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Sept13 2011 college 1
 

Sept13 2011 college 1

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How to design and evaluate research in education?

How to design and evaluate research in education?
SPO students at Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, The Netherlands

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  • Waarom methodologie? Doorprikken van prietpraat, valse intuïtie en zogenaamde autoriteit Wetenschappelijk geschoolde levenslang lerende professional Zelfstandig uitvoeren van onderzoek Zintuigelijke waarneming Overeenstemming Expert-kennis Logica De wetenschappelijke methode: een propositie/bewering wordt aan een empirische toets onderworpen
  • Waarom methodologie? Doorprikken van prietpraat, valse intuïtie en zogenaamde autoriteit Wetenschappelijk geschoolde levenslang lerende professional Zelfstandig uitvoeren van onderzoek Zintuigelijke waarneming Overeenstemming Expert-kennis Logica De wetenschappelijke methode: een propositie/bewering wordt aan een empirische toets onderworpen
  • Waarom methodologie? Doorprikken van prietpraat, valse intuïtie en zogenaamde autoriteit Wetenschappelijk geschoolde levenslang lerende professional Zelfstandig uitvoeren van onderzoek Zintuigelijke waarneming Overeenstemming Expert-kennis Logica De wetenschappelijke methode: een propositie/bewering wordt aan een empirische toets onderworpen
  • Waarom methodologie? Doorprikken van prietpraat, valse intuïtie en zogenaamde autoriteit Wetenschappelijk geschoolde levenslang lerende professional Zelfstandig uitvoeren van onderzoek Zintuigelijke waarneming Overeenstemming Expert-kennis Logica De wetenschappelijke methode: een propositie/bewering wordt aan een empirische toets onderworpen
  • Waarom methodologie? Doorprikken van prietpraat, valse intuïtie en zogenaamde autoriteit Wetenschappelijk geschoolde levenslang lerende professional Zelfstandig uitvoeren van onderzoek Zintuigelijke waarneming Overeenstemming Expert-kennis Logica De wetenschappelijke methode: een propositie/bewering wordt aan een empirische toets onderworpen
  • Waarom methodologie? Doorprikken van prietpraat, valse intuïtie en zogenaamde autoriteit Wetenschappelijk geschoolde levenslang lerende professional Zelfstandig uitvoeren van onderzoek Zintuigelijke waarneming Overeenstemming Expert-kennis Logica De wetenschappelijke methode: een propositie/bewering wordt aan een empirische toets onderworpen
  • Waarom methodologie? Doorprikken van prietpraat, valse intuïtie en zogenaamde autoriteit Wetenschappelijk geschoolde levenslang lerende professional Zelfstandig uitvoeren van onderzoek Zintuigelijke waarneming Overeenstemming Expert-kennis Logica De wetenschappelijke methode: een propositie/bewering wordt aan een empirische toets onderworpen
  • Soorten onderzoek Experimenteel onderzoek Correlationeel onderzoek Causaal-vergelijkend onderzoek Survey onderzoek Etnografisch onderzoek Historisch onderzoek Actie-onderzoek
  • Soorten onderzoek Experimenteel onderzoek Correlationeel onderzoek Causaal-vergelijkend onderzoek Survey onderzoek Etnografisch onderzoek Historisch onderzoek Actie-onderzoek
  • Soorten onderzoek Experimenteel onderzoek Correlationeel onderzoek Causaal-vergelijkend onderzoek Survey onderzoek Etnografisch onderzoek Historisch onderzoek Actie-onderzoek
  • Soorten onderzoek Experimenteel onderzoek Correlationeel onderzoek Causaal-vergelijkend onderzoek Survey onderzoek Etnografisch onderzoek Historisch onderzoek Actie-onderzoek
  • Soorten onderzoek Experimenteel onderzoek Correlationeel onderzoek Causaal-vergelijkend onderzoek Survey onderzoek Etnografisch onderzoek Historisch onderzoek Actie-onderzoek
  • Soorten onderzoek Experimenteel onderzoek Correlationeel onderzoek Causaal-vergelijkend onderzoek Survey onderzoek Etnografisch onderzoek Historisch onderzoek Actie-onderzoek
  • Soorten onderzoek Experimenteel onderzoek Correlationeel onderzoek Causaal-vergelijkend onderzoek Survey onderzoek Etnografisch onderzoek Historisch onderzoek Actie-onderzoek
  • Soorten onderzoek Experimenteel onderzoek Correlationeel onderzoek Causaal-vergelijkend onderzoek Survey onderzoek Etnografisch onderzoek Historisch onderzoek Actie-onderzoek
  • Soorten onderzoek Experimenteel onderzoek Correlationeel onderzoek Causaal-vergelijkend onderzoek Survey onderzoek Etnografisch onderzoek Historisch onderzoek Actie-onderzoek
  • Waarom methodologie? Doorprikken van prietpraat, valse intuïtie en zogenaamde autoriteit Wetenschappelijk geschoolde levenslang lerende professional Zelfstandig uitvoeren van onderzoek Zintuigelijke waarneming Overeenstemming Expert-kennis Logica De wetenschappelijke methode: een propositie/bewering wordt aan een empirische toets onderworpen
  • Waarom methodologie? Doorprikken van prietpraat, valse intuïtie en zogenaamde autoriteit Wetenschappelijk geschoolde levenslang lerende professional Zelfstandig uitvoeren van onderzoek Zintuigelijke waarneming Overeenstemming Expert-kennis Logica De wetenschappelijke methode: een propositie/bewering wordt aan een empirische toets onderworpen
  • Een goede onderzoeksvraag
  • Een goede onderzoeksvraag
  • Qualitative data is descriptive information ( describes something) Quantitative data, is numerical information (numbers). Discrete data can only take certain values (like whole numbers) Continuous data can take any value (within a range)
  • D To conduct an experiment, the researcher must have control of important variables, or characteristics, of the study. The researcher decides on what interventions to use and then can assign the study participants to different conditions where these different interventions are used. A study of the effectiveness of concept maps is most likely to be an experiment since the researcher can place some participants in a condition that will use concept maps and others in a condition that will not use these concept maps. The researcher will then compare the achievement levels after participants have spent some time in the conditions. Thus, the researcher intervenes in the environment to establish the conditions, controls other factors, and measures the outcomes.
  • B Feedback: Correlational research is for examining relationships among two or more variables that are measured for a single group. Causal-comparative research compares two or more existing groups.
  • C Feedback: An ethnographic study is a type of qualitative research. Such studies are usually conducted over relatively long periods of time so as to accurately document the characteristics and social interactions of a group. Various methods are employed for collecting data so that the description can be as complete as possible. Survey research is a type of research that obtains data to determine specific characteristics of a group, for example, how a faculty feels about a particular administrator. A content analysis is a method that permits researchers to study human behavior unobtrusively. Historical research is a method used to study some aspect of the past by perusing documents of the period or by interviewing individuals who lived during the time.
  • D Feedback: A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods defines mixed methods research.
  • B Feedback: Critical researchers believe most researchers take too much for granted regarding reality, values, assumptions and outcomes for society.

Sept13 2011 college 1 Sept13 2011 college 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Methoden en Technieken Dr. Ning DING September 13 2011 SPO, Rijksuniversteit Groningen 09/14/11
  • Overview
    • Structure of the course
      • requirement, book, exam
    • Today’s course
      • Nature of Research
      • Research Problem
      • Variables and Hypotheses
      • Ethics and Research
    • Self-Check Exercises
    09/14/11
  • Structure of the course
    • Requirements:
      • read the book
      • attend the lectures
    • Book: How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education 7 th or 8 th Edition
    • Skip: 5, 10, 11, 12, 25
      • Chapter 5: Locating and Reviewing the Literature
      • Chapter 10: Descriptive Statistics
      • Chapter 11: Inferential Statistics
      • Chapter 12: Statistics in Perspective
      • Chapter 25: Preparing Research Proposals and Reports
    09/14/11
  • EXAM 09/14/11
  • EXAM
    • Exam: bevat MC-vragen en twee open-vragen 45
    Example: 09/14/11
  • EXAM
    • Exam: bevat MC-vragen en twee open-vragen 3
    • Example:
    • Wat is het verschil tussen criterion- en norm-referenced instrumentatie. Kun je voorbeelden geven voor beide?
    • What is the difference between criterion- and norm-reference instruments? Please give an example for each of them.
    09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research 09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research 09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • 1.1 Why do we need a research in education?
    • Sensory
    • Undependable
    • Incomplete
    09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • 1.1 Why do we need a research in education?
    • Agreement with others
    • No guarantee of the truth
    09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • 1.1 Why do we need a research in education?
    • Expert Opinion
    • Never be totally true
    09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • 1.1 Why do we need a research in education?
    • Logic
    • Both major and minor premises are true?
    09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • 1.1 Why do we need a research in education?
    • Scientific method
    09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • 1.1 Why do we need a research in education?
    Describe, Predict, Explain Mixed method = quantitative + qualitative 09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • 1.1 Why do we need a research in education?
    • Define problems
    • Clarify study purpose and problems
    • Determine what kinds of information and ways of collection
    • Organize obtained information
    • Interpret information
    09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • 1.2 Several types of research
    09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • 1.2 Several types of research
    09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • 1.2 Several types of research
    09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • 1.2 Several types of research
    09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • 1.2 Several types of research
    • >= 2 groups
    • existing
    09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • 1.2 Several types of research
    09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • Several types of research
    09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • Several types of research
    09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • Several types of research
    09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • Several types of research
      • 1.3 Overview of the research process
    09/14/11
  • Chapter 1 The Nature of Research
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • Several types of research
      • 1.3 Overview of the research process
    09/14/11
      • Why do we need a research in education?
      • Several types of research
      • 1.3 Overview of the research process
    Chapter 1 The Nature of Research 09/14/11
  • Chapter 2 The Research Problem
      • 2.1 Defining Terms
    Constitutive Definition Operational Definition Use what is often referred to as the dictionary approach Specify the actions or operations necessary to measure or identify the term 09/14/11
  • Chapter 2 The Research Problem
      • 2.2 Characteristics of good research problem
        • Feasible
        • Clear
        • Significant
        • Ethical
    • haalbaar
    • Is helder
    • Is belangrijk
    • Is ethisch verantwoord
    09/14/11
      • Characteristics of good research problem
        • Feasible
        • Clear
        • Significant
        • Ethical
    Chapter 2 The Research Problem Is computer-supported learning an effective learning method? Is computer-supported learning an effective learning method for secondary school students? Is computer-supported learning an effective learning method for secondeary school students in physics problem-solving? Is computer-supported learning an effective learning method for secondary school students in physics problem-solving in comparison with face-to-face learning? 09/14/11
      • Variable
    Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses Constant A concept standing for variation within a class of objects Characteristics do not vary 09/14/11 3.1 Variables
      • 3.1.1 Quantitative vs Categorical Variables
        • Vary in degree / do not vary in degree
      • 3.1.2 Independent vs Dependent Variables
        • Study its effect / presumed to be affected
      • 3.1.3 Moderator Variables
      • 3.1.4 Exaneous Variables
    Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses 09/14/11 3.1 Variables
  • Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses
      • 3.1.1 Quantitative vs Categorical Variables
        • Vary in degree / do not vary in degree
    09/14/11
  • Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses
      • 3.1.2 Quantitative vs Categorical Variables
        • Vary in degree / do not vary in degree
    09/14/11
  • Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses
      • Quantitative vs Categorical Variables
        • Vary in degree / do not vary in degree
      • Independent vs Dependent Variables
        • Study its effect / presumed to be affected
    Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Influences your Performance in Mathematics Maths performance 09/14/11 IQ
  • Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses
      • Quantitative vs Categorical Variables
        • Vary in degree / do not vary in degree
      • Independent vs Dependent Variables
        • Study its effect / presumed to be affected
      • 3.1.3 Moderator Variable
    Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Influences your Performance in Mathematics Maths performance 09/14/11 IQ
  • Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses
      • Quantitative vs Categorical Variables
        • Vary in degree / do not vary in degree
      • Independent vs Dependent Variables
        • Study its effect / presumed to be affected
      • Moderator Variable
      • 3.1.4 Extraneous Variable
    Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Influences your Performance in Mathematics, and this is moderated by the parental involvement Maths performance 09/14/11 IQ
      • 3.1.1 Quantitative vs Categorical Variables
        • Vary in degree / do not vary in degree
      • 3.1.2 Independent vs Dependent Variables
        • Study its effect / presumed to be affected
      • 3.1.3 Moderator Variables
      • 3.1.4 Exaneous Variables
    Are secondary school students’ physics performances influenced by their gender ? As above, the relationship is moderated by SES Homework , teacher , etc. Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses 09/14/11
  • Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses
    • 3.2 Hypotheses
      • 3.2.1 Advantages vs Disadvantages of stating hypotheses
        • Think deeply / bias
        • Prediction / unnecessary for some research types
      • 3.2.2 Significant Hypotheses
      • 3.2.3 Directional vs Nondirectional Hypotheses
    09/14/11
      • Advantages vs Disadvantages of stating hypotheses
        • Think deeply / bias
        • Prediction / unnecessary for some research types
      • Significant Hypotheses
      • Directional vs Nondirectional Hypotheses
    In secondary school physics problem-solving, the learning performances of students learning via computers are better than that of students learning in face-to-face learning. In secondary school physics problem-solving, the learning performances of students learning via computers are different in comparison with that of students learning in face-to-face learning. Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses 09/14/11
  • Chapter 4 Ethics and Research
      • Protecting participants from harm
      • Ensuring confidentiality of research data
      • Should subjects be deceived?
    09/14/11
  • Self-Check Exercises
    • Which of the following research studies is most likely to be an experiment?
    • A) A study of the leadership characteristics of successful high school principals
    • B) A study that compares the cholesterol levels of vegetarians and meat eaters
    • C) A study to determine if parents give more sociable teachers higher ratings
    • D) A study to find out if using concept maps can increase achievement
    09/14/11
  • Self-Check Exercises 2. The difference between correlational and causal-comparative research is that
    • A) one type is a descriptive study and the other is an associational study .
    • B) one type is a study with one group and the other type compares two or more groups.
    • C) one type can be generalized, while the other type cannot.
    • D) one type involves an intervention, while the other type is purely an observational study.
    09/14/11
  • Self-Check Exercises 3. Single-subject research is classified under the general research type of
    • A) survey research.
    • B) a content analysis.
    • C) an ethnographic study.
    • D) historical research.
    09/14/11
  • Self-Check Exercises 4. A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches is known as
    • A) descriptive research.
    • B) explanatory research.
    • C) causal-comparative research.
    • D) mixed-methods research
    09/14/11
  • Self-Check Exercises 5. Critical researchers are primarily concerned with
    • A)ethical violations in methodology
    • B) what researchers take for granted
    • C) misuse of statistics
    • D) how research is funded
    09/14/11
  • Next course
    • Chapter 7 Instrumentation
      • Data
      • Data collection
    • Chapter 8 Validity and Reliability
    • Chapter 9 Internal Reliability
    09/14/11