Lecture 6 modernism

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Lecture 6 modernism

  1. 1. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism History of Architecture-II (AP-313) Modernism LECTURE 6 Nipesh P Narayanan ImageSource:http://archikey.com/building/read/2763/Villa-Savoye/552/[ONLINE]
  2. 2. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism 19th & 20th CENTURY - THE ERA OF – INDUSTRIALIZATION, URBANIZATION & WAR • 1850 to 1877 – Population of Paris doubled • Industrialization led Urbanization and massive building exercise • New materials for building • World War I (1914-18) & World War II (1939-45) • World War II and End of Colonialism • New Typologies – Railway Station, Department Store, Office, Apartment towers, Factories, Dams and Airports… • New Clients – Municipalities, cooperatives, institutions, social groups…
  3. 3. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism ÉDOUARD MANET OLYMPIA ImageSource:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Edouard_Manet_-_Olympia_-_Google_Art_Project_3.jpg[ONLINE] 1863
  4. 4. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism CHARLES BAUDELAIRE PARIS SPLEEN ImageSource: http://cinosargomultimedia.bligoo.com/media/users/0/49205/images/public/9531/78238.jpg?v=1354092856039[ONLINE] 1869 “The crowd is not only the newest asylum of outlaws; it is also the latest narcotic of those abandoned. The flaneur is someone abandoned in the crowd. In this he shares the situation of the commodity. He is not aware of this special situation, but this does not diminish its effect on him and it permeates him blissfully like a narcotic that can compensate him for many humiliations. The intoxication to which the flaneur surrenders is the intoxication of the commodity around which surges the stream of customers” ~ Walter Benjamin
  5. 5. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism GUSTAVE CAILLEBOTTE LE PONT DE L'EUROPE ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Caillebotte-PontdeL%27Europe-Geneva.jpg[ONLINE] The Europe Bridge (1876)
  6. 6. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism CLAUDE MONET MEN UNLOADING COAL ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Monet_men_unloading_coal.jpg[ONLINE] 1875
  7. 7. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism CLAUDE MONET SAINT LAZARE TRAIN STATION ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Claude_Monet_003.jpg[ONLINE] 1877
  8. 8. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism GEORGES SEURAT BATHERS IN ASNIÈRES ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Baigneurs_a_Asnieres.jpg[ONLINE] 1884
  9. 9. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INDUSTRIALIZATION AND STEEL Garabit viaduct, France, Gustave Eiffel (1882-84) ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Garabit.jpg[ONLINE]
  10. 10. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INDUSTRIALIZATION AND STEEL Forth Bridge, Scotland, Benjamin Baker (1890) ImageSource:http://www.railtraveladventures.com/images/Gallery4-35%20Firth%20of%20Forth%20Br.jpg[ONLINE]
  11. 11. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION CHICAGO, 1893 ImageSource:http://www.posterplus.com/assets/images/PSP08855.jpg[ONLINE]
  12. 12. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION CHICAGO, 1893 ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Auditorium_Building_Chicago_June_30,_2012-92.jpg[ONLINE] Auditorium, Louis Sullivan & Dankmar Adler, 1886-89
  13. 13. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION CHICAGO, 1893 ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Auditorium_Building14.jpg[ONLINE] Auditorium, Louis Sullivan & Dankmar Adler, 1886-89
  14. 14. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism “As long as we are used to proceeding by reasoning, as long as we have a principle, any compositional task is possible, if not easy, and follows an orderly, methodical path, the results of which, though they may not be masterpieces, are at the very lest fine, acceptable pieces of work that can have style" ~ Wugène Viollet-le-duc Lectures on Architecture, 1881. ImageSource: http://books.google.co.in/books?id=lGpTAAAAMAAJ&pg=PP1&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U0xbLf7cL2pVNX5jk3Gcls WYQ-FDQ&ci=1%2C3%2C994%2C1495&edge=0[ONLINE] IDEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE
  15. 15. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism IDEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE ImageSource:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Wien_PSK.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/061115_karlplatzBaltered.jpg[ONLINE] Otto Wagner ‘In modern Architecture (1896)’ advocates utilitarian style, that was free of historical references & that transported the rhythms of industrial society of architecture. 1895 1903
  16. 16. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism IDEOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE "It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and all things superhuman, of all true manifestations of the head, of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable in its expression, that form ever follows function. This is the law.“ ~ Louis Sullivan (1896). "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered"
  17. 17. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism CHICAGO SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building, Louis Sullivan (1899) ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carsons_Pirie_Scott_%26_Co.jpg[ONLINE]
  18. 18. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism CHICAGO SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building, Louis Sullivan (1899) ImageSource:http://interactive.wttw.com/sites/default/files/field/image/B7_a.jpg[ONLINE]
  19. 19. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism CHICAGO SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building, Louis Sullivan (1899) ImageSource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carson,_Pirie,_Scott_and_Company_Building_1_South_State_Street_entrance.jpg [ONLINE]
  20. 20. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism CHICAGO SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building, Louis Sullivan (1899) ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2006-03-30_2240x1680_chicago_school_windows.jpg[ONLINE]
  21. 21. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INDUSTRIALIZATION AND CONCRETE Rue Franklin Apartments, Paris, Auguste Perret (1902-04) ImageSource:http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi- bin/gbi.cgi/Rue_Franklin_Apartments.html/cid_1027616292_rue_franklin_02.html[ONLINE]
  22. 22. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INDUSTRIALIZATION AND CONCRETE Dom-ino House, Concept, Le Corbusier (1914-15) ImageSource:http://betterarchitecture.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/domino-house.jpg[ONLINE]
  23. 23. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INDUSTRIALIZATION AND CONCRETE Lycée Camille Sée, Paris, François Le Coeur (1933-34) ImageSource:http://en.structurae.de/structures/data/index.cfm?id=s0044601 _1027616292_rue_franklin_02.html[ONLINE]
  24. 24. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INTERNATIONAL EXPOSURE • Long Distance Travel • Telegraph • Increasingly accurate reproduction of Photographs (Beginning 1820s)
  25. 25. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INTERNATIONAL EXPOSURE Crystal Palace, Photo: François Emile Zola, 1898 ImageSource:http://www.closeupfilmcentre.com/index.php/download_file/view_inline/1520/[ONLINE]
  26. 26. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INTERNATIONAL EXPOSURE ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wheeler_Hall--UC_Berkeley--Panoramic.jpg[ONLINE] 1898 "International Competition for the Phoebe Hearst Architectural Plan for the University of California," Emile Bénard won but John Galen Howard built
  27. 27. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INTERNATIONAL EXPOSURE ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Canberra_Prelim_Plan_by_WB_Griffin_1913.jpg[ONLINE] The 1912 Competition to Design Canberra Walter Burley Griffin won the competition
  28. 28. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism PETER BEHRENS AEG TURBINE FACTORY 1908-09 ImageSource:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/AEG_by_Peter_Behrens.jpgg[ONLINE]
  29. 29. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism PETER BEHRENS Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Le Corbusier Walter Gropius
  30. 30. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism THE NEW OBJECTIVISM AND THE WEIMAR GERMANY ImageSource:http://www.bdonline.co.uk/pictures/458xAny/7/9/1/1587791_The_English_House.jpg[ONLINE] 1904-05 Hermann Muthesius Deutscher Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen) Bauhaus
  31. 31. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism GERMAN WERKBUND AND THE ARCHITECTURE OF SOCIAL REFORM ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Karl-Marx-Hof_2009.jpg[ONLINE] Karl Marx-Hof, Karl Ehn, Vienna, 1927-30
  32. 32. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism GERMAN WERKBUND AND THE 1914 COLOGNE EXHIBITION ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Taut_Glass_Pavilion_exterior_1914.jpg[ONLINE] Glass Pavilion , Bruno Julius Florian Taut, 1914
  33. 33. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism THE NEW OBJECTIVISM AND THE 1914 COLOGNE EXHIBITION ImageSource:http://www.engramma.it/eOS/image/81/Anderson_81_5_gropiusDWB14model%20factory%20copy(1).jpg [ONLINE] Model Factory, Walter Gropius & Adolf Meyer, 1914
  34. 34. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism BAUHAUS 1919 to 1933 • Weimar - 1919 to 1925, • Dessau - 1925 to 1932 • Berlin - 1932 to 1933 Walter Gropius - 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer - 1928 to 1930 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe - 1930 until 1933 ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BauhausType.jpg[ONLINE]
  35. 35. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION OF MODERN INDUSTRIAL & DECORATIVE ARTS ImageSource:http://lartnouveau.com/flash/diapo/grands/expo_1925.html[ONLINE]
  36. 36. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION 1925 ImageSource:http://en.wikiarquitectura.com/index.php/File:00les.jpg[ONLINE] L'Esprit Nouveau Pavilion, Le Corbusier, 1925
  37. 37. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION 1925 ImageSource:http://cultblography.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/soviet-pavilion-melnikov-19251.jpeg[ONLINE] USSR Pavilion, Konstantin Melnikov, 1925
  38. 38. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism VIRGINIA WOOLF TO THE LIGHTHOUSE ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ToTheLighthouse.jpg[ONLINE] 1927 "Yes, of course, if it's fine tomorrow," said Mrs Ramsay. "But you'll have to be up with the lark," she added. To her son these words conveyed an extraordinary joy, as if it were settled, the expedition were bound to take place, and the wonder to which he had looked forward, for years and years it seemed, was, after a night's darkness and a day's sail, within touch. Since he belonged, even at the age of six, to that great clan which cannot keep this feeling separate from that, but must let future prospects, with their joys and sorrows, cloud what is actually at hand, since to such people even in earliest childhood any turn in the wheel of sensation has the power to crystallise and transfix the moment upon which its gloom or radiance rests, James Ramsay, sitting on the floor cutting out pictures from the illustrated catalogue of the Army and Navy stores, endowed the picture of a refrigerator, as his mother spoke, with heavenly bliss. It was fringed with joy.”
  39. 39. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism CIAM CONGRÈS INTERNATIONAL D'ARCHITECTURE MODERNE – 1928-59 ImageSource:http://intern.strabrecht.nl/sectie/ckv/09/Internationaal/00.01_Eerste_CIAM-congres,_1928_groepsfoto.jpg [ONLINE]
  40. 40. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LE CORBUSIER 5 POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Toward_an_architecture.jpg[ONLINE] •Pilotis •Roof gardens •The free designing of the ground plan •The free design of façade •The horizontal window
  41. 41. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LE CORBUSIER VILLA SAVOYE ImageSource:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/3c/VillaSavoye.jpg[ONLINE] Paris , 1928-31
  42. 42. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LE CORBUSIER VILLA SAVOYE ImageSource:http://static4.cornucopia3d.net/galleries/albums/userpics/24257/Villa%20Savoye.jpg[ONLINE] Paris , 1928-31
  43. 43. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LE CORBUSIER VILLA SAVOYE ImageSource: http://www.socialdesignmagazine.com/site/cache/multithumb_thumbs/b_720_0_0_0___images_stories_users_Maria_Chiara_Vil la_Savoye_villa_savoye_2d_zoom.jpg[ONLINE] Paris , 1928-31
  44. 44. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LE CORBUSIER CAPITAL COMPLEX ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Palace_of_Assembly_Chandigarh_2006.jpg[ONLINE] Chandigarh , 1950s
  45. 45. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LE CORBUSIER CAPITAL COMPLEX ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Palace_of_Assembly_Chandigarh_2006.jpg[ONLINE] Chandigarh , 1950s
  46. 46. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LE CORBUSIER’s PARIS MODERNISM AND UTOPIA ImageSource:http://www.mheu.org/portal/ressources/imageBank/3/979,L2-14-46.jpg[ONLINE] 1925
  47. 47. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism WALTER GROPIUS BAUHAUS ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bauhaus.JPG[ONLINE] Dessau, 1925-26
  48. 48. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism WALTER GROPIUS BAUHAUS ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bauhaus-Dessau_Fensterfront.JPG[ONLINE] Dessau, 1925-26
  49. 49. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE BARCELONA PAVILION ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Barcelona_Pavilion,_Barcelona,_2010.jpg[ONLINE] Barcelona , 1929
  50. 50. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE BARCELONA PAVILION ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Barcelona_mies_v_d_rohe_pavillon_weltausstellung1999_03.jpg[ONLINE] Barcelona , 1929
  51. 51. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE BARCELONA PAVILION ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pavell%C3%B3_Mies_05.JPG[ONLINE] Barcelona , 1929
  52. 52. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE SEAGRAM BUILDING ImageSource:http://designkultur.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/mies_van_der_rohe_seagram_building_chicago2_jpg.jpg [ONLINE] Less is more, New York , 1958
  53. 53. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE SEAGRAM BUILDING ImageSource:http://walkercorporatelaw.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/seagram1-800.jpg[ONLINE] New York , 1958
  54. 54. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE SEAGRAM BUILDING ImageSource:http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3374/3332976369_d90e9131e1.jpg[ONLINE] New York , 1958
  55. 55. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) –Modernism "God is dead“ ~ Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882

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