Lecture 10 postmodernism

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Lecture 10 postmodernism

  1. 1. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism History of Architecture-II (AP-313) POSTMODERNISM Part II LECTURE 10 Nipesh P Narayanan ImageSource:http://www.statelykitsch.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/MH-sketch.jpg[Online]
  2. 2. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism HOW IS ARCHITECTURE PERCEIVED?
  3. 3. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism • Metaphor – Culture based common symbols – Appropriation of symbols • Words – Architectural elements – doors, windows, columns • Syntax – Grammar (System) • Semantics – Appropriate usage of symbols/words (Meaning) THE MODES OF ARCHITECTURAL COMMUNICATION ~CHARLES JENCKS
  4. 4. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism METAPHOR ImageSource:TheLanguageofPost-ModernArchitecture~CharlesJencks[pg48-49] Ronchamp Chapel, France , Le Corbusier, 1955
  5. 5. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism METAPHOR ImageSource:TheLanguageofPost-ModernArchitecture~CharlesJencks[pg48-49] Ronchamp Chapel, France , Le Corbusier, 1955
  6. 6. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism WORDS AND SYNTAX India Gate, New Delhi ImageSource:http://spectralhues.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/India-Gate.jpg
  7. 7. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism SEMANTICS ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VVenturi_House_Highsmith.jpeg[Online] Vanna Venturi House, Philadelphia , Robert Venturi, 1959-64
  8. 8. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism “Modern Architecture died in St. Louis, Missouri on July 15, 1972 at 3:32 PM (or thereabouts) when the in-famous Pruitt-Igoe scheme, or rather several of its slab blocks, were given the final coup de gráce by dynamite.” ~ Charles Jencks (1987) DEATH OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE! (Ar. Minoru Yamasaki) ImageSource:http://www.pruitt-igoe.com/press/print/3000px_IconicImplosion_Pruitt-IgoeMyth_Credit-STL-Post- Dispatch.jpg[Online]
  9. 9. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 1. History 2. Pretty Drawings 3. Utility (Usefulness) “They say a building is good architecture if it works. Of course, this is poppy- cock. All buildings work…..merely that a building works is not sufficient. You expect that it works….But when it’s used as a crutch it impedes. It lulls you into thinking that that is architecture” 4. Comfort 5. Cheapness 6. Serving the Client 7. Structure “Why not realize that architecture is the sum of inescapable artistic decisions that YOU have to make” 1954 -THE SEVEN CRUTCHES OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE ~Philip Johnson
  10. 10. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism “*Johnson’s+ first, tentative break with Mies was the Synagogue…. outside a startling simplification recalling of those of Ledoux, on the inside memories of the Soane Museum. These historical quotes are located within a black picture-frame of Meiesian steel..” ~ C Jencks 1956 -THE SYNAGOGUES IN PORT CHESTER ~Philip Johnson ImageSource:http://blog.tobiaspartners.com/wp-content/uploads/Kneses-Tifereth-Israel-Synagogue-Port-Chester-NY-1956.jpg [ONLINE]
  11. 11. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 1956 -THE SYNAGOGUES IN PORT CHESTER ~Philip Johnson ImageSource:http://observatory.designobserver.com/media/images/IMG_4913_2_525_525.jpg[ONLINE]
  12. 12. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism THE MOULDINGS AND TRADITIONAL SYMBOLS ImageSource:http://payload.cargocollective.com/1/1/63512/942422/Museo-Magazine-Venturi-Scott-Brown-North-Penn-Visiting- Nurses-Association-1963_800.jpg[ONLINE] Robert Venturi, Headquarter Building, North Penn Visiting Nurses Association, 1960
  13. 13. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism WHY THE MOULDINGS AND TRADITIONAL SYMBOLS?
  14. 14. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism WHERE IS THE ENTRANCE? ImageSource:http://payload.cargocollective.com/1/1/63512/942422/Museo-Magazine-Venturi-Scott-Brown-North-Penn-Visiting- Nurses-Association-1963_800.jpg[ONLINE]
  15. 15. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism WHERE IS THE ENTRANCE? ImageSource:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/3c/VillaSavoye.jpg[ONLINE]
  16. 16. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism THE ORNAMENT DISCUSSION ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Barcelona_Pavilion,_Barcelona,_2010.jpg[ONLINE] Barcelona,1929 “Less is More” ~ Mies Van Der Rohe
  17. 17. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism THE ORNAMENT DISCUSSION ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Barcelona_Pavilion,_Barcelona,_2010.jpg[ONLINE] AT&TBuilding,NY,1984 “Mies is such a genius! But I grew old! And bored! My direction is clear; eclectic tradition. This is not academic revivalism. There are no Classic orders or Gothic finials. I try to pick up what I like throughout history. We cannot not know history” ~ Philip Johnson (1965)
  18. 18. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism • Duck – Meaning Conveyed by Architectural Symbols • Decorated Shell – Meaning conveyed by Signage DUCK AND DECORATED SHELL! ImageSource:http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/41EEGFY1QRL._SL500_AA300_.jpg[Online] 1966
  19. 19. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism DUCK OR DECORATED SHELL? ImageSource:http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-9kfkmTgtXWo/TtmCPtKqsvI/AAAAAAAACZg/3TuGFYBa000/s1600/tailopup.jpg [Online]
  20. 20. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism DUCK OR DECORATED SHELL? ImageSource:http://travelphotobase.com/i/USNV/NVV2703.JPG[Online]
  21. 21. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism DUCK OR DECORATED SHELL? ImageSource:http://www.dezeen.com/2013/11/05/nesher-memorial-auditorium-and-gallery-by-so-architecture/[Online]
  22. 22. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism DUCK OR DECORATED SHELL? ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VVenturi_House_Highsmith.jpeg[Online]
  23. 23. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism COMPLEXITY AND CONTRADICTION IN ARCHITECTURE ~ R Venturi (1966) Visual preferences in opposition to modernism • Complexity and contradiction VS Simplification • Ambiguity and tension rather than straightforwardness • ‘both-and’ rather than ‘either-or’ • Hybrid rather than pure elements • Messy vitality rather than obvious unity
  24. 24. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism FRANKLIN COURT ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VVenturi_House_Highsmith.jpeg[Online] Philadelphia , Robert Venturi, 1972-76
  25. 25. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism FRANKLIN COURT ImageSource:http://www.uwishunu.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/BF-Museum-BF-Itinerary-680uw.jpg[Online] Philadelphia , Robert Venturi, 1972-76
  26. 26. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism JENCKS AND THE READING OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE • Straight Revivalism • Neo-Vernacular • Metaphor and Metaphysics • Radical Eclecticism • Post-Modern Classicism
  27. 27. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism STRAIGHT REVIVALISM ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gurna_Mosque_R01.jpg[Online] Mosque, Luxor, Egypt, Hassan Fathy (1948)
  28. 28. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism NEO VERNACULAR ImageSource:http://www.architectureguide.nl/media/large/d5/B08PR.jpg[Online] Amsterdam Zwolle Housing , Aldo Van Eyck and Theo Bosch, 1975-77
  29. 29. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism METAPHOR & METAPHYSICS Amdavad ni Gufa , B V Doshi, 1992-95 ImageSource:AUTHOR
  30. 30. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism RADICAL ECLECTICISM ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sony_Building_by_David_Shankbone_crop.jpg[Online] AT&T Building, Philip Johnson, NY, 1984
  31. 31. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism POST-MODERN CLASSICISM ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PiazzaDItalia1990.jpg[Online] Piazza D’Italia, New Orleans, 1978
  32. 32. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism JENCKS AND THE READING OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE Straight Revivalism Neo-Vernacular -------------------------------------- Critical Regionalism
  33. 33. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism POST-MODERN SPACE “Post-Modern space is historically specific, rooted in conventions, unlimited or ambiguous in zoning and irrational or transformational in its relation of parts to whole……. …skew or distorted spaces, created by sharp angles which exaggerate perspective…. …always keep a mental coordinate system no matter how free- form and baroque they become. The reference plane is always an implied frontality, and the route through the building or the curvilinear elements then relate to this conceptual cage” ~ Charles Jencks (1987)
  34. 34. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism POST-MODERN SPACE ImageSource:http://payload.cargocollective.com/1/1/63512/942422/Museo-Magazine-Venturi-Scott-Brown-Vanna-Venturi- House-(interior)-1964_800.jpg[Online] Vanna Venturi House, Philadelphia , Robert Venturi, 1959-64
  35. 35. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism POST-MODERN SPACE ImageSource:http://house6.s-trefois.be/data/textes/eisenman/images/eisenman/HouseIII4.jpg[Online] House 3, Minnesota , Peter Eisenman, 1971
  36. 36. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism POST-MODERN SPACE ImageSource:http://www.abbeville.com/images-catalog/full-size/0789208180.interior01.jpg[Online] Westchester House , NY, Robert Stern, 1974-76
  37. 37. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism POST-MODERN SPACE ImageSource:http://www.arthistory.ucr.edu/people/faculty/morton/images/FacultyClub.jpg[Online] Faculty Club, California , Charles Moore & William Turnbill, 1969
  38. 38. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pittsburgh-pennsylvania-ppg-place-2007.jpg[Online] Pennsylvania, 2007 ARCHITECT – PHILIP JOHNSON - PPG PLACE
  39. 39. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Johnson_building_bpl.jpg[Online] Massachusetts, 2008 ARCHITECT – PHILIP JOHNSON - THE JOHNSON BUILDING
  40. 40. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clore_Gallery_London_Dec07.JPG[Online] London, 1980-87 ARCHITECT – JAMES STIRLING- CLORE GALLERY
  41. 41. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1_Poultry.jpg[Online] London, 1997 ARCHITECT – JAMES STIRLING- NO 1 POULTRY
  42. 42. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – CHARLES MOORE - PIAZZA D'ITALIA ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PiazzaDItalia1990.jpg[Online] Piazza D’Italia, New Orleans, 1978
  43. 43. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – CHARLES MOORE – FACULTY CLUB ImageSource:http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbi.cgi/UCSB_Faculty_Club.html/cid_20060410_kmm_img_2627.html [Online] California , Charles Moore & William Turnbill, 1969
  44. 44. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – CHARLES MOORE – FACULTY CLUB ImageSource:http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbi.cgi/UCSB_Faculty_Club.html/cid_20060410_kmm_img_2638.html [Online] California , Charles Moore & William Turnbill, 1969
  45. 45. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – I M PEI – LE GRAND LOUVRE ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Louvre_Museum_Wikimedia_Commons.jpg[Online] Le Grand Louvre, Paris , 1988
  46. 46. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – I M PEI – BELL TOWER ImageSource:http://www.shumei.org/spirituality/tour/images/tower.jpg[Online] Kyoto, Japan , 1997
  47. 47. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – MARIO BOTTA – SF-MOMA ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:San_Francisco_Museum_of_Modern_Art_in_2011.jpg[Online] SF, 1995
  48. 48. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – CHARLES JENCKS – GARAGIA ROTUNDA ImageSource:http://media.vam.ac.uk/media/website/versions/uploads/new_images/postmodernism-blog- garagia_small_610x915.jpg[Online] Wellfleet, Massachusetts , 1977
  49. 49. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – CHARLES JENCKS – GARAGIA ROTUNDA ImageSource:http://liberalirionist.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/garagia-rotunda.jpg[Online] Wellfleet, Massachusetts , 1977
  50. 50. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – MICHAEL GRAVES – PORTLAND BUILDING ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Portland_Building_1982.jpg[Online] Portland, 1982
  51. 51. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – LÉON KRIER – NEW TOWN OF POUNDBURY ImageSource:http://zakuski.utsa.edu/krier/BUILDINGS/poundburystreet.350.jpg[Online] New Urbanism, England, 1980s
  52. 52. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – ALDO ROSSI – SAN CATALDO CEMETERY – NEO RATIONALISM ImageSource:http://www.archdaily.com/95400/ad-classics-san-cataldo-cemetery-aldo-rossi/sancat1/[Online] Modena, Italy, 1984
  53. 53. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ImageSource:http://www.archdaily.com/95400/ad-classics-san-cataldo-cemetery-aldo-rossi/sancat2/[Online] Modena, Italy, 1984 ARCHITECT – ALDO ROSSI – SAN CATALDO CEMETERY – NEO RATIONALISM
  54. 54. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – ROB KRIER – RITTERSTRASSE APARTMENTS ImageSource:http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2273/2476304044_0377c0033c.jpg?v=0[Online] Berlin, 1978
  55. 55. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – ROBERT VENTURI + DENISE SCOTT BROWN – CHAPEL ImageSource:http://payload.cargocollective.com/1/1/63512/942422/Museo-Magazine-Venturi-Scott-Brown-Episcopal- Academy-Chapel-2008_800.jpg[Online] Pennsylvania, 2010
  56. 56. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism ARCHITECT – ROBERT VENTURI + DENISE SCOTT BROWN – CHAPEL ImageSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Espicopal_Acad_int.JPG[Online] Pennsylvania, 2010
  57. 57. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism POST-MODERN ARCHITECTS AND THE URBAN CONCERNS
  58. 58. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism • Social Modernity and Modernism – The unrealised dream • Post-Modern response to the “Public” – Expression, Ornament, Wit • Urban Outburst and the fall of Modernism’s promise – Complexity as opposed to modernism’s standardization • Urban as the new Laboratory – Rem Koolhaas in Lagos – Rob Krier - Town Spaces. Contemporary Interpretations in Traditional Urbanism – Aldo Rossi - The architecture of the city POST-MODERN ARCHITECTS AND THE URBAN CONCERNS
  59. 59. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 1. Multivalence is preferred to univalence, imagination to fancy. 2. ‘Complexity and Contraction’ over ‘Minimalism’ 3. Chaos Theory explain nature than liner dynamics. 4. Memory and History are inevitable 13 PROPOSITIONS OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE, JENCKS 1996
  60. 60. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 5. All architecture is invented and perceived through codes, hence the languages of architecture and symbolic architecture, hence the double-coding of architecture within the codes of both the professional and populace. 13 PROPOSITIONS OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE, JENCKS 1996
  61. 61. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 6. All codes are influenced by a semiotic community and various taste cultures, hence the need in pluralist culture for a design based on Radical Eclecticism. 13 PROPOSITIONS OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE, JENCKS 1996
  62. 62. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 7. Architecture is a public language, hence the need for a Post- Modern Classicism which is partly based on architectural universals and changing technology. 13 PROPOSITIONS OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE, JENCKS 1996
  63. 63. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 8. Architecture necessitates ornament (or patterns) which should be symbolic and symphonic, hence relevance of information theory. 13 PROPOSITIONS OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE, JENCKS 1996
  64. 64. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 9. Architecture necessitates metaphor and this should relate us to natural and cultural concerns, hence the explosion of zoomorphic imagery, face houses and scientific iconography instead of ‘machine for living’. 13 PROPOSITIONS OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE, JENCKS 1996
  65. 65. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 10. Architecture must form the city , hence Contexualism, collage City, Neo Rationalism, small- block planning, and mixed uses and ages of buildings. 13 PROPOSITIONS OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE, JENCKS 1996
  66. 66. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 11. Architecture must crystallise social reality and in global city today, the Heteropolis, the very much means the pluralism of ethnic groups; hence participatory design and adhocism. 13 PROPOSITIONS OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE, JENCKS 1996
  67. 67. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 12. Architecture must confront the ecological reality and that means sustainable development, Green architecture and cosmic symbolism. 13 PROPOSITIONS OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE, JENCKS 1996
  68. 68. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism 13. We live in a surprising, creative, self-organising universe which still gets locked-into various solutions; hence the need for a cosmogenic architecture which celebrates criticism, process and humour. 13 PROPOSITIONS OF POST-MODERN ARCHITECTURE, JENCKS 1996
  69. 69. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism “A work can become modern only if it is first postmodern. Postmodernism thus understood is not modernism at its end but in the nascent state, and this state is constant” ~ Jean François (1979), ‘The Postmodern Condition’
  70. 70. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Postmodernism REFERENCE Charles Jencks. 1977. The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. Academy Editions. ISBN 0856709336 Robert Venturi . 1966. Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. "The Museum of Modern Art, New York"; 2nd edition (July 2, 2002). ISBN 0870702823

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