RWA AS ATOOL FOR URBAN GOVERNANCE AND ITS IMPACT ON SOCIAL STRUCTURE
Nipesh P NarayananNipesh P Narayanan
Ravi KumarRavi Kumar RR
Development process is driven by
RWA : Grass-root level of urban governance
RWA is a registered society and does not
have the obligation to work for development,
or participatory governance.
Why RWA is Non-Democratic?
Indian idea of democracy – One Person One Vote
RWA’s idea of democracy – One Household One
Then why RWA gained importance in Delhi?
Exclusion of Delhi from 74th
CAA (1998) &
introduction of Bhagidari (2000)
Bhagidari & elevation of RWA.
Delhi Jal Board & BSES (2006) agitation.
Chief Minister’s explanation & Media hype.
RWA as a social hero.
RWA and Politics
Conflicts between RWA & Councilors
RWA’s self-fund generation
Dilution of Elected representatives role – RWAs
seeking representation in Local Government
Prime minister’s Assassination - 1984
Anti-Sikh riots in Delhi Neighborhoods.
Formation of Neighborhood Groups for
After Riots – Security concerns, Boundary walls,
Gated communities etc.
Delhi Apartment Ownership Act of 1986
Mandatory ‘management committee’ for
common facilities’ maintenance.
Laying of basic rules for committee to get
registered under ‘Societies Registration Act-1860’
RWAs formalized and kept on changing their role.
Global Cities & Local Development
Economic crisis of India -1991
IMF loan by Govt. – change of Govt. at Centre
Liberalization of Economy & increase in GDP
from 1.25% to 7.5% in a decade.
GDP (65%) dependent on urban economy
Pressure on quality of urban infrastructure and the
need for ULBs.
Constitutional Amendment (1992)
RWA in politics
Conflicts between politicians and RWA on slums
Politicians say – representatives of rich and poor.
Bhagidari increasing RWA’s power
Hostile relations encouraging RWAs to enter
Inequalities in RWA
Difference in functioning due to political back up
Mutual interest for power and development.
Investing in Middle Class neighborhoods –
expansion of voter base
Greater financial & executive powers due to
policies on decentralization
What RWA means in Urban Development
Govt. recognizing RWA – providing assistance-
ship to develop neighborhoods.
Exclusive group for exclusive development.
▪ Slum Eviction
▪ Gated communities
▪ Restriction on Mixed Use
Issues related to RWAs
RWAs viewed as a body for common man but it
includes only residents, others are ignored.
RWAs of Unauthorized colonies not recognized
resulting court orders leading to slum eviction.
Association members enjoying power for decades
– misappropriation of funds.
RWA system is dependent on proactive members
How to achieve inclusive participation?
How to strengthen grass-root level
How to define “Public Interest”?