Risk rejection  •    Reduc...
STEPS IN THE PLANNNG PROCESS  1.  Establish Purpose & Focus  2.  Analyze Situation  3.  Select Target Audience  4.  Determ...
RESEARCH  Useful In Every Step                         17
RESEARCH EXAMPLE •  Increasing use of PedFlags in    Kirkland, Washington                                    18
RESEARCH EXAMPLE •  Situation: City of Kirkland     –  Pedestrian flags since 1996     –  2006: Wanted to increase usage •...
RESEARCH EXAMPLE •  Purpose:   –  How many people are using?   –  Who uses?   –  Who doesn’t?   –  When?   –  Why?   –  Wh...
WHO USES? WHO DOESN’T?                 <10    10-20    20-40    40-60    60+ YRS.   MALE    FEMALE                 YRS.   ...
BARRIERS •  What are they for? •  No flags on my side. •  Holder hard to use. •  I feel safe.                           22
1ST P: PRODUCT •  Old Design   •  New Design                                 23
2ND P: PRICE •  Adopt a Crosswalk Partners                                 24
25
3RD P: PLACE •  Improving Access                       26
4TH P: PROMOTION •  Drink Coasters   •  Posters                                  27
4th P: PROMOTION •  Downtown   •  Sidewalk Stencils    Banner                                      28
RETAIL PARTNERS & STAFF                          29
5 MONTHS LATER               2007    2008    % CHANGE   # People/    Crossing    2426    2363 3% Decrease   Crosswalk     ...
STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Ob...
STEP 1. PURPOSE & FOCUS  •  Purpose:    –  What is the potential impact of a       successful campaign?  •  Focus:    –  W...
STEP 1. PURPOSE & FOCUSSOCIAL ISSUE    CAMPAIGN PURPOSE               OPTIONS FOR FOCUSFamily          Decrease teen pregn...
STEP 1. PURPOSE & FOCUS   ARTICULATE PURPOSE AND CHOOSE FOCUS   Purpose:   Protect, Restore and Enhance Ecosystem Function...
PRINCIPLE #1   “Choose a focus that will have an   impact on your plan’s purpose.”   NOTE: A focus might be stated in term...
CASE EXAMPLE: FOCUS •  Background   –  2003 Chesapeake Bay   –  Concern with declining blue crabs   –  From 78 million pou...
CASE EXAMPLE: FOCUS  •  Potential Focus:    –  Commercial Practices    –  Industry Regulation    –  Residential Gardening ...
CASE EXAMPLE: FOCUS  •  Behavior    –  Skip the spring lawn fertilizer    –  Wait until Fall  •  Positioning    –  Reframi...
CASE EXAMPLE: FOCUS                      39
40
CASE EXAMPLE: FOCUS   BEHAVIOR CHANGE OUTCOMES     • Before campaign:       – 52% planning to fertilize in spring     • Af...
GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 1: Purpose & Focus                              42
STEP 1. PURPOSE & FOCUS   ARTICULATE PURPOSE AND CHOOSE FOCUS   Purpose:   Protect, Restore and Enhance Ecosystem Function...
STEP 2. SITUATION ANALYSIS   CONDUCT SWOT   –  Internal Factors: Resources, Expertise,      Management Support, Past Perfo...
SITUATION ANALYSIS                     45
PRINCIPLE #2   “TAKE ADVANTAGE OF WHAT’S BEEN   DONE BEFORE THAT WORKS.” •  It saves time. •  It saves money. •  It increa...
CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT  •  Scooping the Poop in Austin, Texas  •  Background: 2000      –  120,000 households with dogs      –...
CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT        INTERNAL FACTORS                EXTERNAL FORCES   STRENGTHS:                      OPPORTUNITIES:...
CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT  •  Behavior Objectives      –  Scoop the Poop  •  Knowledge Objectives      –  Why pet waste is harmfu...
CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT •  Barriers:   –  Lack of convenient access to disposable      bags   –  Lack of trash cans to quickly ...
PRODUCT   PRICE   PLACE   PROMOTION   PRODUCT:    –  Mutt Mitt Stations    –  Bag Holder Giveaway                         ...
PRODUCT   PRICE   PLACE   PROMOTION    – Non-emergency number to      report violators    – Free dispenser to “Green      ...
PRODUCT   PRICE   PLACE   PROMOTION    –  Number to call if dispensers empty    –  Yard signs mailed to homes             ...
PRODUCT     PRICE        PLACE   PROMOTION  •  Promotional     Strategies:      –  Paid media      –  Social media      – ...
CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT     Year   Mutt Mitts         # Pounds          Annual      Estimated            Distributed      Colle...
Comparison of Bull Creek Bacteria            Levels                                    56
CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT  •  Monitoring prompted changes:    –  Cleanup event    –  Highly visible signage in park    –  Install...
GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 2: Situation Analysis •  Internal   –  Strengths   –  Weaknesses •  External   –  Opportunities   –...
STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Ob...
TARGET AUDIENCES •  DEFINED   –  “A set of buyers sharing common      characteristics that an organization      decides to...
STEP 3. SELECT TARGET AUDIENCE    Three Step Process:    1.  Segment Market    2.  Evaluate Segments    3.  Select Targets...
BENEFITS OF TARGETING •  Increased Effectiveness     –  Strategies designed to        address a market’s        unique nee...
STEP 3. SELECT TARGET AUDIENCE      WAYS TO SEGMENT   •  Demographics        –    Age        –    Income        –    Gende...
FOR SOCIAL MARKETING:STAGES OF CHANGE  1. Precontemplation     Not thinking about making a change  2. Contemplation     Th...
SHOW ME, HELP ME, MAKE ME                            65
STEP 3. SELECT TARGETAUDIENCES   CHOOSING:     • SIZE     • PROBLEM INCIDENCE     • READY TO ACT     • ABILITY TO REACH   ...
PRINCIPLE #3  “START WITH TARGET AUDIENCES  MOST READY FOR ACTION.”  –  Those who see the need to change.  –  Those who ha...
CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOODWATCH •  Seafood Watch Background:   –  Increasing number of endangered marine      species due to in...
CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOODWATCH •  Purpose   –  Increase purchasing of “green” fish      and decrease purchasing of “red” fish ...
CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOODWATCH 1.  Consumers decide to buy (more or only)     sustainable seafood. 2.  Consumers start asking ...
CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOODWATCH •  Target audience most likely to use card    and make requests:   –  Buy green products   –  A...
CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOOD  WATCH  THEY WOULD INFLUENCE:   –  Chefs at Restaurants   –  Buyers at Grocery Stores •  THEN THEY W...
CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOOD WATCH •  Core Product    (Benefit)   –  A sustainable and      healthy supply of “my      favorite f...
CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOODWATCH                        74
CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOOD  WATCH •  PRICE:   –  Free cards   –  Free iPhone App •  PLACE:   –  Cards ordered online and mailed...
CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOOD  WATCH •  Downstream:     –  32,000,000 cards distributed •  Midstream:     –  800% increase in use ...
GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 3: Select Target Audience   –  Consistent with Campaign Purpose                                    ...
STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Ob...
STEP 4: DETERMINE BEHAVIOROBJECTIVE & GOALS   BEHAVIOR OBJECTIVES:    –  What we want our target audience to do.   GOALS: ...
STEP 4: DETERMINE BEHAVIOROBJECTIVE & GOALS   BEHAVIOR OBJECTIVES    –  Reroute your downspout to a rain garden    –  Plan...
STEP 4: DETERMINE BEHAVIOROBJECTIVE & GOALS  •  Impact     –  How much will this contribute to the plan’s purpose?  •  Wil...
PRIORITIZING BEHAVIORS  Scale of 1 – 10 (Highest)   BEHAVIOR        IMPACT   WILLINGNESS     MARKET       SIMPLE   WEIGHTE...
STEP 4: SET BEHAVIOR OBJECTIVES    & GOALS    GOALS: S.M.A.R.T.    Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant,    Time Sen...
STEP 4: SET BEHAVIOROBJECTIVE & GOALS  •  Major Types of Goals:    –  Changes in behavior    –  Changes in intent to chang...
STEP 4: SET OBJECTIVES &GOALS  •  Sources for Goal Setting    –  National Tracking Studies    –  Prior studies    –  Prior...
PRINCIPLE #4  “Promote one single, doable  behavior, one at a time.”  –  One that will make a difference  –  One that the ...
CASE EXAMPLE: 2008 EXERCISEFOR STORM OUTREACH  •  Brainstormed close to 18 Behaviors  •  Ranked Each One on a Scale 1-10: ...
CASE EXAMPLE: 2008 EXERCISE      FOR STORM OUTREACH      LAWN AND GARDEN                             VEHICLE              ...
Puget Sound Partnership2012 Stewardship    Research
1. GENERAL PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY    •  Public perception of Puget Sound      •  Accurate understanding      •  Public valu...
2. INDEX DEVELOPMENT SURVEY   •  Sound Behavior Index     •  Indicator behaviors related to habitat,        shorelines, wa...
SOUND BEHAVIOR INDEX   •  Index development     •    28 indicator behaviors     •    Track individual behaviors over time ...
Boat Maintenance
PIERCE                                                      U08+;E0%F60,70%7J,09%BL%dS0>;J1%                              ...
THURSTON                                                       U08+;E0%W4S,>GJ1%7J,09%BL%dS0>;J1%                         ...
GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 4: Determine Desired Behavior   –  For Target Audience   –  Support Purpose                        ...
STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Ob...
STEP 5: IDENTIFY BARRIERS,BENEFITS, COMPETITION   FOR THE DESIRED BEHAVIOR:   –  Barriers   –  Benefits   –  Competition  ...
BARRIERS•  May be Internal or External•  Real or Perceived:   –    Knowledge   –    Belief   –    Skills   –    Infrastruc...
PRINCIPLE #4  “UNDERSTAND AUDIENCE  BARRIERS TO BEHAVIOR  CHANGE.” •  Some are perceived. •  Some are real. •  Most of the...
PRINCIPLE #5 “Bring Real Benefits to the Present.”   –  “There is not more disease when the      whether heats up, just mo...
ROAD CREW  “Why do you drive after drinking  excessively?”  –  To get home!  –  I need my car in the morning  –  Everybody...
ROAD CREW  “What do you want instead?”  –  Nice vehicles (no school buses)  –  Ride from home  –  Ride between bars  –  Ri...
PRODUCT   PRICE   PLACE   PROMOTION •  Old limos •  Pick up at home,    work or hotel •  Scheduled time •  Can take you   ...
PRODUCT   PRICE   PLACE   PROMOTION •  Average $15-$20 evening /per person                                          111
PRODUCT   PRICE   PLACE   PROMOTION                                      112
PRODUCT    PRICE     PLACE   PROMOTION  •  Thailand, 1991, 140,000 AIDS cases/yr.                                         ...
MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL    THE FLUFFY BUN                         THE BEEF  INPUTS     OUTPUTS       OUTCOMES         IMPACT ...
GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 5: Understand Barriers & Benefits   –  Brainstorm 5-10 Barriers   –  Brainstorm 2-3 Benefits       ...
STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Ob...
STEP 6: POSITIONING  •  Positioning Statement:  •  “We want (TARGET AUDIENCE) to     see (DESIRED BEHAVIOR) as     (DESCRI...
POSITIONING              We want tweens              to see regular              physical activity              as somethi...
CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE  PLANTS    State of Virginia (Eastern Coast) •  Background   –  Loss of native vegetation on shores  ...
CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE  PLANTS •  Target Audiences     –  Homeowners on shoreline interested and        engaged in landscapi...
CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE  PLANTS   BARRIERS: •  Don’t know what plants are native •  Don’t understand what plants have to    d...
CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE  PLANTS   Product:    –  Plant Tags    –  Increased inventory   Price    –  Logo pin for       “leade...
CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE  PLANTS •  Promotion   –  Logo   –  Booklet                       123
CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE  PLANTS  January 2009    Campaign Design including message,                  images, name  February 2...
CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE  PLANTS   OUTCOMES: •  Sales-Related:    –  Fall 2009 sales up 10% from ’08 •  Policy-Related:    –  ...
GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 6: Craft a Positioning Statement   –  Adjectives we would want target audience      to use to descr...
STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Ob...
4Ps IN THE MARKETING TOOLBOX  •  To overcome barriers & provide     benefits  •  Product  •  Price  •  Place  •  Promotion...
STEPS IN PLANNING 1.    Purpose & Focus 2.    Analyze Situation 3.    Select Target Audience 4.    Determine Behavior Obje...
PRODUCT DECISIONS •  CORE PRODUCT   –  What potential benefits are stressed •  ACTUAL PRODUCT   –  Specific behavior (e.g....
AUGMENTED PRODUCT •  Although optional, sometimes    what’s needed to:   –  Provide encouragement   –  Remove barriers   –...
REPLACING THE PYRAMID                        132
TANGIBLE OBJECT FOR REDUCINGDRINKING & DRIVING                               133
TANGIBLE OBJECT TO SUPPORTWATER CONSERVATION                             134
THUMB SOCKS TO DISCOURAGE   TEXTING                        135
TANGIBLE OBJECT TO SUPPORTINCREASED EXERCISE  •  Chicago alone: 175 schools                                  136
SERVICE FOR TOBACCOPREVENTION                      137
CIGARETTE BUTT SOLUTION                          138
AUGMENTED PRODUCT •  Guide for Pest    Identification                     139
FROM OUR COLLEAGUES IN AMSTERDAM                         140
PRINCIPLE #7  •  ”DEVELOP OR PROMOTE A     TANGIBLE GOOD OR SERVICE.”   –  Provides encouragement   –  Removes barriers   ...
CASE EXAMPLE: NATURAL YARDCARE WORKSHOPS  •  Spring 2000  •  King County DNRP  •  Ad campaign to influence:      •  Leave ...
CASE EXAMPLE: NATURAL YARDCARE WORKSHOPS      •  2000 Piloted new strategy      •  Targeting “One Neighborhood at a       ...
CASE EXAMPLE: NATURAL YARDCARE WORKSHOPS  •  Research with 400 households  •  Barriers to Natural Gardening:    –  Not kno...
PRODUCT   PRICE   PLACE   PROMOTION    PRODUCT: •  2-hour neighborhood workshops •  First 7 years, 5 practices •  2008, ad...
PRODUCT      PRICE          PLACE   PROMOTION •  Free •  Door prizes like    mulch mowers    –  Attending all 3       sess...
PRODUCT       PRICE      PLACE     PROMOTION •    2 hour workshop •    Weekday evenings (7pm – 9pm) •    Spring and fall •...
PRODUCT   PRICE    PLACE   PROMOTION  •  Fun, informative and free  •  Direct mail, door-to-door calls  •  Email reminders...
CASE EXAMPLE: NATURAL YARDCARE WORKSHOPS  •  Behavior Change Research:    –    99% mower at 2 inches    –    99% avoiding ...
GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 7: Product Strategies   –  Potential Goods   –  Potential Services                                 ...
WHERE ARE WE? 1.    Purpose & Focus 2.    Analyze Situation 3.    Select Target Markets 4.    Determine Behavior Objective...
2ND P: PRICE      Price Tool Options: •    Monetary incentives •    Monetary disincentives •    Nonmonetary incentives •  ...
2ND P: PRICE   2. Develop Strategies:      Monetary Strategies     •  Coupons     •  Bulk discounts     •  Rebates     •  ...
MONETARY INCENTIVES •  Free native plants for riparians •  Rebates on old car seats •  Discount coupons for home energy   ...
CASE EXAMPLE: RECYCLE  •  City of Hollywood, Florida  •  Partnership with RecycleBank  •  “Frequent flier” rewards        ...
CASE EXAMPLE: RECYCLE                        156
CASE EXAMPLE: RECYCLE                        157
NONMONETARY INCENTIVES •  Gifts for kids at dental offices •  One year birthday refrigerator    magnet for timely immuniza...
NONMONETARY INCENTIVE INSINGAPORE •  Restaurant recognition for healthy    foods                                     159
GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 7: Price Strategy   –  Monetary Incentives   –  Nonmonetary Incentives   –  Monetary Incentives   –...
WHERE ARE WE? 1.    Purpose & Focus 2.    Analyze Situation 3.    Select Target Audience 4.    Determine Behavior Objectiv...
3RD P: PLACE   Definition:   Where and when market will:    –  Perform behavior    –  Acquire tangible objects    –  Recei...
3RD P: PLACE   COMPONENTS:   –  Physical location and its ambiance   –  Whether you provide remote access:      •    Inter...
3RD P: PLACE  •  NOTE: It is not the same as the     media channel, where messages     will appear.                       ...
3RD P: PLACE  •  Place Objective:    –  Make it as convenient and pleasant as       possible for our target audience to   ...
STEP 5: PLACE TACTICS  •  Look for ways to:    –  Make the location closer    –  Extend hours    –  Make location more app...
HOW ABOUT THIS FOR THETRUCKERS?                         167
STEP 7: PLACE TACTICS  •  Ways to extend hours    –  Saturday clinics for flu shots    –  24-hour help lines    –  Child c...
STEP 7: PLACE TACTICS  •  Ways to improve “ambiance”:     –  Mammograms in the mall     –  Community clinics . . . just fo...
SUPPORT FOR BIKING                     170
STEP 7: PLACE TACTICS  •  Ways to be there at the point of     decision-making:    –  Ecstasy pill testing at nightclubs  ...
STEP 7: PLACE TACTICS  •  Make performing the behavior     more convenient than the     competition    –  Family friendly ...
CASE EXAMPLE: FORK IT OVER!  •  Year 2000. Metro Regional Government  •  Perfect storm in Portland Oregon:    –  180,000 t...
CASE EXAMPLE:FORK IT OVER!  •  Food Rescue Program  •  Partners: Restaurant Association, Chef’s, Food Bank, 3     Counties...
CASE EXAMPLE:FORK IT OVER!  •  Restaurant Concerns Addressed:    –  How do we get involved?    –  How do we get the food t...
CASE EXAMPLE: FORK IT OVER!  •  Response of Fork it Over:    –  Online registration    –  Online selection of agency    – ...
CASE EXAMPLE: FORK IT OVER!  •  Making a difference:     –    1999 -2005, 18 million pounds forked over     –    Spent $70...
PRINCIPLE #9 •  “MAKE ACCESS CONVENIENT.”  –  Location  –  Ambiance of facility  –  Hours  –  Days of week                ...
PLACE WAS THE PROBLEM  •  Denmark 2009  •  Pilot to supply addicts w/free heroin to     reduce associated crime    –  Incl...
PLACE WAS THE PROBLEM  •  The Place was the problem:    –  Had to go to medical clinic    –  Doctor administered  •  Took ...
GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 7: Place Strategies   –  Access to goods and services                                     181
WHERE ARE WE? 1.    Purpose & Focus 2.    Analyze Situation 3.    Select Target Audience 4.    Determine Behavior Objectiv...
STEP 7: PROMOTION •  DEFINITION     “Persuasive communications    designed and delivered    to highlight product, price, p...
STEP 7: PROMOTION   3 COMPONENTS: •  MESSAGE    –  What you want to communicate •  MESSENGERS    –  Who might be used to d...
DEVELOPING MESSAGES  •  What do you want your target     audience to do?  •  What do they need to know?  •  What do they n...
#10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING PERSUASIVE MESSAGES   •  Concrete   •  Personal   •  Clear and simple   •  Easy to remember ...
#10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPINGPERSUASIVE MESSAGES  •  Make Messages Concrete                                187
#10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPINGPERSUASIVE MESSAGES  •  Make Messages Personal                              188
#10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING  PERSUASIVE MESSAGES   •  Be clear and simple.                                189
190
#10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPINGPERSUASIVE MESSAGES  •  Make Messages Easy To      Remember                             191
#10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING  PERSUASIVE MESSAGES    •  Consider Fun Messages                                192
#10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING  PERSUASIVE MESSAGES  •  Consider Fun Messages                                193
#10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING  PERSUASIVE MESSAGES    Fear appeals works better when:     –  Accompanied by a solution    ...
“Over 100 cats & dogs will be euthanized by tonight if not  adopted today.”                                195
MESSENGER •  Who will deliver messages?   –  Spokesperson   –  Sole Sponsor   –  Partners   –  Mascot •  Considerations:  ...
#11 USE APPROPRIATE MESSENGERS                      197
TOYS AS MESSENGERS   •  Barbie’s New Dog Tanner who comes      with a magnetic pooper scooper and a      trash can!       ...
COMMUNICATIONCHANNELS •  Traditional Media       •    Advertising       •    Public Relations & Special Events       •    ...
COMMUNICATIONCHANNELS  PRINCIPLE #12 •  Channel Principles    –  Try for popular,       entertainment media    –  Be there...
#12 POPULAR ENTERTAINMENT MEDIA                            201
#12 JUST IN TIME MEDIA                         202
#12 JUST IN TIME MEDIA ON ACEILING IN A SMOKER’S LOUNGE                               203
#12 JUST IN TIME MEDIA   –  Messages for tobacco prevention on toilet      paper in Porta Potties at Youth Concerts      •...
#12 TAP SOCIAL MEDIA                                                 205           Source: Homer Simpson of the Matrix
#13 MAKE NORMS VISIBLE  •  Especially effective when:      –  Majority doing the behavior      –  Those not doing behavior...
Opower,	  an	  energy	  efficiency	  and	  smart	  grid	  so4ware	  company,	  has	  developed	  a	  program	  whereby	  res...
#14 USE PROMPTS •  Prompts serve as a reminder •  Prompts help convey social norm •  Newborn diaper strap to reduce    SID...
#14 USE PROMPTS                  209
#15 GET COMMITMENTS. •  Written commitments are better than verbal    ones. •  Public commitments are best. •  Self Prophe...
GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 7: Promotion  – Messages  – Messengers  – Media Channels                        211
WHERE ARE WE? 1.    Purpose & Focus 2.    Analyze Situation 3.    Select Target Audience 4.    Determine Behavior Objectiv...
WHAT TO MEASURE •  Input Measures •  Output/Process Measures •  Outcome Measures •  Impact Measures •  Return on Investmen...
“WHERE’S THE BEEF?” •  1984 Commercial •  Wendy’s hamburgers •  Making fun of the    competitor’s big    fluffy bun •  And...
MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL     THE FLUFFY BUN                 THE BEEF  INPUTS       OUTPUTS   OUTCOMES   IMPACT     ROIResource...
MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL     THE FLUFFY BUN                      THE BEEF  INPUTS        OUTPUTS       OUTCOMES   IMPACT     R...
MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL     THE FLUFFY BUN                         THE BEEF  INPUTS        OUTPUTS        OUTCOMES     IMPACT...
MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL     THE FLUFFY BUN                           THE BEEF  INPUTS        OUTPUTS        OUTCOMES       IM...
MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL     THE FLUFFY BUN                           THE BEEF  INPUTS        OUTPUTS        OUTCOMES       IM...
FOR OUR EXAMPLE  THE FLUFFY BUN                THE BEEFINPUTS     OUTPUTS   OUTCOMES   IMPACT     ROI
WHAT’S THE BEEF?  •  For every taxpayer dollar spent,     what did we save or earn?  •  What, then, is the rate of return ...
A FINAL WORD ON R0I   EXAMPLES FOR NPS STORMWATER     OUTREACH ACTIVITIES   1.  Use a Commercial Carwash   2.  Fertilize I...
WHAT YOU’LL NEED   OUTPUT   –  Keep track of all campaign costs   OUTCOME   –  Measure number of people who changed      b...
Use a Commercial Carwash     OUTPUT     OUTCOME                  “ROI”   $100,000   200,000 people              4 fewer ca...
Fertilize Only in the Fall     OUTPUT    OUTCOME                “ROI”   $100,000   200,000 people                         ...
WHERE ARE WE? 1.    Purpose & Focus 2.    Analyze Situation 3.    Select Target Audience 4.    Determine Objectives & Goal...
STEP #9 •  Establishing Budgets & Finding    Funding •  Approaches:   –  Affordable Method   –  Competitive-Parity Method ...
BUDGET COMPONENTS  Cost-Related Components:   –  Product-Related Costs   –  Price-Related Costs   –  Place-Related Costs  ...
STEP 9: BUDGETS & FUNDING  •  If budgets exceed funding:    –  Explore additional sources of funding       including corpo...
STEP 10: IMPLEMENTATION •  What •  Who •  When •  How Much (Budget) •  Formats vary; ideally, 2-3 years                   ...
UTILIZING VOLUNTEERS  •  Bayside Climate Change Action Group  •  Bayside, Australia  •  Human Sign!                       ...
UTILIZING VOLUNTEERS  •  Mission: Reduce junk mail  •  Target: Well-intended, but     not active, Greens  •  Behavior: adh...
VOLUNTEERS •  Distribution:      •  Results   –  Coffee shops       –  Observation   –  Libraries             research   –...
IN SUMMARY •  What is social marketing? •  Why do we choose target audiences? •  How do we select a desired behavior? •  W...
A 10 STEP PLANNING MODEL 1.    Establish Purpose & Focus 2.    Analyze Situation 3.    Select Target Audiences 4.    Deter...
USE PRINCIPLES THAT WORK  1.     Choose a focus that will have an impact on your plan’s         purpose  2.     Take advan...
Social Marketing and Behavior Change in the Nisqually Watershed
Social Marketing and Behavior Change in the Nisqually Watershed
Social Marketing and Behavior Change in the Nisqually Watershed
Social Marketing and Behavior Change in the Nisqually Watershed
Social Marketing and Behavior Change in the Nisqually Watershed
Social Marketing and Behavior Change in the Nisqually Watershed
Social Marketing and Behavior Change in the Nisqually Watershed
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Social Marketing and Behavior Change in the Nisqually Watershed

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Presentation By: Nancy Lee, President and Founder of Social Marketing Services, Inc.

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Social Marketing and Behavior Change in the Nisqually Watershed

  1. 1. SOCIAL MARKETING How the Nisqually River Council can apply this model to behavior change. 1
  2. 2. AGENDA FOR THE DAY •  Overview of Social Marketing •  Draft a Social Marketing Plan for a target audience and single desired behavior •  Use this model going forward 2
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS FORMAL: “ A process that applies marketing principles and techniques to influence target audience behaviors that benefit society as well as the target audience.” BEHAVIORS TO REJECT, MODIFY, ACCEPT, ABANDON 3
  4. 4. DEFINITIONS: INFORMAL Influencing Public Behaviors for Good 4
  5. 5. IT’S ALL ABOUT BEHAVIORS •  Eat 5 fruits and vegetables a day. •  Move right for sirens and lights. •  Exercise 30 minutes, 5X a week. •  Don’t idle more than 10 seconds, except when in traffic. •  Store handguns in lockbox or safe. •  Keep a litterbag in your car. •  Ride the bus or join a carpool to work. •  Immunize on time. •  Sort office paper for recycling. •  Ask for your chicken without the skin. •  Know your BMI. 5
  6. 6. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS •  IMPROVING HEALTH •  PREVENTING INJURIES •  PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT •  INVOLVING THE COMMUNITY •  ENHANCING FINANCIAL WELL BEING 6
  7. 7. YEAR 2009 REPORT CARD U.S.: HEALTH •  Each day, 3400+ youth tried first cigarette •  50,000 people died from colon cancer •  40,000+ women+ died from breast cancer •  33,000+ men died from prostate cancer •  Close to 50% of adults aged 18 and over did not have regular physical activity •  12,000+ infants born with fetal alcohol syndrome 7
  8. 8. YEAR 2009 REPORT CARD: SAFETY •  More than 3,000 children and teens died from gunshot wounds •  Close to 11,000 people were killed in alcohol-related crashes •  6% of high school youth attempted suicide; 14 % considered it 8
  9. 9. YEAR 2009 REPORT CARD: ENVIRONMENT • 50 billion plastic bags end up in the ocean every year • More than 6 million acres burned from wildfires in the United States • Only 23% of glass disposed of was recycled • 1.69 billion pounds of cigarette butts were littered worldwide 9
  10. 10. YEAR 2009 REPORT CARD:COMMUNITY •  3+ million dogs in shelters were not adopted. •  More than 6,000 people on waiting lists for organ transplants died •  Only 61.6% of eligible voters voted in the 2008 U.S. presidential election 10
  11. 11. HOW DIFFERS •  Commercial Sector Marketing –  Typically goods and services –  For a profit –  Benefit of shareholders •  Non-Profit Marketing –  Promoting services –  Supporting fundraising •  Cause Marketing –  Raising awareness and concern about a cause •  Cause-Related Marketing –  Portion of sales go to a charity/cause •  Social Marketing –  Benefit society and the target audience 11
  12. 12. HOW DIFFERS From Education: –  Education typically just informs –  Social Marketing is intent on influencing behavior change From Advertising: –  Advertising is only one of the communication options (Promotion Tool) for influencing behavior –  There are 3 other powerful tools: Product, Price and Place 12
  13. 13. CREDIT TO JAY KASSIRER, DAVE WARD, EVERETT ROGERS 13
  14. 14. WHY IT’S A 1000 TIMESHARDER HARDER. We ask people to . . . . •  Be uncomfortable •  Risk rejection •  Reduce pleasure •  Give up looking good •  Be embarrassed •  Go out of their way •  Spend more time •  Spend more money •  Learn new skills 15
  15. 15. STEPS IN THE PLANNNG PROCESS 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategies 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan LAMINATED HANDOUT ON PLANNING STEPS 16
  16. 16. RESEARCH Useful In Every Step 17
  17. 17. RESEARCH EXAMPLE •  Increasing use of PedFlags in Kirkland, Washington 18
  18. 18. RESEARCH EXAMPLE •  Situation: City of Kirkland –  Pedestrian flags since 1996 –  2006: Wanted to increase usage •  Target Audience: –  Workers, shoppers •  Behavior: –  Use a flag every time 19
  19. 19. RESEARCH EXAMPLE •  Purpose: –  How many people are using? –  Who uses? –  Who doesn’t? –  When? –  Why? –  Why not? 20
  20. 20. WHO USES? WHO DOESN’T? <10 10-20 20-40 40-60 60+ YRS. MALE FEMALE YRS. YRS. YRS. YRS. All 44 177 1343 744 315 1486 1302 Pedestrians Flag Available # Using 31 25 111 57 43 137 130 Flag % Using 71% 14.1% 8.3% 7.7% 13.7% 9.2% 10.1% Flag 21
  21. 21. BARRIERS •  What are they for? •  No flags on my side. •  Holder hard to use. •  I feel safe. 22
  22. 22. 1ST P: PRODUCT •  Old Design •  New Design 23
  23. 23. 2ND P: PRICE •  Adopt a Crosswalk Partners 24
  24. 24. 25
  25. 25. 3RD P: PLACE •  Improving Access 26
  26. 26. 4TH P: PROMOTION •  Drink Coasters •  Posters 27
  27. 27. 4th P: PROMOTION •  Downtown •  Sidewalk Stencils Banner 28
  28. 28. RETAIL PARTNERS & STAFF 29
  29. 29. 5 MONTHS LATER 2007 2008 % CHANGE # People/ Crossing 2426 2363 3% Decrease Crosswalk s # Flags Carried 267 438 64% Increase % Usage 11% 18.5% 68% Increase 30
  30. 30. STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategies 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 31
  31. 31. STEP 1. PURPOSE & FOCUS •  Purpose: –  What is the potential impact of a successful campaign? •  Focus: –  What approach will you use that might contribute to the plan’s purpose? 32
  32. 32. STEP 1. PURPOSE & FOCUSSOCIAL ISSUE CAMPAIGN PURPOSE OPTIONS FOR FOCUSFamily Decrease teen pregnancies CondomsPlanning Birth control pills Abstinence Sexual assault preventionTraffic Injuries Decrease drinking & driving Designated drivers Underage drinking & drivingAir Pollution Reduce fuel emissions Carpooling Mass transit Wood Burning Not topping off gas tanksLandfill Reduce items taken to Reduce use landfill Reuse Recycle 33
  33. 33. STEP 1. PURPOSE & FOCUS ARTICULATE PURPOSE AND CHOOSE FOCUS Purpose: Protect, Restore and Enhance Ecosystem Function Focus: Riparian Zones Purpose: Protect and Enhance Biological Diversity Focus: Invasive Species Purpose: Promote Sustainable Resource Use Focus: Animal Densities Purpose: Facilitate the Appreciation, Protection, and Enhancement of the Watershed through Education & Participation Focus: Landowner Stewardship 34
  34. 34. PRINCIPLE #1 “Choose a focus that will have an impact on your plan’s purpose.” NOTE: A focus might be stated in terms of a: –  Population (Homeowners) –  Activity (Gardening) –  Solution (Native Plants) 35
  35. 35. CASE EXAMPLE: FOCUS •  Background –  2003 Chesapeake Bay –  Concern with declining blue crabs –  From 78 million pounds/year to 50 million –  Chesapeake Bay Program funded AED to develop Promotional effort 36
  36. 36. CASE EXAMPLE: FOCUS •  Potential Focus: –  Commercial Practices –  Industry Regulation –  Residential Gardening •  Rationale: –  Larger audience –  Not focused on in past –  Media opportunities –  Supplier relations 37
  37. 37. CASE EXAMPLE: FOCUS •  Behavior –  Skip the spring lawn fertilizer –  Wait until Fall •  Positioning –  Reframing the problem of a polluted bas as a culinary, not an environmental, problem 38
  38. 38. CASE EXAMPLE: FOCUS 39
  39. 39. 40
  40. 40. CASE EXAMPLE: FOCUS BEHAVIOR CHANGE OUTCOMES • Before campaign: – 52% planning to fertilize in spring • After 2 weeks of campaign: – 39% planning to fertilize in spring (25% improvement) 41
  41. 41. GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 1: Purpose & Focus 42
  42. 42. STEP 1. PURPOSE & FOCUS ARTICULATE PURPOSE AND CHOOSE FOCUS Purpose: Protect, Restore and Enhance Ecosystem Function Focus: Riparian Zones Purpose: Protect and Enhance Biological Diversity Focus: Invasive Species Purpose: Promote Sustainable Resource Use Focus: Animal Densities Purpose: Facilitate the Appreciation, Protection, and Enhancement of the Watershed through Education & Participation Focus: Landowner Stewardship 43
  43. 43. STEP 2. SITUATION ANALYSIS CONDUCT SWOT –  Internal Factors: Resources, Expertise, Management Support, Past Performance •  Strengths to maximize •  Weaknesses to minimize –  External Forces: Cultural, Socioeconomic, Economic, Political/Legal, External Publics •  Opportunities to take advantage of •  Threats to prepare for 44 –  Not the same as Barriers
  44. 44. SITUATION ANALYSIS 45
  45. 45. PRINCIPLE #2 “TAKE ADVANTAGE OF WHAT’S BEEN DONE BEFORE THAT WORKS.” •  It saves time. •  It saves money. •  It increases effectiveness. •  It’s probably out there . . . somewhere. 46
  46. 46. CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT •  Scooping the Poop in Austin, Texas •  Background: 2000 –  120,000 households with dogs –  Each dog ½ lb. waste daily –  60,000 pounds/day in Austin –  22 million pounds/year 47
  47. 47. CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FORCES STRENGTHS: OPPORTUNITIES: $500 existing fine Citizen complaints for petwaste on private property Management priority given water quality requirements Large portion (at least 1/3) of (11 or Austin’s creeks listed citizens who interested in as impaired because of complying bacteria) WEAKNESSES: THREATS: Fines not enforced; requires a Popularity of off leash parks law officer to witness Not a norm 48
  48. 48. CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT •  Behavior Objectives –  Scoop the Poop •  Knowledge Objectives –  Why pet waste is harmful •  Belief Objectives –  You can make a difference 49
  49. 49. CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT •  Barriers: –  Lack of convenient access to disposable bags –  Lack of trash cans to quickly dispose of it –  Finding the task messy and smelly –  Believing “one little” pile can’t be a problem” –  Some believing it is good fertilizer 50
  50. 50. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION PRODUCT: –  Mutt Mitt Stations –  Bag Holder Giveaway 51
  51. 51. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION – Non-emergency number to report violators – Free dispenser to “Green Neighborhoods” Distribute guides; mark drains 52
  52. 52. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION –  Number to call if dispensers empty –  Yard signs mailed to homes 53
  53. 53. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION •  Promotional Strategies: –  Paid media –  Social media –  Posters –  Public Events –  Face-to-Face –  Mascot 54
  54. 54. CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT Year Mutt Mitts # Pounds Annual Estimated Distributed Collected and Program Cost Per Disposed of Budget Pound Properly to Collect @ .5 lbs. per bag & Dispose on average of Properly 2001 75,000 37,500 lbs. $10,000 $.27/lb. 2003 535,000 267,500 lbs. $53,000 $.20/lb. 2006 967,000 483,500 lbs. $72, 500 $.15/lb. 2008 2,000,000 1,000,000 lbs. $87,000 $.09/lb. 2009 2,400,000 1,200,000 lbs. $92,000 $.08/lb. 55
  55. 55. Comparison of Bull Creek Bacteria Levels 56
  56. 56. CASE EXAMPLE: SWOT •  Monitoring prompted changes: –  Cleanup event –  Highly visible signage in park –  Installation of more Scoop the Poop boxes –  Press conference –  Increased park police –  Staff presence •  Currently (2010) meet standards 57
  57. 57. GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 2: Situation Analysis •  Internal –  Strengths –  Weaknesses •  External –  Opportunities –  Threats 58
  58. 58. STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategies 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 59
  59. 59. TARGET AUDIENCES •  DEFINED –  “A set of buyers sharing common characteristics that an organization decides to serve.” 60
  60. 60. STEP 3. SELECT TARGET AUDIENCE Three Step Process: 1.  Segment Market 2.  Evaluate Segments 3.  Select Targets for Campaign 61
  61. 61. BENEFITS OF TARGETING •  Increased Effectiveness –  Strategies designed to address a market’s unique needs, wants •  Increased Efficiencies –  Higher response creates lower cost per sale •  Helps Allocate Resources –  Evaluation of markets •  Helps Develop Strategies –  Detailed profiles provide rich insights 62
  62. 62. STEP 3. SELECT TARGET AUDIENCE WAYS TO SEGMENT •  Demographics –  Age –  Income –  Gender –  Education –  Household composition •  Geographics (Where live, where work) •  Psychographics (Values & Lifestyle) •  Behaviors •  Benefits Sought (Looking good vs. health) •  Healthstyles Segmentation 63 •  Stage of Change
  63. 63. FOR SOCIAL MARKETING:STAGES OF CHANGE 1. Precontemplation Not thinking about making a change 2. Contemplation Thinking about making a change, but have barriers and concerns 3. In Action Actively preparing for or attempting the change 4. Maintenance Committed to the behavior and have no intention to return to earlier behavior 64
  64. 64. SHOW ME, HELP ME, MAKE ME 65
  65. 65. STEP 3. SELECT TARGETAUDIENCES CHOOSING: • SIZE • PROBLEM INCIDENCE • READY TO ACT • ABILITY TO REACH 66
  66. 66. PRINCIPLE #3 “START WITH TARGET AUDIENCES MOST READY FOR ACTION.” –  Those who see the need to change. –  Those who have the means. –  Those we can reach. BY DOING THIS WE: –  Increase return on investment •  Time •  Money •  Impact 67
  67. 67. CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOODWATCH •  Seafood Watch Background: –  Increasing number of endangered marine species due to interactions with fishing gear –  Overfishing steadily increasing with 63% of assessed stocks needing rebuilding –  1999, Monterey Bay Aquarium in California launched the Seafood Watch Program 68
  68. 68. CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOODWATCH •  Purpose –  Increase purchasing of “green” fish and decrease purchasing of “red” fish •  Focus –  Facilitating decisions at point-of- purpose 69
  69. 69. CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOODWATCH 1.  Consumers decide to buy (more or only) sustainable seafood. 2.  Consumers start asking questions and making requests at stores/restaurants. 3.  Purveyors work with suppliers. 4.  Suppliers shift purchasing 5.  Fishing/aquaculture industry responds 70
  70. 70. CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOODWATCH •  Target audience most likely to use card and make requests: –  Buy green products –  Avoid companies with negative reputations –  Pay higher prices for environmentally responsible products –  Believe their actions make a difference •  Estimated at 15-25% of U.S. 71
  71. 71. CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOOD WATCH THEY WOULD INFLUENCE: –  Chefs at Restaurants –  Buyers at Grocery Stores •  THEN THEY WOULD INFLUENCE: –  Suppliers •  AND THEY WOULD INFLUENCE: –  Fisheries 72
  72. 72. CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOOD WATCH •  Core Product (Benefit) –  A sustainable and healthy supply of “my favorite fish” •  Actual Product –  “Green” fish •  Augmented Products –  Wallet Card –  iphone application 73
  73. 73. CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOODWATCH 74
  74. 74. CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOOD WATCH •  PRICE: –  Free cards –  Free iPhone App •  PLACE: –  Cards ordered online and mailed –  Available at partner locations •  PROMOTION: –  Public Relations –  Advocacy with Chefs, Restaurants, Suppliers –  Web site 75
  75. 75. CASE EXAMPLE: SEAFOOD WATCH •  Downstream: –  32,000,000 cards distributed •  Midstream: –  800% increase in use of “sustainable seafood” term in print media •  Upstream: –  In 2006, Wal-Mart, world’s largest retailer, pledged that in 3-5 years it would only source “green” fish –  In 2008, ARAMARK, leading food service company, shifted to purchases of “green” items 76
  76. 76. GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 3: Select Target Audience –  Consistent with Campaign Purpose 77
  77. 77. STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategies 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 78
  78. 78. STEP 4: DETERMINE BEHAVIOROBJECTIVE & GOALS BEHAVIOR OBJECTIVES: –  What we want our target audience to do. GOALS: (S.M.A.R.T.) –  Quantifying objectives •  Specific •  Measurable •  Achievable •  Relevant •  Timebound 79
  79. 79. STEP 4: DETERMINE BEHAVIOROBJECTIVE & GOALS BEHAVIOR OBJECTIVES –  Reroute your downspout to a rain garden –  Plant native plants on waterfront shores –  Contain and cover manure piles –  Fence farm animals away from creeks 80
  80. 80. STEP 4: DETERMINE BEHAVIOROBJECTIVE & GOALS •  Impact –  How much will this contribute to the plan’s purpose? •  Willingness –  How willing is your target audience to do this? •  Market Size (Doug’s PENETRATION) –  How many in the target audience are not doing this? –  Does the behavior need more support? ADAPTED FROM DOUG-MCKENZIE MOHR 81
  81. 81. PRIORITIZING BEHAVIORS Scale of 1 – 10 (Highest) BEHAVIOR IMPACT WILLINGNESS MARKET SIMPLE WEIGHTED OPPORTUNITY AVERAGE AVERAGEInstall aprogrammablethermostatSet water heaterto 120Sign up forGreen PowerInstall a lowflow showerhead or faucet 3 CATEGORIES ADAPTED FROM DOUG-MCKENZIE MOHR 82
  82. 82. STEP 4: SET BEHAVIOR OBJECTIVES & GOALS GOALS: S.M.A.R.T. Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time Sensitive –  Number of Mercer Island homes buying Green Power from PSE increases from 160 – 460 in six months. –  300,000 homes in the county install a low flow toilet –  50% of airline travelers have their computers out of their bags when they arrive at checkpoints –  90% of toddlers are fully immunized on time by 2 83
  83. 83. STEP 4: SET BEHAVIOROBJECTIVE & GOALS •  Major Types of Goals: –  Changes in behavior –  Changes in intent to change behavior –  Changes in knowledge –  Changes in beliefs/attitudes 84
  84. 84. STEP 4: SET OBJECTIVES &GOALS •  Sources for Goal Setting –  National Tracking Studies –  Prior studies –  Prior campaigns –  Others? 85
  85. 85. PRINCIPLE #4 “Promote one single, doable behavior, one at a time.” –  One that will make a difference –  One that the audience will know if they have done –  One that you can measure or observe 86
  86. 86. CASE EXAMPLE: 2008 EXERCISEFOR STORM OUTREACH •  Brainstormed close to 18 Behaviors •  Ranked Each One on a Scale 1-10: –  Impact –  Willingness –  Supply –  Support –  Match –  Effectiveness of the Social Marketing Tool –  Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaign 87
  87. 87. CASE EXAMPLE: 2008 EXERCISE FOR STORM OUTREACH LAWN AND GARDEN VEHICLE PET#3 Fertilize Sparingly #2 Use Commercial Car Wash #1 Pick Up Pet Waste#6 Spot Treat vs. Broad Application #4 Regular Auto Maintenance#7 Compost Mulch #5 Wash Car On Pervious#9 Rain Garden Surface#11 Maintain Tree Cover #8 Dispose used fluid#12 Improve Soil properly#14 Reduce Lawn #10 Charity car wash#18 Hand Pull Weeks #13 Choose alternative transportation #17 Cardboard test for oil leaks 88
  88. 88. Puget Sound Partnership2012 Stewardship Research
  89. 89. 1. GENERAL PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY •  Public perception of Puget Sound •  Accurate understanding •  Public value •  Optimism •  Sense of place •  Activities •  Place attachment •  Personal impact
  90. 90. 2. INDEX DEVELOPMENT SURVEY •  Sound Behavior Index •  Indicator behaviors related to habitat, shorelines, water quality •  Biennial, long-term index •  Social Capital Index •  Trust, personal connections, social engagement •  Periodic index
  91. 91. SOUND BEHAVIOR INDEX •  Index development •  28 indicator behaviors •  Track individual behaviors over time •  Track collective progress over time •  Index values for region and by county •  Sample size: 3,621 •  300 per county •  12 Puget Sound counties •  Random phone survey
  92. 92. Boat Maintenance
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  95. 95. GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 4: Determine Desired Behavior –  For Target Audience –  Support Purpose 102
  96. 96. STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategies 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 103
  97. 97. STEP 5: IDENTIFY BARRIERS,BENEFITS, COMPETITION FOR THE DESIRED BEHAVIOR: –  Barriers –  Benefits –  Competition THE EXCHANGE THEORY 104
  98. 98. BARRIERS•  May be Internal or External•  Real or Perceived: –  Knowledge –  Belief –  Skills –  Infrastructure –  Technology –  Economic status –  Cultural•  Costs, objections, reasons don’t want to or can’t do the behavior•  A GIFT! 105
  99. 99. PRINCIPLE #4 “UNDERSTAND AUDIENCE BARRIERS TO BEHAVIOR CHANGE.” •  Some are perceived. •  Some are real. •  Most of the time, you can help. 106
  100. 100. PRINCIPLE #5 “Bring Real Benefits to the Present.” –  “There is not more disease when the whether heats up, just more personal exposure.” Bill Smith, AED –  “Bring future value closer to the present.” Michael Rothschild, University of Wisconsin 107
  101. 101. ROAD CREW “Why do you drive after drinking excessively?” –  To get home! –  I need my car in the morning –  Everybody does it –  I feel safe (especially at 1am) –  Low risk of getting caught 108
  102. 102. ROAD CREW “What do you want instead?” –  Nice vehicles (no school buses) –  Ride from home –  Ride between bars –  Ride back home –  With my buddies –  Smoking and drinking 109
  103. 103. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION •  Old limos •  Pick up at home, work or hotel •  Scheduled time •  Can take you between bars •  Can smoke & drink 110
  104. 104. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION •  Average $15-$20 evening /per person 111
  105. 105. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION 112
  106. 106. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION •  Thailand, 1991, 140,000 AIDS cases/yr. 113
  107. 107. MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL THE FLUFFY BUN THE BEEF INPUTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES IMPACT ROI2000-2007 Road Crew 85,000 rides 17% Cost of crash Service reduction in $231,000$870,000 Developed & crashes Available Savings Avoided: $31 million Promotional materials 140 alcohol For every $1 related spent $35.63 crashes saved 6 fatalities 3463% ROI No increase alcohol
  108. 108. GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 5: Understand Barriers & Benefits –  Brainstorm 5-10 Barriers –  Brainstorm 2-3 Benefits 115
  109. 109. STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategies 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 116
  110. 110. STEP 6: POSITIONING •  Positioning Statement: •  “We want (TARGET AUDIENCE) to see (DESIRED BEHAVIOR) as (DESCRIPTIVE PHRASE)” 117
  111. 111. POSITIONING We want tweens to see regular physical activity as something that is cool and fun and better than just sitting around and watching TV or playing videogames all the time. 118
  112. 112. CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE PLANTS State of Virginia (Eastern Coast) •  Background –  Loss of native vegetation on shores –  Impact on wildlife habitat & water quality •  Purpose –  Protect habitat & improve water quality •  Focus –  Native Plants 119
  113. 113. CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE PLANTS •  Target Audiences –  Homeowners on shoreline interested and engaged in landscaping property –  Garden Center and Nursery Owners •  Behaviors –  Choose native plants for landscapes and/or replace invasive and non-native plants with native ones 120
  114. 114. CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE PLANTS BARRIERS: •  Don’t know what plants are native •  Don’t understand what plants have to do with animals or water quality •  Lack availability of native plants •  Feel natives are scraggly and weedy, not colorful or attractive •  Garden centers not helpful 121
  115. 115. CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE PLANTS Product: –  Plant Tags –  Increased inventory Price –  Logo pin for “leadership groups” Place –  Nurseries and Garden Centers 122
  116. 116. CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE PLANTS •  Promotion –  Logo –  Booklet 123
  117. 117. CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE PLANTS January 2009 Campaign Design including message, images, name February 2009 Visits to local garden centers and nurseries to influence signage, tags, assistance Spring 2009 Campaign launch with special events and radio campaign (April – June) July 2009 Feedback from garden center owners August 2009 Campaign enhancements Fall 2009 Enhanced campaign (Sept. – Nov.) 124
  118. 118. CASE EXAMPLE: NATIVE PLANTS OUTCOMES: •  Sales-Related: –  Fall 2009 sales up 10% from ’08 •  Policy-Related: –  One Garden Center/Nursery will grow their own stock of over 40 species of native plants –  New Garden Center will provide special section and offer classes 125
  119. 119. GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 6: Craft a Positioning Statement –  Adjectives we would want target audience to use to describe the desired behavior 126
  120. 120. STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategies 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 127
  121. 121. 4Ps IN THE MARKETING TOOLBOX •  To overcome barriers & provide benefits •  Product •  Price •  Place •  Promotion 128
  122. 122. STEPS IN PLANNING 1.  Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Objective & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategy Product, Price, Place, Promotion 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 129
  123. 123. PRODUCT DECISIONS •  CORE PRODUCT –  What potential benefits are stressed •  ACTUAL PRODUCT –  Specific behavior (e.g., Eat 5 A Day) –  Name associated with behavior –  Sponsors and endorsements •  AUGMENTED PRODUCT –  Any new accompanying services or enhancements –  Any new tangible product or improvements 130
  124. 124. AUGMENTED PRODUCT •  Although optional, sometimes what’s needed to: –  Provide encouragement –  Remove barriers –  Sustain behavior –  Make campaign more memorable –  Create partnerships 131
  125. 125. REPLACING THE PYRAMID 132
  126. 126. TANGIBLE OBJECT FOR REDUCINGDRINKING & DRIVING 133
  127. 127. TANGIBLE OBJECT TO SUPPORTWATER CONSERVATION 134
  128. 128. THUMB SOCKS TO DISCOURAGE TEXTING 135
  129. 129. TANGIBLE OBJECT TO SUPPORTINCREASED EXERCISE •  Chicago alone: 175 schools 136
  130. 130. SERVICE FOR TOBACCOPREVENTION 137
  131. 131. CIGARETTE BUTT SOLUTION 138
  132. 132. AUGMENTED PRODUCT •  Guide for Pest Identification 139
  133. 133. FROM OUR COLLEAGUES IN AMSTERDAM 140
  134. 134. PRINCIPLE #7 •  ”DEVELOP OR PROMOTE A TANGIBLE GOOD OR SERVICE.” –  Provides encouragement –  Removes barriers –  Sustains behavior –  Makes campaign more memorable –  Creates partnerships 141
  135. 135. CASE EXAMPLE: NATURAL YARDCARE WORKSHOPS •  Spring 2000 •  King County DNRP •  Ad campaign to influence: •  Leave grass clippings on the lawn •  Not to use pesticides •  40% awareness •  Little/no behavior change 142
  136. 136. CASE EXAMPLE: NATURAL YARDCARE WORKSHOPS •  2000 Piloted new strategy •  Targeting “One Neighborhood at a Time” vs. 500,000 home gardeners •  24 Desired Behaviors: –  Building healthy soils –  Practicing natural lawn care –  Choosing the best/right plants for the site –  Controlling pests and diseases w/o pesticides –  Water deeply and less frequently 143
  137. 137. CASE EXAMPLE: NATURAL YARDCARE WORKSHOPS •  Research with 400 households •  Barriers to Natural Gardening: –  Not knowing ideal practices –  Not knowing how to do –  Concern lawn won’t look as good –  Natural pesticides don’t work –  Don’t believe pesticides a real problem –  Perception natural products more costly –  Natural ways take more time •  Motivator: Neighbor’s success 144
  138. 138. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION PRODUCT: •  2-hour neighborhood workshops •  First 7 years, 5 practices •  2008, added garden design 145
  139. 139. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION •  Free •  Door prizes like mulch mowers –  Attending all 3 sessions increases likelihood) •  Free information kit valued at $15 •  Extra materials to give to neighbors (Diffusion) 146
  140. 140. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION •  2 hour workshop •  Weekday evenings (7pm – 9pm) •  Spring and fall •  Familiar location with free parking –  Schools, churches, community centers •  Register by phone or email or at door 147
  141. 141. PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION •  Fun, informative and free •  Direct mail, door-to-door calls •  Email reminders (Prompt) 148
  142. 142. CASE EXAMPLE: NATURAL YARDCARE WORKSHOPS •  Behavior Change Research: –  99% mower at 2 inches –  99% avoiding pesticides –  58% choosing native plants –  45% watering deeply/infrequently –  43% using organic or slow-release fertilizers –  39% planted drought-tolerant plants –  39% applying organic layer of mulch –  26% called the garden hotline •  Attendees shared workshop and tips w/ 5 others •  Average cost to reach a gardener and their friends ($17) 149
  143. 143. GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 7: Product Strategies –  Potential Goods –  Potential Services 150
  144. 144. WHERE ARE WE? 1.  Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Markets 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Develop Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategy •  Product, Price, Place, Promotion 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 151
  145. 145. 2ND P: PRICE Price Tool Options: •  Monetary incentives •  Monetary disincentives •  Nonmonetary incentives •  Nonmonetary disincentives 152
  146. 146. 2ND P: PRICE 2. Develop Strategies: Monetary Strategies •  Coupons •  Bulk discounts •  Rebates •  Fines Nonmonetary Strategies •  Recognition •  Appreciation 153
  147. 147. MONETARY INCENTIVES •  Free native plants for riparians •  Rebates on old car seats •  Discount coupons for home energy audits •  $200 for sterilization of drug- addicted women •  Paying people to be tuberculosis pill pals 154
  148. 148. CASE EXAMPLE: RECYCLE •  City of Hollywood, Florida •  Partnership with RecycleBank •  “Frequent flier” rewards 155
  149. 149. CASE EXAMPLE: RECYCLE 156
  150. 150. CASE EXAMPLE: RECYCLE 157
  151. 151. NONMONETARY INCENTIVES •  Gifts for kids at dental offices •  One year birthday refrigerator magnet for timely immunizations •  A room of praise at a weight- watcher meeting 158
  152. 152. NONMONETARY INCENTIVE INSINGAPORE •  Restaurant recognition for healthy foods 159
  153. 153. GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 7: Price Strategy –  Monetary Incentives –  Nonmonetary Incentives –  Monetary Incentives –  Nonmonetary Disincentives 160
  154. 154. WHERE ARE WE? 1.  Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategy •  Product, Price, Place, Promotion 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 161
  155. 155. 3RD P: PLACE Definition: Where and when market will: –  Perform behavior –  Acquire tangible objects –  Receive services 162
  156. 156. 3RD P: PLACE COMPONENTS: –  Physical location and its ambiance –  Whether you provide remote access: •  Internet: Web sites, email, blogs, podcasts •  Mail •  Phone •  Mobile Units •  Kiosks •  Where people dine and hang out –  Days of week available –  Hours available 163
  157. 157. 3RD P: PLACE •  NOTE: It is not the same as the media channel, where messages will appear. 164
  158. 158. 3RD P: PLACE •  Place Objective: –  Make it as convenient and pleasant as possible for our target audience to perform the behavior, acquire any tangible objects, and receive any services. 165
  159. 159. STEP 5: PLACE TACTICS •  Look for ways to: –  Make the location closer –  Extend hours –  Make location more appealing –  Be there at the point of decision- making –  Make performing the desired behavior more convenient that the competing behavior 166
  160. 160. HOW ABOUT THIS FOR THETRUCKERS? 167
  161. 161. STEP 7: PLACE TACTICS •  Ways to extend hours –  Saturday clinics for flu shots –  24-hour help lines –  Child care searches on line –  Pets on the net 168
  162. 162. STEP 7: PLACE TACTICS •  Ways to improve “ambiance”: –  Mammograms in the mall –  Community clinics . . . just for teens, with reading materials and décor to which the market can relate 169
  163. 163. SUPPORT FOR BIKING 170
  164. 164. STEP 7: PLACE TACTICS •  Ways to be there at the point of decision-making: –  Ecstasy pill testing at nightclubs –  A glass bowl of fruits and vegetables at eye level in the refrigerator –  Providing pet waste bags & receptacles at parks –  Free litterbags at gas pumps 171
  165. 165. STEP 7: PLACE TACTICS •  Make performing the behavior more convenient than the competition –  Family friendly lanes in grocery stores –  Smoking locations outside buildings 172
  166. 166. CASE EXAMPLE: FORK IT OVER! •  Year 2000. Metro Regional Government •  Perfect storm in Portland Oregon: –  180,000 tons food disposed annually in solid waste system –  Oregon Food Bank struggling 173
  167. 167. CASE EXAMPLE:FORK IT OVER! •  Food Rescue Program •  Partners: Restaurant Association, Chef’s, Food Bank, 3 Counties, 25 cities, Food Alliance •  Provide food business a safe and convenient way to donate their perishable and surplus prepared foods to agencies that serve the hungry 174
  168. 168. CASE EXAMPLE:FORK IT OVER! •  Restaurant Concerns Addressed: –  How do we get involved? –  How do we get the food to you? –  Can we select the agency closest to us? 175
  169. 169. CASE EXAMPLE: FORK IT OVER! •  Response of Fork it Over: –  Online registration –  Online selection of agency –  Picked up at scheduled time 176
  170. 170. CASE EXAMPLE: FORK IT OVER! •  Making a difference: –  1999 -2005, 18 million pounds forked over –  Spent $700,000 to administer program –  Saved $647,650 in disposal costs –  Food worth $17 million –  Every dollar invested, $31 benefit 177
  171. 171. PRINCIPLE #9 •  “MAKE ACCESS CONVENIENT.” –  Location –  Ambiance of facility –  Hours –  Days of week 178
  172. 172. PLACE WAS THE PROBLEM •  Denmark 2009 •  Pilot to supply addicts w/free heroin to reduce associated crime –  Included doctor prescription –  Guaranteed pure dose •  Out of 30,000 addicts only 80 took offer •  The barrier wasn’t Product or Price or Promo 179
  173. 173. PLACE WAS THE PROBLEM •  The Place was the problem: –  Had to go to medical clinic –  Doctor administered •  Took away the fun and the freedom benefit 180
  174. 174. GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 7: Place Strategies –  Access to goods and services 181
  175. 175. WHERE ARE WE? 1.  Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategy •  Product, Price, Place, Promotion 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 182
  176. 176. STEP 7: PROMOTION •  DEFINITION “Persuasive communications designed and delivered to highlight product, price, place.” 183
  177. 177. STEP 7: PROMOTION 3 COMPONENTS: •  MESSAGE –  What you want to communicate •  MESSENGERS –  Who might be used to deliver messages •  COMMUNICATION CHANNEL –  Where you will communicate 184
  178. 178. DEVELOPING MESSAGES •  What do you want your target audience to do? •  What do they need to know? •  What do they need to believe (different)? 185
  179. 179. #10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING PERSUASIVE MESSAGES •  Concrete •  Personal •  Clear and simple •  Easy to remember •  Fun when appropriate •  Using fear, follow up with solutions 186
  180. 180. #10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPINGPERSUASIVE MESSAGES •  Make Messages Concrete 187
  181. 181. #10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPINGPERSUASIVE MESSAGES •  Make Messages Personal 188
  182. 182. #10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING PERSUASIVE MESSAGES •  Be clear and simple. 189
  183. 183. 190
  184. 184. #10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPINGPERSUASIVE MESSAGES •  Make Messages Easy To Remember 191
  185. 185. #10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING PERSUASIVE MESSAGES •  Consider Fun Messages 192
  186. 186. #10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING PERSUASIVE MESSAGES •  Consider Fun Messages 193
  187. 187. #10 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING PERSUASIVE MESSAGES Fear appeals works better when: –  Accompanied by a solution –  Targeted at someone close to the target adopter rather than target adopter –  Credible source –  Previously unconcerned 194
  188. 188. “Over 100 cats & dogs will be euthanized by tonight if not adopted today.” 195
  189. 189. MESSENGER •  Who will deliver messages? –  Spokesperson –  Sole Sponsor –  Partners –  Mascot •  Considerations: –  Expertise, trustworthiness, likeability 196
  190. 190. #11 USE APPROPRIATE MESSENGERS 197
  191. 191. TOYS AS MESSENGERS •  Barbie’s New Dog Tanner who comes with a magnetic pooper scooper and a trash can! 198
  192. 192. COMMUNICATIONCHANNELS •  Traditional Media •  Advertising •  Public Relations & Special Events •  Printed Materials •  Special Promotional Items •  Signage and Displays •  Nontraditional and New Media •  Popular Entertainment Media •  Public Art •  Product Integration •  Social Media •  Web Sites •  Mobile Phones for “Pull versus Push” Campaigns 199
  193. 193. COMMUNICATIONCHANNELS PRINCIPLE #12 •  Channel Principles –  Try for popular, entertainment media –  Be there “just in time” –  Use prompts –  Tap social media and networks –  “Surprise them” 200
  194. 194. #12 POPULAR ENTERTAINMENT MEDIA 201
  195. 195. #12 JUST IN TIME MEDIA 202
  196. 196. #12 JUST IN TIME MEDIA ON ACEILING IN A SMOKER’S LOUNGE 203
  197. 197. #12 JUST IN TIME MEDIA –  Messages for tobacco prevention on toilet paper in Porta Potties at Youth Concerts •  “May your lungs be cleaner than this Porta Potty.” •  “Tobacco kills one person every 10 seconds. Good thing you’re sitting down.” •  “ What’s worse: running out of toilet paper of running out of breath.” 204
  198. 198. #12 TAP SOCIAL MEDIA 205 Source: Homer Simpson of the Matrix
  199. 199. #13 MAKE NORMS VISIBLE •  Especially effective when: –  Majority doing the behavior –  Those not doing behavior don’t know in minority •  Social Norms Theory –  Behaviors influenced by what we think others we like/respect do 206
  200. 200. Opower,  an  energy  efficiency  and  smart  grid  so4ware  company,  has  developed  a  program  whereby  residents  receive  informa:on  about  their  own  level  of  household  ener #13 MAKE NORMS VISIBLE[] •  OPOWER –  Energy Efficiency & Software Company –  “It’s time to engage the 300 million Americans in the dark about their energy use.” –  First 1 million HH cut usage by 1.5% -3.5% 207
  201. 201. #14 USE PROMPTS •  Prompts serve as a reminder •  Prompts help convey social norm •  Newborn diaper strap to reduce SIDS 208
  202. 202. #14 USE PROMPTS 209
  203. 203. #15 GET COMMITMENTS. •  Written commitments are better than verbal ones. •  Public commitments are best. •  Self Prophecy or Self Fulfilling strategy 210
  204. 204. GROUP EXERCISE •  Step 7: Promotion – Messages – Messengers – Media Channels 211
  205. 205. WHERE ARE WE? 1.  Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategy •  Product, Price, Place, Promotion 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 212
  206. 206. WHAT TO MEASURE •  Input Measures •  Output/Process Measures •  Outcome Measures •  Impact Measures •  Return on Investment 213
  207. 207. “WHERE’S THE BEEF?” •  1984 Commercial •  Wendy’s hamburgers •  Making fun of the competitor’s big fluffy bun •  And not much beef. •  An exec on his yacht.
  208. 208. MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL THE FLUFFY BUN THE BEEF INPUTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES IMPACT ROIResourcesallocated tothe campaignor programeffort
  209. 209. MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL THE FLUFFY BUN THE BEEF INPUTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES IMPACT ROIResources Programallocated to activitiesthe campaign conducted toor program influence aeffort desired behavior
  210. 210. MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL THE FLUFFY BUN THE BEEF INPUTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES IMPACT ROIResources Program Audienceallocated to activities response tothe campaign conducted to outputsor program influence aeffort desired behavior
  211. 211. MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL THE FLUFFY BUN THE BEEF INPUTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES IMPACT ROIResources Program Audience Indicatorsallocated to activities response to that showthe campaign conducted to outputs levels ofor program influence a impact oneffort desired the social behavior issue that was the focus for the effort
  212. 212. MODIFIED LOGIC MODEL THE FLUFFY BUN THE BEEF INPUTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES IMPACT ROIResources Program Audience Indicators Economicallocated to activities response to that show value ofthe campaign conducted to outputs levels of changes inor program influence a impact on behavior andeffort desired the social the behavior issue that calculated was the rate of return focus for the on the effort spending associated with the effort
  213. 213. FOR OUR EXAMPLE THE FLUFFY BUN THE BEEFINPUTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES IMPACT ROI
  214. 214. WHAT’S THE BEEF? •  For every taxpayer dollar spent, what did we save or earn? •  What, then, is the rate of return on our investment (ROI)?
  215. 215. A FINAL WORD ON R0I EXAMPLES FOR NPS STORMWATER OUTREACH ACTIVITIES 1.  Use a Commercial Carwash 2.  Fertilize In the Fall 222
  216. 216. WHAT YOU’LL NEED OUTPUT –  Keep track of all campaign costs OUTCOME –  Measure number of people who changed behavior as a result of your intervention –  Determine concrete value (e.g. gallons or pounds diverted) of 1 changed behavior “ROI” –  Calculate cost per concrete value 223
  217. 217. Use a Commercial Carwash OUTPUT OUTCOME “ROI” $100,000 200,000 people 4 fewer car washes For every $1 spent, per year/per person 800 gallons diverted 800,000 fewer car washes in lawns 100 gallons per If sustained 2 years, wash 1600 gallons per $1 80 million gallons less per year 224
  218. 218. Fertilize Only in the Fall OUTPUT OUTCOME “ROI” $100,000 200,000 people For every $1 spent, 1 less pound of 2 lbs. avoided fertilizer/year 200,000 less pounds of If sustained 2 years, fertilizer/year 4 lbs. per $1. 225
  219. 219. WHERE ARE WE? 1.  Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audience 4.  Determine Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategy •  Product, Price, Place, Promotion 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 226
  220. 220. STEP #9 •  Establishing Budgets & Finding Funding •  Approaches: –  Affordable Method –  Competitive-Parity Method –  Objective-and-Task Method (IDEAL) 227
  221. 221. BUDGET COMPONENTS Cost-Related Components: –  Product-Related Costs –  Price-Related Costs –  Place-Related Costs –  Promotion-Related Costs –  Evaluation-Related Costs 228
  222. 222. STEP 9: BUDGETS & FUNDING •  If budgets exceed funding: –  Explore additional sources of funding including corporate contributions –  Eliminate least effective and efficient strategies –  Reduce goals (Why so rare?) –  Develop campaign phases 229
  223. 223. STEP 10: IMPLEMENTATION •  What •  Who •  When •  How Much (Budget) •  Formats vary; ideally, 2-3 years 230
  224. 224. UTILIZING VOLUNTEERS •  Bayside Climate Change Action Group •  Bayside, Australia •  Human Sign! 231
  225. 225. UTILIZING VOLUNTEERS •  Mission: Reduce junk mail •  Target: Well-intended, but not active, Greens •  Behavior: adhere No Junk Mail sticker •  Volunteers helped distribute 20,000 stickers 232
  226. 226. VOLUNTEERS •  Distribution: •  Results –  Coffee shops –  Observation –  Libraries research –  Door – to door –  10,000 stickers posted –  1/3 households in Bayside City Area 233
  227. 227. IN SUMMARY •  What is social marketing? •  Why do we choose target audiences? •  How do we select a desired behavior? •  Why is it important to understand barriers and benefits? •  What are the 4Ps? 234
  228. 228. A 10 STEP PLANNING MODEL 1.  Establish Purpose & Focus 2.  Analyze Situation 3.  Select Target Audiences 4.  Determine Behavior Objectives & Goals 5.  Understand Barriers & Benefits 6.  Craft Positioning Statement 7.  Develop 4P Strategy: •  Product, Price, Place, Promotion 8.  Determine Evaluation Plan 9.  Set Budgets & Find Funding 10.  Write Implementation Plan 235
  229. 229. USE PRINCIPLES THAT WORK 1.  Choose a focus that will have an impact on your plan’s purpose 2.  Take advantage of what’s been done before that works. 3.  Start with target markets most ready for action. 4.  Promote one single, simple doable behavior. 5.  Understand audience barriers to behavior change. 6.  Bring real benefits to the present. 7.  Develop or promote find a tangible good or service. 8.  Look for a price that matters. 9.  Make access convenient. 10.  Develop persuasive messages. 11.  Use appropriate messengers. 12.  Utilize effective communication channels 13.  Make norms visible. 14.  Use prompts. 15.  Get commitments and pledges. 16.  Monitor, evaluate and report on results. 236
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