The Beginning Renaissance courts of Italy and France-1643 18th Century-Extravagant costumes, start of technical basis Jean Georges Noverre-Natural, understood, harmony 1780’s-En Pointe
Romantic/Classical Ballet Turned out positions of the body with grace, agility, control, speed, and lightness Little room for creative expression Contrasted human and supernatural worlds Dominated by women Spreading through Europe Swan Lake
20th Century Ballet Ballets Russes in Paris-1909-1929 Male dancers Diaghilev-Russian Ballet-Collaborated with Picasso, Stravinsky US and Germany-1920’s, 1930’s
EnricoCecchetti1850-1928 Born in dressing room in Italian theater Dance career of 30 years Taught in Ballets Russes Revolutionized image of male dancer in 19th century Established school in London with his own method
Cecchetti Method Method codified and published in 1922 Designed strictly upon the laws of anatomy and stresses technical and artistic development in a dancer as well as a sensitive, musical response to all movements Classical lines, detail, finese, musicality intelligence, individuality=good dancer Self esteem and discipline
Method Cont. Exams Lower grades-placement, coordination, transitions Higher grades-movement, musicality, quality, strength Formal attire Cecchetti Council of America
>Rejection< Early 20th Century – many political and social changes in America and Europe Fears of Fascism in Europe (through 1935) Great Depression in America Liberal Contemplation TIME FOR CHANGE!
Ballet involved rigid structure, definite steps, clear uniform/costume. “symbol of imperialism” Need to express opinions and desires rather than fit a mould that was limiting Dancers wanted to be able to truly express and depict the social and political changes that were taking place around them.
>Rebellion< Dancers and Choreographers began exploring the roots of many other philosophies and civilizations Lois Fuller: Experiments with stage lighting and costumes
””The dancer of the future will be one whose body and soul have grown so harmoniously together that the natural language of that soul will have become the movement of the human body. The dancer will not belong to any nation but to all humanity.” –Isadora Duncan
Ruth St. Denis: Indian Culture and mythology
Denishawn school and Dance company 1915
Pupils: Martha Graham, Charles Weidman, Doris Humphrey
Let go of techniques they got from their mentor Exploring gravity. Balance V Imbalance. Experiment with sound
>Revolution< Martha Graham One of the biggest influences of Modern Dance. “Picasso of Dance” Denishawn Dance Company. First performance – “Xotical” Eastman School of Music
“I wanted to begin not with characters or ideas, but with movements . . .I wanted significant movement. I did not want it to be beautiful or fluid. I wanted it to be fraught with inner meaning, with excitement and surge.” –Martha Graham
Mary Wigman November 13, 1886-September 18,1973
Background one of the most important figures in the history of modern dance.
Born in Hannover, Germany
Attended the school of Rythmic Gymnastics at Hellerau.
1913: studied modern dance at Monte Verita under Rudolf von Laba.
Created “New German Dance”
Style Used fifes, bells, gongs, and drums from India, Thailand, Africa, and China. Primarily used percussion as a contrast to silence Often used masks in her pieces Described as tense, introspective, and somber
Preformances Summer Dance, Dream Image, Witch Dance, Dance of Sorrow, Visions, Cycles, the Way, Festive Rhythm, and Dance of Summer. 1919:1st solo concert in Berlin, followed by Breman and Hanover Productions for German opera houses include Handel’s “Saul”(Mannheim, 1954), Orff’s “CarminaBurana”(Mannheim,1955), Stravinsky’s “Sacred u Printemps”(Manicipal Opera, Berlin Festival, 1957).
Her Schools 1920 - 1942, “Dresden Central School” or “Mary WigmanSchule” modern dance innovation Toured US with her dance troupe in 1930. Taught at Leipzig 1948-1949 after she fled to West Berlin Taught at a studio in West Berlin in 1950 until her death
Hanya Holm Born in Germany Influenced by Mary Wigman and Rudolf Laban Taught by Emile Jacques-Dalcroze as well Taught at one of Mary Wigman’s schools in Germany, was sent to New York to start a new branch of Wigman dance schools. 1936-1967 known as Hanya Holm Studio
Holm technique -Hanya Holm method with strong Isadora Duncan influence Stresses pulse, planes, direction, aerial design, floor patterns, creative exploration, and dance without dramatic overtones. Directly influenced by Joseph Pilates Trained through improvising focused on projecting the body’s movement into space “Dancers without a purpose have false starts and stops.” –Hanya Holm
“Big Four” “Big Four”of Modern Dance founding artists of the American Dance Festival: Hanya Holm, Mary Wigman, Doris Humphrey, and Charles Weidman.
Merce Cunningham Avant-gaurde. Formed their own companies and trained together Paul Taylor, Remy Charlip, Viola Farber, Charles Moulton, others…
Paul Taylor Cutting-edge often sent confused audience members to the exits Martha Graham named him “Naughty boy” of dance.
Post Modern Dance & Technology
1960s and 1970s Questioned established parameters of dance Pushed dance and art to new levels. Short-lived but lasting Relationship between technology and Post-Modern Dance. What is PM (Post-Modern) Dance?
Expression of feeling and emotion through movement. More creativity with the way they dance or move. Dance is always changing. Dancers are coming up with new and impressive ways to “speak” without speaking. Why the Combination?
"We need a connection with technology. There is no better art than dance in which to bring this about.” -John Cage Pushing technological capabilities. PM Dance and Technology
Dance gone digital. COMPUTER audience. Internet PM Dance and Technology
Temporal Interference” is a performance that “explores aspects of space and memory, and how it can affect those around us.” –Bryan Leister DanceForms 1.0 How PM Dance uses Technology
“I would not use video in every piece. I love working with this media, but I feel I would repeat myself.” –Carlson Technology has potential to be an asset, as well as a threat Does this pose a threat???
Bhangra Punjab, India Traditional Bhangra Tech/PM Dance International
Traditional Dancers Performing
Late: 1960s and 1970s, Bhangra becomes mass phenomenon. Early eighties Technological Changes Bhangra in 1970’s/1980’s
Mix Music/Hip Hop beats Acid Pro Competition Bhangra Today