Bt Corn: What is it?• eliminate the threat of the corn borer• Bacillus thuringiensis• less effective against insects in later stages of growth.
Flavr Savr® Tomatoes• Approved for market by the FDA in 1994• extra copy of a gene that codes for enzyme polygalacturonase
“Golden Rice”• Developed by Swiss and German scientists in 1999• produce Vitamin A• a miracle cure for VAD.
Bt cotton• Contains a foreign gene obtained from bacillus thuringiensis.• Protects the plants from bollworm
ADVANTAGES OF GMOs• Pest resistance• Herbicide tolerance• Disease resistance• Cold tolerance• Drought tolerance
Helping to form an healthier world• Nutrition• Pharmaceuticals• Phytoremediation
CRITICISMS AGAINST GM CROPS • Environmental hazards • Unintended harm to other organisms • Reduced effectiveness of pesticides • Gene transfer to non-target species
HUMAN HEALTH RISK • Allergenicity • Unknown effects on human health
ECONOMIC CONCERN• Raise the price of seeds• Introduction of "suicide gene"
Moral Issues• Moving genes from animals to plants gets you into a whole moral, religious, and political firestorm..."
How India fits in the picture of GM Crops? • India one of the six leading countries that are conducting field trials of GM cropsHighest acreage of Monsanto’s GMOBt cotton
Bt cotton in India• In June 2002, about 55,000 cotton farmers decided to grow Bt cotton• Resist bollworm
Impacts of Monsanto’s Bt cotton• Created a suicide economy in India• Non-renewable seeds• Rs 7/kg to Rs 17,000/kg• Bt-cotton needs irrigation• created new pests• 13 times more pesticides• High costs and unreliable output
Indian farmers suffered a lot…• Andhra Pradesh 79% of the crop was lost• Madhya Pradesh 100% of the crop was lost• Maharastra Bt crop has failed across 30,000 hec• In Gujarat, it was completely destroyed by the bollworm• 200 farmers committed suicide• Bt. Cotton failure has cost total loss of Rs. 1128 million• Monsanto refused any compensation to the farmers
Monsanto going to introduce GM potatoes in India• 2nd of January 2003 reported the plan• As part of an anti hunger strategy• gene transplanted from amaranthus• protein-enriched