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S W Expanded E Trogram

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PENRO CAPITOL

PENRO CAPITOL

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S  W Expanded  E  Trogram S W Expanded E Trogram Presentation Transcript

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  • GENERAL INFORMATION ON SWEET POTATO
  • Characteristics:
    • The sweet potato , commonly called yam in the United States, is a crop plant whose large, starchy , sweet tasting tuberous roots are important root vegetable . The young leaves and shoots are eaten as greens .
    • The edible tuberous root is long and tapered, with smooth skin, color ranges between red, purple, brown and white. Its flesh ranges from white through yellow, orange, and purple.
  • Nutrition and health benefits
    • Besides simple starches, sweet potatoes are rich in complex carbohydrates , dietary fiber , beta carotene (a vitamin A equivalent nutrient), vitamin C , and vitamin B6 .
    • In 1992, the Center for Science in the Public Interest compared the nutritional value of sweet potatoes to other vegetables. Considering fiber content, complex carbohydrates , protein , vitamins A and C, iron , and calcium , the sweet potato ranked highest in nutritional value.
    • Sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those with light colored flesh and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem. Despite the name "sweet", it may be a beneficial food for diabetics , as preliminary studies on animals have revealed that it helps to stabilize blood sugar levels and to lower insulin resistance.
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  • USES :
    • The roots are most frequently boiled, fried, or baked.
    • processed into starch
    • partial flour substitute.
    • Industrial uses include the production of starch and industrial alcohol .
    • Culinary uses
    • Candied sweet potatoes
    • Sweet potato pie
    • Sweet potato fries
    • Sweet potato leaves
    • Steamed/Boiled chunks
    • Sweet potato chips
    • Raw sweet potatoes
    • Sweet Potato Butter
    • Roasted sweet potato
    • In Korean cuisine , sweet potato starch is used to produce dangmyeon ( cellophane noodles ).
    • Non-culinary uses
    • dye for cloth
    • All parts of the plant are used for animal fodder .
    • Sweet potatoes or camotes are often found in Moche ceramics.
    • Cultivated in gardens as ornamental plants for their attractive foliage, including the dark-leafed cultivars
    • Bio-fuel - Taiwanese companies are making alcohol fuel from sweet potato
    • Ethnomedical Uses
      • The aerial parts are used as a galactogogue .
      • The leaves are used to treat diabetes , hookworm , hemorrhage , and abscesses .
      • The tuber is used to treat asthma .
  • ADAPTATION:
    • The plant grows best at an average temperature of 24 °C, with abundant sunshine and warm nights.
    • Annual rainfalls of 750-1000 mm are most suitable. The crop is sensitive to drought at tuber initiation stage, 50-60 days after planting and is not tolerant to water-logging, as it may cause tuber rots and reduce growth of storage roots if aeration is poor.
    • Depending on the cultivar and conditions, tubers mature in two to nine months. Sweet potatoes rarely flower when the daylight is longer than 11 hours.
  • ADAPTATION:
    • Propagated by stem or root cuttings or by adventitious roots called "slips" that grow out from the tuberous roots during storage. True seeds are used for breeding only.
    • Under optimal conditions of 85 to 90 % relative humidity at 13 to 16 °C, sweet potatoes can keep for six months. Colder temperatures injure the roots.
    • They grow well in many farming conditions and have few natural enemies; pesticides are rarely needed.
    • Sweet potatoes are grown on a variety of soils, but well-drained light and medium textured soils with a pH range of 4.5-7.0 are more favorable for the plant. They can be grown in poor soils with little fertilizer.
  • CULTURAL MANAGEMENT :
    • Land Preparation
    • To have a good root yield of the crop
    • - plow and harrow the soil
    • at least twice to have loose
    • and friable soil
    • - Form ridges or furrows
    • about 30-40 centimeters high
    • with a distance of 75-100
    • centimeters between ridges
  • CULTURAL MANAGEMENT :
    • Planting Materials
    • - use sprouts from roots or vine tip cuttings
    • from healthy plants 25-30 cm long
    • - cuttings should be stored in shaded place
    • Planting
    • - Plant vine cuttings diagonally on top of the
    • ridges (during wet season
    • or on the furrows (during dry season)
    • - Expose 2-3 leaves at the tip with a
    • planting distance of 25 – 30 cm per hill
  • CULTURAL MANAGEMENT :
    • Fertilization
    • - Follow the fertilizer recommendation based on the results of
    • the soil analysis
    • 1. For poor soils, use 4-6 bags complete fertilizer per hectare
    • 2. For moderate soils, 4 bags complete fertilizer per hectare
    • 3. For fertile soil, fertilization is not advisable.
    • - The use of compost or organic fertilizers at 3 metric tons per
    • hectare may be used. Apply fertilizer in the furrows/in band
    • application.
    • - Apply recommended fertilizer at planting time
    • 8-10 cm from the base of the or 2 weeks after
    • planting then cover subsequently with soil.
  • CULTURAL MANAGEMENT :
    • Cultivation & Weeding
    • - shallow cultivation 10-12 days after planting
    • - Hilling-up 25-30 days after planting
  • CULTURAL MANAGEMENT :
    • Common Plant Pest & Disease & Management
    Practice sanitation; Practice crop rotation; Use of disease free planting materials Circular lesions which are conspicuous on both sides of the leaf; Spots are dark brown with yellowish brown to gray centers Cercospora Leaf spot Treat soil with Nematicide; Practice crop rotation; Use of resistant varieties Roots are galled with several egg masses; Lesion, necrosis and rotting appear usually in cracked, deformed roots Nematode Burn all infected plants; Use healthy planting materials; Apply Furadan 3G granules with fertilizer Control Measure Most serious pest infecting the roots; Infected roots cannot be eaten by man Weevil Description Pest
  • CULTURAL MANAGEMENT :
    • Harvesting
    • - harvest tubers 90-120 days after planting
    • - harvesting can be done by root sampling if desired sizes have been attained
    • - Before harvesting, cut & roll the vines like a mat. Fork/hoe or pass a plow below the ridges. Pick the roots.
    • - Handle the roots carefully to minimize injury
    • - Sort out tubers (damaged/bruised from undamaged ones)
    • Post-Harvest Technology
    • - Store roots in clean, dry and well-ventilated storage areas
    • - Avoid tuber injury during harvest & transport. Place harvested tubers in wooden/bamboo crates
    • - Storing roots in an improvised structure made of cogon, nipa, coconut leaves & bamboos with adequate & proper aeration can retain the quality of roots for up to 3 months
  • RECOMMENDED CROPPING / FARMING SYSTEM:
    • Sweet potato is good companion crop for Multi-Storey Cropping System since it can tolerate partial shading. Hence, it is recommended in areas planted to coconut to improve land use efficiency.
    • Sweet potato is also a good cover crop for areas susceptible to erosion. Cover cropping will reduce surface run-off and evaporation rate, improve soil structure and hydrology and minimize intrusion of weeds.
    RECOMMENDED VARIETIES:
    • UPLB SP6, UPLB SP8, UPLB, SP23,
    • ViSCA sweet potato lines (NSIC SP# 30, NSIC SP #25, PSB SP #17)
    • Sydney white and yellow, USA N.C. yellow, Taiwan white and yellow, Hawaii purple
  • POTENTIAL AREAS FOR SWEET POTATO PRODUCTION IN CEBU PROVINCE:
    • Actual area planted to sweet potato (2007) in the province is 1,220 hectares with a total yield of 8,548 MT, or an average of 7 MT per hectare.
    • Total land area devoted to coconut production is 42,590 hectares.
    • Potential area for expansion of sweet potato production is 21,000 hectares, 50% of the total area planted to coconut, (assumption: 50% of the areas planted to coconuts are under-utilized).
    • Projected yield from expansion areas based on present average production rate is 147,000 MT.
    PRODUCTION ECONOMICS: Cost of Production per hectare : P 51,050.00 Production /hectare : 10,000.00 kg/ha. Sales @ P10.00/kg : 100,000.00 Net Income : 48,950.00
  • DAGHANG SALAMAT