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Cite 'em-right-infosheet Document Transcript

  • 1. August 2002 Cite 'em Right How to give good bibliographic references
  • 2. August 2002 "The University of Bradford retains copyright for this material, which may not be reproduced without prior written permission". Learning Support Services welcomes feedback on its documentation. Please email any comments on the content of this document to: suggestions@bradford.ac.uk For other LSS documentation please see: http://www.brad.ac.uk/lss
  • 3. 1 CONTENTS Introduction 2 Section A: Numeric system - Citing references within the text 3 Section B: Numeric system – Full bibliographic citations 3 1 Books 4 2 Parts of books 4 3 Unpublished documents 5 4 Periodicals and articles in periodicals 5 5 Conferences 7 6 Theses 8 7 Reports 8 8 Government publications 8 9 Standards 9 10 Patents 9 11 Film, videos, broadcasts 9 12 Electronic publications 10 Notes on listing full bibliographic references – Numeric system 14 Section A: Harvard System – Citing references within the text 15 Section B: Harvard System – Full bibliographic citations 16 Notes on listing full bibliographic references – Harvard system 17 Further reading 18
  • 4. 2 BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES Whether you are writing a thesis, journal article, report or book, it is essential that you provide detailed and precise information on all the sources you have used during the compilation of your work, so that a reader can easily identify the book or article to which you are referring. To do this you will need to list the sources as bibliographic references (i.e. citations) at the end of your work. You will also need to refer in your text to the citations at the end of your work. The following guide gives details on how to do both. The 'Numeric system' is the main style described in this guide for setting out bibliographic references at the end of the work and for referring to them from within the text. The 'Harvard system' is the other most widely used method and is described in the second half of this guide. Other methods exist which give the citation style for particular subject areas e.g. Vancouver style for medicine, IEEE for engineering. Links to web pages describing these styles can be found on the LSS homepage; click on 'Library Services', 'Reference' then 'Bibliographic References'. Section A of this guide gives details on how to link references in your text to the full bibliographic citations at the end of your work, (Numeric system below, Harvard p.15). Section B of this guide gives details on the correct layout of the full bibliographic citations at the end of your work, (Numeric system below, Harvard p.16). The guide is based on the following Standards: BS 1629:1989; BS 5605:1990; International Standard BS ISO 690-2:1997 and for unpublished documents BS 6371:1983. Many of the examples used are from these standards. ENDNOTE: Endnote is a software package which allows creation or downloading of references and can format the list of references in any of the major referencing styles, including the Numeric and Harvard styles described in this guide. For details of the Endnote software, please see the LSS homepage on the Bradford University Website, under Library Services 'Quick links'. Please check the Cite ‘Em Right Web page at http://www.brad.ac.uk/library/elecinfo/cite.php for any more recent updates on citing references.
  • 5. 3 A Citing References in the Text Numeric system: The first reference you 'cite' in the text is numbered 1. The corresponding full bibliographic reference is numbered 1 in the list at the end of the work. The second reference is numbered 2 in both the text and the list at the end and so on. Numbers in the text can be given in the following ways: a in round brackets; e.g. In a recent study, Smith (5) argued that ... b in square brackets; e.g. In a recent study, Smith [5] argued that .... c as a superscript numeral; e.g. In a recent study, Smith5 argued that .... Whichever method is chosen it is imperative that the same method is applied consistently. The above numbering methods can also be used without the author’s name e.g. In a recent study (5) it was argued that… In a recent study [5] it was argued that… In a recent study5 it was argued that… B Full Bibliographic Citations Bibliographical references given at the end of the text must be sufficient to identify the publications fully. The following sections cover references to different types of publication. Elements of each reference should be separated by punctuation. The citation order given in each section includes suggested punctuation. Whatever punctuation is used, it should be used consistently. If a document has two or three authors (or originators) of equal status, all their names should be given. If more than three, the name of the first should always be given, but the names of the others may be omitted and replaced by " et al." or "and others". Examples: Double, John A. and Thompson, Michael A. Fitting, Hans, et al.
  • 6. 4 Numeric system: 1 Books i Titles should appear in italics. If you cannot use italics, underline the title to show that in print it would appear in italics. ii Give place of publication in the language of the text followed by the name of the state, province or country in round brackets, where necessary, EXAMPLES Paris Gif-sur-Yvette (France) Hampton (Middlesex U.K.) iii Give details of volume no edition, etc., in the language of the book Citation order: Author(s) or Compiler(s) or Editor(s) (noted as 'ed.') (surname followed by initials). Full title of the work (in italics or underlined). Edition number. Translator, etc. Place of publication, Publisher, year of publication. Number of volumes if more than one. Title of series and volume number in such series. Examples: Frey, R. G. Interests and rights: the case against animals. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1980. (Clarendon library of logic and philosophy). Davis, C. V., ed. Handbook of applied hydraulics. 3rd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1969. 2 Parts of Books (e.g. chapters, sections, passages, contributions to a collection) Citation order: Author(s) of contribution (surname followed by initials). Title of contribution. In: Author(s)/editor(s) of whole book. Title of book (in italics or underlined). Edition of book. Volume number. Place of publication, Publisher, year of publication. Pagination or chapter/section number. Example: Sata, T. New identification methods for manufacturing processes. In: Peklenik, J. Advances in manufacturing systems research and development. Oxford, Pergamon, 1971, pp. 11 - 22.
  • 7. 5 3 Unpublished Documents a If the format of an unpublished document resembles that of a book or pamphlet and has a clear statement of author and title, the document should be treated as in sections 1 and 2 above for books or parts of books. In addition, the name of a library or repository known to hold a copy should be given as the location element. Example: Markham, C.R., Report on the Geographical Department of the India Office, 1867-1877. 1877: London, India Office Library. b If the document does not resemble a book or pamphlet e.g. letters, unpublished manuscripts, inscriptions etc., the elements in the reference will vary according to the nature of the document. Please refer to British Standard BS 6371:1983, which gives detailed descriptions and examples for citation of unpublished documents, 4 Periodicals and Articles in Periodicals a Periodicals (i.e. journals, serials) General points i Periodical titles should appear in italics. If you cannot use italics, underline the title to show that in print it would appear in italics. ii Periodicals produced by a society or institution and which includes its name in their titles may be cited with the name of the issuing organisation first if appropriate. Thus the reference can be given as: Institute of Measurement and Control. Transactions. 0142-3312. 1979- or as: Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control. 0142-3312. 1979- Whichever method is chosen it is imperative that the same method is applied consistently Citation order: Title of periodical (in italics or underlined). ISSN (International Standard Serial Number). Year of first publication-
  • 8. 6 Example: Natura (Amsterdam). 0028-0631, 1906- b Contributions to periodicals (i.e. Journal articles, contributions to serials) General points i Periodical titles should appear in italics. If you cannot use italics, underline the title to show that in print it would appear in italics. ii Periodicals produced by a society or institution and which includes its name in their titles may be cited with the name of the issuing organisation first if appropriate. Thus the reference can be given as: Institution of Chemical Engineers. Transactions. Vol 8, 1930. or as: Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers. Vol 8, 1930. Whichever method is chosen it is imperative that the same method is applied consistently. iii Pagination should include the first and last pages of articles. iv Volume and part (or issue) numbers should normally be given in Arabic numerals (e.g. vol. 4, not vol. IV). v The month may be abbreviated (e.g. Dec.). vi The abbreviations 'vol.’, ‘part', 'pp.', may be omitted, But: if you do omit these abbreviations the following sequence must be rigidly maintained: You must give the Month (where known) and year followed by the volume number in bold type, followed by the part number in round brackets, followed by the pagination. Separate the component parts of the reference with commas (see second example below). Whichever method is chosen it is imperative that the same method is applied consistently. Citation order: Author(s) of contribution / article (surname followed by initials). Title of contribution. Title of periodical (in italics or underlined), year of publication. Numeration Examples: Jones, C. B. Constructing a theory of a data structure as an aid to program development. Acta lnformatica, 1979, Vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 119- 137.
  • 9. 7 Fishman, R. M. The labor movement in Spain : from authoritarianism to democracy. Comparative Politics, April 1982 14, (1), 281-305. (Whether you include or omit the abbreviations 'Vol' 'no' 'pp', chose one way and apply it consistently. See note vi above). 5 Conferences a Conference Proceedings Citation order: Name of conference (with number in series if appropriate). Place at which conference was held. Date of conference. Title of proceedings (in italics or underlined). Editor(s). Place of publication, Publisher, year of publication. Examples: International Conference on Industrial Robot Technology, 7th, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2-4 October 1984. Industrial Robot Technology Proceedings..., edited by N. Martensson. Bedford, IFS, 1984. International Conference on Cryogenic Concrete, lst, Newcastle upon Tyne, March 1981. Cryogenic concrete. Proceedings. London, Construction Press, 1982. b Conference Papers A reference to a specific paper included in the proceedings of a conference should include the full details of the paper; i.e. author, title, pagination, in addition to the details of the conference Citation order: Author(s) of paper (surname followed by initials). Title of paper. Name of conference (with number in series if appropriate). Place at which conference was held. Date of conference. Title of proceedings (in italics or underlined). Editor(s). Place of publication, Publisher, year of publication. Pagination for the paper. Example: Grunewald, P. Car body painting with the spine spray system.International Conference on Industrial Robot Technology, 7th,Gothenburg, Sweden, 2-4 October 1984. Industrial Robot Technology Proceedings... edited by N. Martensson. Bedford. IFS, 1984, pp. 633 - 642.
  • 10. 8 6 Theses Citation order: Author (surname followed by initials). Title of thesis (in italics or underlined). Degree statement. Degree-awarding body. Date. Example: Benrimoj, S. L. Pharmacy in health centre areas. PhD thesis. University of Bradford, 1980. 7 Reports Citation order: Author(s) (surname followed by initials). Title of report (in italics or underlined). Place of publication, Publisher, year of publication. Report code and number. Example: Woodward, R. J. Case studies of the corrosion of reinforcement in concrete structures. Crowthorne, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, 1981. (TRRL-LR-981). 8 Government Publications Citation order: Country (see note below). Author (usually the name of a Ministry, department, agency, council, committee, or other official body). Title of the work (in italics or underlined). Edition number. Place of publication, Publisher, year of publication. Number of volumes if more than one. Title of series and volume numbers in such series. Note: In order to avoid confusion, it is recommended that official publications are qualified by country, e.g. Great Britain. Department of Employment. Examples: Great Britain. Committee of Enquiry into the education of children from ethnic minority groups. Education for all: the report of the Committee of Inquiry into the education of children from ethnic minority groups. Michael Meredith Swann, Baron Swann (Chairman); Department of Education and Science (passive author). London, HMSO, 1985. 2 vols. (Cmnd. 9453).
  • 11. 9 9 Standards Citation order: Issuing body. Title (in italics or underlined). Date of publication. Standard number. Note: If the standard number incorporates the date of publication - as in those issued by the British Standards Institution - the date of publication may be omitted. Examples: British Standards Institution. Cars for manriding in mines . BS 4854:1972. International Organization for Standardization. Cold-rolled carbon steel sheet for vitreous enamelling. ISO 5001-1980. 10 Patents Citation order: Patentee(s) (Surname(s) followed by initials). Title of patent (in italics or underlined). Abbreviated code designating country of origin. Serial number of complete specification. Date of application. Date of acceptance. Example: Merrison, D. R. Storage heater control circuit. Brit. Pat. 1239820. Appl. 7 Aug. 1968. Acc. 7 Nov. 1969. Note: British Standard BS 5605 only requires that the Date of publication be given after the serial number, but BS 1629 does allow for more detailed information to be included such as the date of application and acceptance. The date of publication does not need to be repeated where it forms part of the serial number. 11 Films, Videos, Broadcasts Citation order: Title (in italics or underlined). Material designator (e.g. Film, Video).Directed by, Name of Director (If no one individual is responsible for the intellectual content, then the director is preferred but other individuals may be cited with their roles, e.g. Producer…, Actor…).Place of publication. Publisher (name of the film company).Date of release. Location (if only a few copies exist). Example: Macbeth. Film. Directed by Orson Welles. USA:Republic Pictures, 1948. Location of 35 mm viewing copy, London: National Film Archive.
  • 12. 10 Series of Film, Video, Broadcasts: Citation order: Title of series (in italics or underlined). Title of part. Material designator (e.g. Film, Video). Directed by, Name of Director (If no one individual is responsible for the intellectual content, then the director is preferred but other individuals may be cited with their roles, e.g. Producer…, Actor…).Place of publication. Publisher (name of the film company). Date of release. Location (if only a few copies exist). Example: Yes, Prime Minister, Episode 1, The Ministerial Broadcast. TV, BBC 2. 1986 Jan 16. 12 Electronic Publications i 'Date of citation' e.g. [cited 10th Feb 2002] in the sections a to g below, means the date the electronic resource was accessed. ii Titles should appear in italics. If you cannot use italics, underline the title to show that in print it would appear in italics. iii Give the place of publication in the language of the text followed by the name of the state, province or country in round brackets, where necessary, Examples: Paris Gif-sur-Yvette (France) Hampton (Middlesex U.K.) a Electronic monographs, databases and computer programs Citation order: Primary responsibility. (Author/Compiler/Editor etc. Surname first followed by initials). Title (in italics or underlined). Type of medium (in square brackets). Subordinate responsibility. Edition (or version/release etc.). Place of publication, Publisher, date of publication. Date of update/revision. Date of citation (in square brackets, give for online documents subject to change). Series. Notes (optional e.g. accompanying material / system requirements / language etc). Availability and access (for online documents). Standard number (e.g. ISBN).
  • 13. 11 Examples: Carroll, Lewis. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland [online]. Texinfo ed. 2.1. [Dortmund, Germany]: WindSpiel, November 1994 [cited 10 February 1995]. Available from World WideWeb: <http://www.germany.eu.net/books/carroll/alice.html>. Also available in PostScript and ASCII versions from Internet: <ftp://ftp.Germany.EU.net/pub/books/carroll/>. Meeting Agenda [online]. Gif-sur-Yvette (France): Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires/Saclay, Service de Documentation, March 1991 — [cited 30 September 1992]. Updated bimonthly. ASCII format. Available from QUESTEL. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology [online]. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley, 1984 [cited 3 January 1990]. Available from DIALOG Information Services, Palo Alto (Calif.). b Parts of electronic monographs, databases and computer programs Citation order: Primary responsibility of host document. (Author/Compiler/Editor etc. Surname first followed by initials). Title of host document (in italics or underlined). Type of medium (in square brackets). Subordinate responsibility of host document (where appropriate). Edition (or version/release etc.). Place of publication. Publisher. Date of publication. Date of update/revision. Date of citation (in square brackets, give for online documents subject to change). Chapter or equivalent designation of part. Title of part. Numeration within host document. Location within host document. Notes (optional e.g. accompanying material / system requirements / language etc). Availability and access (for online documents). Standard number (e.g. ISBN). Examples: World Factbook [CD-ROM]. [Washington, D.C.]: Central Intelligence Agency, 1990. Spain vital statistics. ID number: CI WOFACT 1206. ICC British Company Financial Datasheets [online]. Hampton (Middlesex, U.K.): ICC Online, 1992, updated 3 March 1992 [cited 11 March 1992]. Robert Maxwell Group PLC. Accession no. 01209277. Available from DIALOG Information Services, Palo Alto (Calif.). Carroll, Lewis. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland [online]. Texinfo. ed. 2.2. [Dortmund, Germany]: WindSpiel, November 1994 [cited 30 March 1995]. Chapter VII. A Mad Tea-Party. Available from World Wide Web: <http//www.germany.eu.net/books/carroll/alice_10.html#SEC13>
  • 14. 12 c Contributions to electronic monographs, databases or computer programs Citation order: Primary responsibility of contribution. (Author/Compiler/Editor etc. Surname first followed by initials).Title of contribution. In Primary responsibility of host document. (Author/Compiler/Editor etc. Surname first followed by initials). Title of host document (in italics or underlined). Type of medium (in square brackets). Subordinate responsibility of host document. Edition (or version/release etc.). Place of publication. Publisher. Date of publication. Date of update/revision. Date of citation (in square brackets, give for online documents subject to change). Numeration within host document (if given). Location within host document. Notes (optional e.g. accompanying material / system requirements / language etc). Availability and access (for online documents). Standard number (e.g. ISBN). Examples: Zhukovsky, Vladimir; Itkin, Vladimir; and Chernenko, Lev. Helicopters over the Crater. In Current Digest of the Soviet Press [online]. Columbus (Ohio): Current Digest of the Soviet Press, 11 June 1986 [cited 14 February 1991]. Accession no. 0008752. Available from DIALOG Information Services, Palo Alto (Calif.). Belle de Jour. In Magill’s Survey of Cinema [online]. Pasadena (Calif.): Salem Press, 1985 [cited 1994-08-04]. Accession no. 0050053. Available from DIALOG Information Services, Palo Alto (Calif.). McConnell, W.H. Constitutional History. In The Canadian Encyclopedia [CD- ROM]. Macintosh version 1.1. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, c.1993. ISBN 0- 7710-1932-7. d Electronic serials Citation order: Title (in italics or underlined). Type of medium (in square brackets). Edition (or version/release etc.). Place of publication. Publisher, date of publication. Date of citation (in square brackets, give for online documents subject to change). Series. Notes (optional e.g. language etc). Availability and access (for online documents). Standard number (e.g. ISSN). Examples: Journal of Technology Education [online]. Blacksburg (Va.): Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,1989- [cited 15 March 1995]. Semi-annual. Available from Internet: <gopher://borg.lib.vt.edu:70/1/jte>. ISSN 1045-1064.
  • 15. 13 Profile Canada [CD-ROM]. Toronto: Micromedia, 1993-. The Canadian Connection. Accompanied by: user’s guide. System requirements: IBM PC or compatible; MPC Standard CD-ROM drive; DOS 3.30 or higher; 490 kB RAM; MS-DOS Extensions 2.1 or higher. Quarterly. e Articles and contributions to Electronic serials Citation order: Primary responsibility of contribution. (Author/Compiler/Editor etc. Surname first followed by initials). Title of contribution. Title of serial (in italics or underlined). Type of medium (in square brackets). Edition (or version/release etc.). Issue designation. Date of update/revision. Date of citation (in square brackets, give for online documents subject to change). Location within host document. Notes (optional - e.g. language etc). Availability and access (for online documents). Standard number (e.g. ISSN). Examples: Stone, Nan. The Globalization of Europe. Harvard Business Review [online]. May – June 1989 [cited 3 September 1990]. Available from BRS Information Technologies, McLean (Va.). Price-Wilkin, John. Using the World-Wide Web to Deliver Complex Electronic Documents:Implications for Libraries. The Public-Access Computer Systems Review [online]. 1994, vol. 5,no. 3 [cited 1994-07-28], pp. 5-21. Available from Internet: <gopher://info.lib.uh.edu: 70/00/articles/ e- journals/uhlibrary/pacsreview/v5/n3/pricewil.5n3>. ISSN 1048-6542. f Electronic bulletin boards, discussion lists (entire system) Citation order: Title. Type of medium (in square brackets). Place of publication. Publisher. Date of publication. Date of citation (in square brackets). Notes (optional). Availability and access. Examples: PACS-L (Public Access Computer Systems Forum) [online]. Houston (Tex.): University of Houston Libraries, June 1989- [cited May 17, 1995]. Available from Internet: listserv@uhupvm1.uh.edu. Federal Depository Library Program Files (/GO Depository) [online]. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office [cited 1995-02-15]. Available from Internet: <telnet://federal.bbs.gpo.gov>.
  • 16. 14 g Electronic messages Citation order: Primary responsibility of message. (Author/Compiler/Editor etc. Surname first followed by initials). Title of message (in italics or underlined). In (use the word 'In' where appropriate to separate the message from the host system) Title of host message system. Type of medium (in square brackets). Subordinate responsibility/Recipient(s). Place of publication, Publisher, date of publication (Note: for personal or unpublished communications, give the date the message was sent). Date of citation (in square brackets). Numeration within host message system (if given). Location within host message system. Availability and access (except for personal or unpublished communications). Notes (optional). Examples: Parker, Elliott. Re: Citing Electronic Journals. In PACS-L (Public Access Computer Systems Forum) [online]. Houston (Tex.): University of Houston Libraries, 24 November 1989; 13:29:35 CST [cited 1 January 1995; 16:15 EST]. Available from Internet: <telnet://brsuser@a.cni.org>. Pritchard, Sarah. Your Request for Information about ISO Standards. [online]. Message to: Margaret Morrison. 18 February 1995 [cited 3 March 1995]. Personal communication. Notes on listing full bibliographic references Numeric system: List the bibliographic references at the end of the text in the numerical order in which they appeared in the text. Within the list of references abbreviations are often used to link the references. They may also appear as footnotes to pages. ibid. (= ibidem). Means; in the same book, chapter, passage, etc., in the reference immediately preceding. This is used in successive references to the same work. It is a substitute for repeating the author and title of a publication. If you use it, give the relevant page number(s). op. cit. (= opere citato). Means; in the work quoted. This is used for a further reference to a publication previously cited, but not the immediately preceding reference. If you use it, give some means of identifying the previous reference, such as author's name. loc. cit. (= loco citato). Means; in the passage already quoted. This is only used to refer to the exact passage previously cited. i.e. to the same work, the same volume, the same page. It is therefore never followed by a page or volume number.
  • 17. 15 Abbreviations example list : Numeric System: 1 Birkeland, P.W. Soils and geomorphology. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1984. 2 Lattman, L. H. Calcium carbonate cementation of alluvial fans in southern Nevada. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 1973, Vol. 84, pp. 3013-3028. 3 ibid. p. 3020. 4 Birkeland, P.W. op. cit. p. 85. 5 Lattman, L. H. loc. cit. Example list : Numeric System 1 Schlesinger, A. M. A thousand days. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1965. 2 Lipsky, M. Protest as a political resource. American Political Science Review, 1968 Vol 62, pp 1114-1158. 3 Brooks, T. Walls come tumbling down: a historv of the Civil Rights Movement 1940 - 1970. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1974. 4 Elliff, J. T. Aspects of Federal Civil Rights enforcement: the Justice Department and the F B 1, 1939-64. Perspectives, 1971, Vol 5, pp 621-622. 5 Schlesinger, A. M. Robert Kennedv and his times. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1978. HARVARD SYSTEM A Citing References in the Text With the Harvard System Cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author's name and year of publication, in either of the forms shown below: a Where the author’s name appears naturally in the text, the year follows in brackets. For example: In a recent study Smith (1996) argued that… Draper (1997) suggests that… b Where a sentence would not naturally include the author’s name give the name in brackets with the year. For example: In a recent study (Smith 1996) the solution was shown to be… In one study (Draper 1997) it was argued that…
  • 18. 16 For publications by two authors, both names are given: a In a recent study, Smith and Jones (2002) argued that… b A recent study (Smith and Jones 2002) concluded that… Two or more publications by one author in the same year are distinguished by adding lower case letters to the year. For example: Smith (1996a) disagreed, and in a later study (Smith 1996b) suggested… Anonymous works may be shown by Anon. in place of the author's name: In a recent study (Anon. 1999) it was argued that... While in the full list at the end of the work give the reference as: Anonymous (1999) … If you wish to refer to individual pages of a particular book or article, the page number(s) should be given after the date, separated from it by a comma or a colon: (Smith and Jones 1986, 236) or (Smith and Jones 1986:236) Your punctuation practice should be consistent. If you use a direct quotation the page number should be included: Note: The Harvard system is not easy to apply consistently to older works which have no clearly defined publication date, or to manuscripts of uncertain or disputed authorship. B Full Bibliographic Citations Harvard system In the Harvard System, the full bibliographic references at the end of the work are listed in alphabetical order of the Author (or title where no author is given). In the Harvard System, the elements to include in the full bibliographic citations listed at the end of the work are the same as the elements for the Numeric System (Section B) given in the first half of this guide. Notes on page 2 for the Numeric System (Section B) in the first half of this guide should also be followed for the Harvard System.
  • 19. 17 The difference between the Numeric and Harvard Systems is the position of the date (i.e. year of publication / creation), which in the Harvard System, is given immediately after the Author. Where there is no Author and the title is used as the first element of the reference, the date is given immediately after the title. This is the same for both print or electronic versions of a document.. Give the year following the Author for the following types of references: Books, Parts of Books, Periodical articles, Conference proceedings, Conference papers, Government publications, Theses, Reports, Patents, Works of unknown authorship (using 'Anonymous' …). Give the year following the Title for the following types of references: Periodical titles (not articles), Standards, Films, Works of unknown authorship (not using 'Anonymous' …). Notes on listing full bibliographic references Harvard System List the entries in alphabetical order by author’s name (or title when necessary) and then by date, either as: Smith, J. 1986… or Smith, J. (1986)… If brackets are chosen , use them consistently Notes on page 13 for the Numeric System (Section B) in the first half of this guide on the use of abbreviations within the list should also be followed for the Harvard System. Example list: Harvard System Brooks, T. (1974) Walls come tumbling down : a history of the Civil Rights Movement 1940-1970. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall. Elliff, J. T. (1971) Aspects of Federal Civil Rights enforcement: the Justice Department and the F B I, 1939-1964. Perspectives, Vol 5, pp. 621-622.
  • 20. 18 Lipsky, M. (1968) Protest as a political resource. American Political Science Review, Vol 62, pp. 1114-1158. Schlesinger, A. M. (1965) A thousand days. Boston, Houghton Mifflin. Schlesinger, A. M. (1978) Robert Kennedy and his times. Boston, Houghton Mifflin. References: 1 British Standards Institution. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. BS 5605:1990. 2 British Standards Institution. Recommendations for references to published materials. BS 1629:1989. 3 British Standards Institution. Recommendations for citation of unpublished documents BS 6371:1983 4 International Organization for Standardization. Information and documentation - Bibliographic references – Part 2: Electronic documents or parts thereof. BS ISO 690-2:1997 Further reading (all shelved at F808.2227): 1 Li, X. and Crane, Nancy B. Electronic Style : a guide to citing electronic information. London, Meckler, 1993. 2 Bosworth, D. P. Citing your references : a guide for authors of journal articles and students writing theses or dissertations. Thirsk, Underhill Press for the Learning Resources Development Group, 1992. (Pamphlet). 3 Walker, Janice R. and Taylor, Todd. The Columbia guide to online style. New York,Columbia University Press, 1998. 4 ISI Researchsoft. Endnote 5 : bibliographies made easy. Berkeley, ISI Researchsoft, 2001.