-New century came with: political fears of fascism in Europe and Great depression in America. + new advancement for liberal contemplation- FASCISM: Fascists advocate the creation of atotalitarian single-party state, governing elite through indoctrination(unquestionable), physical education, and family policy including eugenics(improving genetic quality of a population). Very authoritarian, totalitarian…far away from democracy. Mussolini’s rise to power in Italy Hitler’s rise in Germanymilitary forces and wealthy landowners joined to makeseize power in1926. In Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Romania, kings turned tostrong-man rule. They suspended constitutions and silenced foes. In1935, one democracy, Czechoslovakia, remained in eastern Europe
**first bullet point is hyperlinkedVideo: Notice how there are a lot of technical aspects that the dancer must keep in mind at all times – in a modern style dance, the main focus of mind would be the emotion that they are trying to express. Each position, and step is given a name and specific instruction – modern dance has more universal steps. As you will see in the video to come.
***picture is hyperlinkedLois Fuller – made experiments with gas lighting and its effect on silk costumes in 1891. had her lighting equipment patented as well as her stage lighting methods. Fuller was an inventor and stage craft innovator who held many patents for stage lighting, including the first chemical mixes for gels and slides and the first use of luminescent salts to create lighting effects. She was also an early innovator in lighting design, and was the first to mix colors and explore new angles. Fuller was well respected in the French scientific community, where she was a close personal friend of Marie Curie and a member of the French Astronomical Society.
Isadora Duncan – introduced her own dancing techniques based on Nietzsche(german) and Greek dance. She developed within this idea, free and natural movements inspired by the classical Greek arts, folk dances, social dances, nature and natural forces as well as an approach to the new American athleticism which included skipping, running, jumping, leaping and tossing.-If God is dead, as Nietzsche posits, and all we are really left with is ourselves, our physical beings, then our bodies can become sources of anxiety and limitation. Modernism can primarily be characterized as a movement of turning inward. This is particularly true of canonical works such as James Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Virginia Wolfe’s Mrs. Dalloway. Modernist visual arts movements such as Surrealism and Expressionism also valued internal expression above objective reality. “Both modernist art and modernist writing placed the artist’s own activity center-stage.” (Wilson, p. 62)
Helps to paint the picture of the dancer’s mindset at this time period.
To Doris Humphrey, gravity was the source of the dynamic instability of movement; the arc between balance and imbalance of the moving human body, fall and recovery, represented one's conflicts with the surrounding world. Forsaking lyrical and imitative movement and all but the most austere costumes and simplest stage effects, Graham and Humphrey composed dances so stark, intellectual, and harshly dramatic as to shock and anger audiences accustomed to being pleased by graceful dancers.Humphrey experimented more with sound; in a 1924 work she discarded music altogether and performed in silence, and later she used nonmusical sound effects, including spoken texts and bursts of hysterical laughterRead more: modern dance: The Second Generation in America — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0859704.html#ixzz1N09spQFp
**picture is hyperlinked born in 1894 in a small city outside of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvani Graham identified a method of breathing and impulse control she called "contraction and release." For her, movement originated in the tension of a contracted muscle, and continued in the flow of energy released from the body as the muscle relaxed. This method of muscle control gave Graham's dances and dancers a hard, angular look, one that was very unfamiliar to dance audiences used to the smooth, lyrical bodily motions of Isadora Duncan and Ruth St. Denis. In her first reviews, as a result, Graham was often accused of dancing in an "ugly" way. Graham’s influence often compared to that of Picasso’s on visual art movement.Martha Graham found the breath pulse the primary source of dance; exaggerating the contractions and expansions of the torso and flexing of the spine caused by breathing, she devised a basis for movement that for her represented the human being's inner conflicts.Graham believed that through spastic movements, tremblings, and falls she could express emotional and spiritual themes ignored by other dance. She desired to evoke strong emotions, and achieved these visceral responses through the repetition of explicitly sexual and violently disjunctive movements. Beginning with her Eastman students, she formed the now famous Martha Graham School for Contemporary Dance in New York. One of the early pieces of the company was “Frontier” (1935), a solo performance about the pioneer woman. This piece brought together the two men who would be close collaborators throughout her life. Isamu Noguchi, the Japanese-American sculptor, created a sparse and beautiful design that replaced flat backdrops with three-dimensional objects. Together Graham and Noguchi revolutionized set design through this inclusion of sculpture. “Frontier” also included the sound design of Louis Horst, a close friend and strong influence throughout Graham’s life.Video: room for flexibility (wideness of legs) – not in ballet.Not identifying steps with names, but rather movements and extensions of the body. She said “long, extended back,” not “chasse,” or “clea” (**find correct terms for that..?) Read more: modern dance: The Second Generation in America — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0859704.html#ixzz1N099qlOZhttp://www.pitt.edu/~gillis/dance/martha.html
She was considered one of the most important figures in the history of modern dance. Born in Hannover, GermanyAttended the school of Rythmic Gymnastics at Hellerau. For 3 years with Emile Jaque-Dalcroze.In 1913 she studied modern dance at Monte Verita under Rudolf von Laba.Created “New German Dance”
Picture is hyperlinked.
In 1941 she lost her school in Dresden1931 a school was founded by one of her disciples in NY
othersKaroleArmitage, Robert Kovich, Foofwad’Immobilité, Kimberly Bartosik, FloanneAnkah,and Jonah Bokaer
Postmodern dance was an American dance movement during the 1960s and 1970sPostmodernists questioned the established parameters of dance and pushed dance and art to new levels. (not just about ballet anymore)Even though the movement was short-lived, it still planted the seeds for new genres in dance and performance art. That’s why we will be relatingTechnology and Post-Modern Dance.
-Choreographers and dancers want to make their form of art, more visually appealing to the audience, to capture their attention, and leave them in a moment of, “awe”-Perhaps it’s because our world is trying to become more futuristic with design, or maybe it’s just because the idea is “cool.” Dance expression of feeling and emotion through movement. Today, dance continues to add different genres as people begin to show more creativityWhy change it?...Chefs create new foods to gain attentin of audience. The art of food is always changing—just like the art of dance.
-The world of dance is growing. -Choreographers are incorporating new technologies into their work, using sensors, projected images, and multimedia to create rich imagery with live dance performance. -Most choreographers use technology to get the audience more involved in the dance, ane make them feel like they are actually part of the dance themselves. "We need a connection with technology. There is no better art than dance in which to bring this about. -John CageEach new generation of dancers pushes the field’s technological capabilities. The groundwork has been laid, and the possibilities are endless.Current choreographers like Merce Cunningham and Bill T. Jones, are legends who pioneered dance using lights, cameras, and computers, to make dance even more beautiful.
Slowly but surely, the ancient art of dance has gone digital. Not only can we capture the eye of live audience, but also the COMPUTER audience. Internet is a powerful medium of exchange.people of different cultures can view other art forms, and incorporate it into their danceAudiences, already accustomed to technology's influence over nearly every aspect of their lives, are primed to see dance transform from physical medium to something less tangible.
-not only can technology be visually appealing, but now the audio can bring audience’s attention to the dance. -The technology used wasdeveloped at MIT1997 Mikhail Baryshnikov Heartbeat, in which his heartbeat was amplified so audience is able to hear it.This would let the audience know how much hard work was put into the dance, letting them know what was on the insideIn Biped live dancers partner onstage while a forest of thin, color-changing projected lines provide a maze for a virtual character to dance between and hide behind
Danceform helps dancers see what the finished performance will look like before it is actually performed by real dancers.Temporal Interference” is a performance that “explores aspects of space and memory, and how it can affect those around us.” –Bryan LeisterDanceForms 1.0 is another technological resource used in the art of dance. This piece of software helps a choreographer envision different dance steps.
Technology is gladly accepted in the art world of dance, but people must know their limitations. With all that is possible through the magic of computer programming, video projection etc, it’s fair to wonder if these tricks threaten the art form.“I would not use video in every piece. I love working with this media, but I feel I would repeat myself.” –CarlsonTechnology has a potential to draw people in who would not have understood what a fabulous form this is. It’s about something very different, more primal than just concepts. If not abused, it will not threaten the art form.
During these times, dancers performed in the field, in new years celebrations and weddings. It was not until the 1970’s when things started to change……In the northern region of India, there is a state called Punjab, which was the center of a wondrous new dance form, Bhangra.In the traditional days, Bhangra was very simple, and was only performed at weddings, new year celebrations, and in times of harvest.Up Until the 1960’s, dancers would form a circle and the singer, and the dhol player are outside. Dancers would just keep dancing away according to the melody of the singer and the dhol player
These singers, some of whom are still active today, include KuldipManak, Amar Singh Chamkila, and A. S. KangIn the late 1960s and 1970s, several singers from the Punjab set the stage for Bhangra to become a mass phenomenon. It was not until the early eighties that Bhangra moved from "secluded halls and venues to the bright lights of the clubs and cities of England.”These changes, as a result of technological changes, led bhangra from being traditional, to going into the more modern/post-modern era of dance
One of us can quickly recap the order of events. – I can do it if you want , Nisha
Modern dance 3 new
Modern Dance<br />
The Beginning<br />Renaissance courts of Italy and France-1643<br />18th Century-Extravagant costumes, start of technical basis<br />Jean Georges Noverre-Natural, understood, harmony<br />1780’s-En Pointe <br />
Romantic/Classical Ballet<br />Turned out positions of the body with grace, agility, control, speed, and lightness<br />Little room for creative expression<br />Contrasted human and <br />supernatural worlds<br />Dominated by women<br />Spreading through Europe<br />Swan Lake<br />
20th Century Ballet<br />Ballets Russes in Paris-1909-1929<br />Male dancers<br />Diaghilev-Russian Ballet-Collaborated with Picasso, Stravinsky<br />US and Germany-1920’s, 1930’s<br />
EnricoCecchetti1850-1928<br />Born in dressing room in Italian theater<br />Dance career of 30 years<br />Taught in Ballets Russes<br />Revolutionized image of male dancer in 19th century<br />Established school in London with his own method<br />
Cecchetti Method<br />Method codified and published in 1922<br />Designed strictly upon the laws of anatomy and stresses technical and artistic development in a dancer as well as a sensitive, musical response to all movements<br />Classical lines, detail, finese, musicality intelligence, individuality=good dancer<br />Self esteem and discipline<br />
Method Cont.<br />Exams<br />Lower grades-placement, coordination, transitions<br />Higher grades-movement, musicality, quality, strength<br />Formal attire<br />Cecchetti Council of America<br />
>Rejection<<br />Early 20th Century – many political and social changes in America and Europe<br />Fears of Fascism in Europe (through 1935)<br />Great Depression in America<br />Liberal Contemplation<br />TIME FOR CHANGE!<br />
Ballet involved rigid structure, definite steps, clear uniform/costume. <br />“symbol of imperialism”<br />Need to express opinions and desires rather than fit a mould that was limiting<br />Dancers wanted to be able to truly express and depict the social and political changes that were taking place around them. <br />
>Rebellion<<br />Dancers and Choreographers began exploring the roots of many other philosophies and civilizations<br />Lois Fuller: Experiments with stage lighting and costumes<br />
Nietzsche’s influence: turning inward, internal expression. </li></li></ul><li>””The dancer of the future will be one whose body and soul have grown so harmoniously together that the natural language of that soul will have become the movement of the human body. The dancer will not belong to any nation but to all humanity.”<br /> –Isadora Duncan<br />
<ul><li>Ruth St. Denis: Indian Culture and mythology
Pupils: Martha Graham, Charles Weidman, Doris Humphrey </li></ul>Let go of techniques they got from their mentor<br />Exploring gravity. <br />Balance V Imbalance. <br />Experiment with sound<br />
>Revolution<<br />Martha Graham<br />One of the biggest influences of Modern Dance.<br />“Picasso of Dance”<br />Denishawn Dance Company. <br />First performance – “Xotical”<br />Eastman School of Music<br />
“I wanted to begin not with characters or ideas, but with movements . . .I wanted significant movement. I did not want it to be beautiful or fluid. I wanted it to be fraught with inner meaning, with excitement and surge.”<br /> –Martha Graham<br />
Mary Wigman<br />November 13, 1886-September 18,1973<br />
Background<br />one of the most important figures in the history of modern dance. <br /><ul><li> Born in Hannover, Germany
Attended the school of Rythmic Gymnastics at Hellerau.
1913: studied modern dance at Monte Verita under Rudolf von Laba.
Created “New German Dance”</li></li></ul><li>Style<br />Used fifes, bells, gongs, and drums from India, Thailand, Africa, and China. <br />Primarily used percussion as a contrast to silence<br />Often used masks in her pieces <br />Described as tense, introspective, and somber <br />
Preformances<br />Summer Dance, Dream Image, Witch Dance, Dance of Sorrow, Visions, Cycles, the Way, Festive Rhythm, and Dance of Summer.<br />1919:1st solo concert in Berlin, followed by Breman and Hanover<br />Productions for German opera houses include <br />Handel’s “Saul”(Mannheim, 1954), <br />Orff’s “CarminaBurana”(Mannheim,1955), <br />Stravinsky’s “Sacred u Printemps”(Manicipal Opera, Berlin Festival, 1957). <br />
Her Schools<br />1920 - 1942, “Dresden Central School” or “Mary WigmanSchule” modern dance innovation <br />Toured US with her dance troupe in 1930.<br />Taught at Leipzig 1948-1949 after she fled to West Berlin <br />Taught at a studio in West Berlin in 1950 until her death <br />
Hanya Holm<br />Born in Germany<br />Influenced by Mary Wigman and Rudolf Laban<br />Taught by Emile Jacques-Dalcroze as well<br />Taught at one of Mary Wigman’s schools in Germany, was sent to New York to start a new branch of Wigman dance schools. <br />1936-1967 known as Hanya Holm Studio<br />
Holm technique<br />-Hanya Holm method with strong Isadora Duncan influence<br />Stresses pulse, planes, direction, aerial design, floor patterns, creative exploration, and dance without dramatic overtones.<br />Directly influenced by Joseph Pilates<br />Trained through improvising <br />focused on projecting the body’s movement into space <br />“Dancers without a purpose have false starts and stops.” –Hanya Holm<br />
“Big Four”<br />“Big Four”of Modern Dance <br />founding artists of the American Dance Festival: Hanya Holm, Mary Wigman, Doris Humphrey, and Charles Weidman.<br />
Merce Cunningham<br />Avant-gaurde.<br />Formed their own companies and trained together <br />Paul Taylor, Remy Charlip, Viola Farber, Charles Moulton, others…<br />
Paul Taylor<br />Cutting-edge<br />often sent confused audience members to the exits<br />Martha Graham named him “Naughty boy” of dance.<br />
1960s and 1970s<br />Questioned established parameters of dance <br />Pushed dance and art to new levels.<br />Short-lived but lasting<br />Relationship between technology and Post-Modern Dance.<br />What is PM (Post-Modern) Dance?<br />
Expression of feeling and emotion through movement. <br />More creativity with the way they dance or move. <br />Dance is always changing.<br />Dancers are coming up with new and impressive ways to “speak” without speaking. <br />Why the Combination?<br />
"We need a connection with technology. There is no better art than dance in which to bring this about.” -John Cage<br />Pushing technological capabilities. <br />PM Dance and Technology<br />
Temporal Interference” is a performance that “explores aspects of space and memory, and how it can affect those around us.” –Bryan Leister<br />DanceForms 1.0<br />How PM Dance uses Technology<br />
“I would not use video in every piece. I love working with this media, but I feel I would repeat myself.” –Carlson<br />Technology has potential to be an asset, as well as a threat<br />Does this pose a threat???<br />