Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter• The seven southernmost states formed the Confederate States of America on February 4, 1861• Confederates immediately started taking over federal installations in their state• By the time of Lincoln’s inauguration, only two Southern forts remained
Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter• The day after his inauguration, he received an urgent dispatch from the fort’s commander• The Confederacy was demanding that he surrender or face an attack
Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter: Lincoln’s Dilemma• If he ordered the navy to shoot, he would be responsible for starting hostilities• If he ordered an evacuation, he would be treating the Confederacy as a legitimate nation• Such actions would anger the Republican Party, weaken his administration, and endanger the Union
Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter: First Shots• Lincoln executed a clever political maneuver• Instead of abandoning Fort Sumter, he reinforced it• He would send “food for hungry men”• Now it was Jefferson Davis who faced a dilemma
Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter: First Shots• If Jefferson didn’t do anything, he would damage the image of the Confederacy• If he ordered an attack on Fort Sumter, he would turn peaceful secession into war.• He obviously chose war.• On April 12, they started firing away• They were bombarded with more than 4,000 rounds before Anderson surrendered
Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter: Virginia Secedes• When Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to serve for three months, the response was overwhelming• 20x the states quota rushed to enlist• Virginia unwilling to fight seceded– A terrible loss to the Union• Was the most populated state and most industrialized
Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter: Virginia Secedes• In May, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina followed Virginia• Confederates states raises to 11• Western counties of Virginia were Antislavery• They were now separated and was called West Virginia
Americans Expect a Short War• Northerners and Confederates expected a short, glorious war• Both sides felt that right was on their side• The two factions were unevenly matched
Americans Expect a Short War: Union and Confederate StrategiesUnion Confederate• Enjoyed enormous • “King Cotton” (profits itadvantages in resources earned on the world market)having more: • First-rate generals- Fighting power • A strong military tradition- More factories •Soldiers who were highly- Greater food production motivated to defend their- More extensive railroad homelandsystem
Americans Expect a Short War: Union and Confederate Strategies• The South had a tradition of local and limited government• There was a resistance to the centralization of government needed to run a war• Several Southern governors refused to cooperate with the Confederate government
Americans Expect a Short War: Union and Confederate StrategiesUnion Confederate1. The Union navy would blockade 1. Mostly defense Southern ports 2. If the opportunity arose, Generals2. Union riverboats and armies would would signal the start of attack or move down Mississippi river invasion of the North3. Union armies would capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia
Americans Expect a Short War: Bull Run• July 21, first major bloodshed three months after Fort Sumter fell• An Army of 30,000 inexperienced Union soldiers marched toward the Confederate capital• Came upon an equally inexperience Confederate Army encamped near Bull Run (a creek)
Americans Expect a Short War: Bull Run• Lincoln commanded General Irvin McDowell to attack• The battle was a seesaw affair
Americans Expect a Short War: Bull Run• Confederates won their first battle for the south• Fortunately for the Union, the Confederates were too exhausted to attack Washington• Bull Run “has secured our independence,” a Georgia secessionist declared• Many Southern soldiers were confident that the war was over, left the army and went home
Union Armies in the West• Lincon appointed George McCleallan to lead the New Union army
Union Armies in the West• On February 1862; a Union Army led by General Ulysses S. Grant invaded western Tennessee.• In 11 days, Grant’s forces captured two Confederate Forts.• Ulysses S. Grant attacked Fort Donelson with 23,000 men.
Union Armies in the West• Fort Donelson was the first major Federal victory of the Civil War• 12,500 Confederates surrendered• Confederates abandoned Nashville without a fight• With disproportionate surprise, the Confederates attacked out of the woods on the morning of April 6
Union Armies in the West• In spite of the reinforcements, many of Grant’s officers thought it was wise to retreat• Grant’s persistence and confidence made the difference at The Battle of Shiloh• At sunset, the Confederates started retreating back to Corinth
Union Armies in the West• Losses at The Battle of Shiloh were horrific, exceeding those of any previous battle in American History Union Armies in the West• The Confederacy had lost much western and middle of Tennessee and The Battle of Shiloh ensure it would stay that way
A Revolution In Warfare• Success of Grant and Farragut in the west was a new type of war machine: Ironclad ship• Advanced technology changed military strategy and contributed to the war casualty rate
A Revolution In Warfare: Iron clads• Ship could splinter wooden ships, withstandcannon fire, resist burning
A Revolution In Warfare: Iron clads• Grants used 4 ships when he captured FortsHenry and Donelson• March 9, 1862, two iron clads, North’ss“Monitor” and South’s “Merrimack” fought ahistoric deal
A Revolution In Warfare: New Weapons• Invention of rifles and minie ball• Rifles were more accurate and could be easily loaded by soldiers quickly• Minie ball was a soft lead bullet was more destructive• Also used hand grenades and land mines
A Revolution In Warfare: New Weapons• New technology gradually changed military strategy• Soldiers fighting from inside trenches or behind barricades had a great advantage in mass infantry attacks because of the rifle and minie.
The War for the Capitals• The third part of the three part plan to capture the Confederate capitol at Richmond failed• Partly because of General McClellan, who was too cautious.• During the spring of 1962, McClellan’s army fought Confederate Joseph E. Johnston’s Army
The War for the Capitals• Johnston got wounded, and command of the army went to Robert E. Lee.• Lee’s and McClellan’s armies fought during “The 7 Days Battle”• Lee was determined to win for his beloved Virginia.• On August 29 and 30, Lee’s army won the second battle at Bull run
The War for the Capitals• McClellan found Lee’s army commands wrapped around some cigars.• It said Lee’s and Stonewall Jackson’s troops were separated at the moment• McClellan and Lee’s armies fought on Sept. 17 beside the Antietam creek.• The casualties totaled more than 26,000
The War for the Capitals• Lee lost a quarter of his men, McClellan didn’t pursue them. He could’ve ended the war.• Lincoln fired McClellan.
Britain Remains Neutral• A number of economic factors were bade.• Britain was no longer dependent on southern cotton.• Britain accumulated a huge cotton inventory right before the outbreak• Also found new sources for cotton in India and Egypt.
Britain Remains Neutral• When wheat crop of Europe failed, the Northern wheat crop places cotton as an essential import• Britain decided to be neutral for it was the best policy to do.
Britain Remains Neutral: The Trent Affair• Fall of 1861, an incident occurred to test the neutrality.• The Confederate government sent two diplomats, James Mason and John Slidell.• They sent them for a second attempt to gain support from France and Britain.• They were aboard a British merchant ship named Trent.
Britain Remains Neutral: The Trent Affair• Capt. Charles Wilkes of the American warship San Jacinto stopped the ship and arrested the two men.• The British threatened the Union and dispatched 8,000 troops to Canada.• Lincoln freed both of the prisoners and claiming that Wilkes acted without orders
Proclaiming Emancipation: Lincoln’s view on Slavery• Lincoln disliked slavery• He did not believe that the federal government had the power to abolish where it already exists
Proclaiming Emancipation:Proclamation of Emancipation
Proclaiming Emancipation: Reactions to the Proclamation• It did not have much practical effect, although it had immense symbolic importance.• Free blacks welcomed the section of the Proclamation that allowed them to enlist in the Union Army• Not everyone in the North approved of it.
Proclaiming Emancipation: Reactions to the Proclamation• Democrats claimed that it would only prolong the war by antagonizing the south• Confederates reacted to it with outrage• Compromising was no longer an option
Both Sides Face Political Problems• Lincoln dealt forcefully with disloyalty while dealing with dissent• Both armies originally relied on volunteers, it didn’t take long before heavy casualties led to conscription• White men between ages of 18 to 35 must join the army
Both Sides Face Political Problems• In 1864, the confederacy suffered more losses• Changed the rule into white man from age 17 to 50• People with enough money could pay $300 to avoid conscription• It was a rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight