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Ocean energy

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Includes the types of Ocean Energy available, its potential and cost per units

Includes the types of Ocean Energy available, its potential and cost per units

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Ocean energy Ocean energy Presentation Transcript

  • OCEAN ENERGY
    NIRANJWAN CHETTIAR
    2010213041
    ME ENERGY ENGINEERING
  • CONTENTS
    Introduction
    Energy Usage History
    World Energy Usage
    Offshore Renewable energy
    Ocean Energy
    Wave Energy
    Tidal Energy
    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
    Working Principle – Video
    Challenges
    Conclusion
    2
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • INTRODUCTION
    World is facing enormous environmental issues as human consumption has begun to stress Earth’s Resources
    Development is need for energy sources which achieves needed Carbon Reductions
    Ocean contains large amount of untapped clean renewable energy resources
    3
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • ENERGY USAGE HISTORY
    Throughout History, Human have energised their development of civilisation:
    1st – wood for heating
    Then – water and wind for grinding grain and pumping water
    2 centuries ago – Coal for heating and steam driven machines for doing work and transportation
    20th Century – Electrification/Automobile/ Nuclear tech
    21st Century – advanced materials/ technologies/ back to renewable resources
    4
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • WORLD ENERGY USAGE
    This technological step sparked a rapid increase in industrial development and a technological evolution.
    The increased use of fossil fuels to fuel our productivity and ability to produce goods and services
    Unintended consequence of the increased use of Carbon-based fuels is the release of Green House gases.
    5
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • WORLD ENERGY USAGE (cont’d)
    World’s Primary Energy Demand is currently:
    12,000Mtoe (Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent)
    85% is met by:
    Oil, coal, natural gas
    Remaining 15%:
    Nuclear and renewable energy
    6
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • WORLD ENERGY USAGE (cont’d)
    The slope of the overall demand curve shows an average growth of about 1.6% per year.
    Continuous demand for Carbon based fuels, but a slight increase in Renewable Energy usage
    7
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • WORLD ENERGY USAGE (cont’d)
    The Global Energy Demand is expected to almost double between now and 2050.
    Therefore, during the next 40years we must transform our entire energy system to reduce carbon emissions to less than half of the 1990 level.
    8
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY
    Offshore Renewable Energy Sources include:
    Waves
    Tidal and river currents
    Ocean thermal Gradient
    Offshore wind
    Worldwide potential to generate energy from offshore renewable sources is vast because many of the populated regions with greatest need of Electricity are adjacent to the Ocean and the major water bodies.
    9
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY (cont’d)
    Eg: In US, thirty States border an ocean or one of the greatest lakes.
    These States generate and consume 75% of the nation’s electricity,
    i.e: 3,108TWh of 4,157TWh
    With such abundant sources
    surrounding US, but still it is
    untapped.
    10
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY (cont’d)
    11
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • OCEAN ENERGY
    More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans.
    It is rarely used, there are a very few power plants, which are very small.
    Unlike other RES, Ocean Energy is not captured from a single source, but, instead, is stored in a variety of forms
    Two types of energy:
    Mechanical Energy from waves and tides
    Thermal Energy from solar radiations, making them the world’s largest solar collectors.
    12
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • WAVE ENERGY
    Waves are concentrated form of Solar Energy. Uneven Heating of the Earth’s surfaces causes wind which in turn causes waves.
    The Total power of waves breaking the World’s coastlines is estimated at 2-3 million MW.
    13
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • WAVE ENERGY (cont’d)
    The figure shows that wave power would be most available in Oregon from October through April.
    14
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • WAVE ENERGY (cont’d)
    Potential:
    2000TWh/yr,
    Global consumption: 15, 400TWh/yr
    Cost:
    10c€/kWh,
    average electricity price in EU: 4c€/kWh
    15
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • TIDAL ENERGY
    Tidal energy is principally
    caused by the interaction
    of gravitational fields of
    the earth, moon and sun.
    The water levels fluctuate twice daily; filling and emptying natural basins along the shoreline.
    The Currents flowing in and out of these basins can be exploited to turn mechanical devices.
    16
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • TIDAL ENERGY (cont’d)
    Which accounts for 10hrs per day.
    In order to function, at least 16ft between low and high tide is needed.
    La Rance Station (1960) in France is the largest tidal power station in the world; only one in Europe.
    Satisfies demand of 240,000homes in France.
    Is one fifth of a regular nuclear or coal powered plant.
    Produces 240MW
    17
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • TIDAL ENERGY (cont’d)
    Tidal Stream devices are similar to submerged wind turbines.
    Since water density is 850 times higher than air, therefore the power density is also higher
    Advantage: Is predictable.
    18
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • TIDAL ENERGY (cont’d)
    Potential:
    200TWh/yr, 1 TW is available in Shallow waters.
    At present 3 barrages are operating commercially with total installed capacity of 260MW world wide
    Cost:
    higher capital investment, long construction periods, longer payback periods, once the barrage is built there is less maintenance and running cost, turbines need replacement once in 30yrs,
    2c€/kWh
    19
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY
    The temperature difference between the surface water and the deep ocean water provides the exploitation of ocean thermal energy.
    This process is normally called Ocean Thermal Energy conversion (OTEC). Best works when the temperature difference is about 20 ̊C.
    The Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority is one of the world's leading test facilities for OTEC technology.
    20
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY (cont’d)
    Locations best suited for OTEC
    21
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY (cont’d)
    There are three types of energy conversion systems:
    Closed-Cycle: uses the ocean’s warm surface water to vaporise a working fluid, which has a low boiling point, eg ammonia.
    Open-Cycle: boils the seawater by operating at low pressures.
    Hybrid: is the combination of the two.
    22
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY (cont’d)
    Potential:
    65 million GW, more than 5,000 times the amount of energy used in all forms by humans on the planet.
    A typical square mile of that collector (surface waters) absorbs an average of about 500 MW, or annually more energy than the equivalent of 2.6 million barrels of oil.
    The estimated global resource is 10,000TWh/yr.
    23
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY (cont’d)
    Cost:
    OTEC power plants require substantial capital investment upfront. Approx $40 million for 10MW plant at 100mile dist from shore
    24
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • CHALLENGES
    Withstand harsh ocean environment
    Efficiency for extracting energy
    Key technological challenges: electrical generation and output, mechanical systems, anchoring, survivability, reliability, predictability
    Impact on the marine environment
    Social and economic concerns
    25
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • WORKING PRINCIPLE - Video
    26
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • CONCLUSION
    Indeed, Ocean Energy should become the primary energy source for the resource-rich coastal communities.
    Cost effectiveness is a main reason it has not found its place among top used renewable energy sources.
    More research is needed
    The most important objective is to deploy full size prototypes to prove performance at sea and to bring the technology to a point where it becomes comparable with other renewable energy technologies such as wind energy.
    27
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • COMING SOON
    Technologies
    Pelamis,
    AquaBuOY,
    Wave Star,
    Wave Dragon
    Giant Rubber Snake
    La Rance
    Seagen
    and many more
    28
  • THANK YOU
    Any Queries
    29
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2
  • References
    http://nnmrec.oregonstate.edu/
    Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Power Technologies by Robert Paasch, AlexandreYokochi
    http://www.our-energy.com/ocean_energy.html
    Obama’s ocean task force releases report; Sweeping changes could affect the United States' management of oceans, including offshore energy development.Mark Clayton, September 17, 2009 (Christian Science Monitor)
    Ocean Renewable Energy’s Potential Role in Supplying Future Electrical Energy Needs, By Robert Thresher and Walter Musial
    http://www.eu-oea.com/index.asp?bid=425
    30
    OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2