Nerves....• The main enemy of a presenteris tension, which ruins thevoice, posture & spontaneity.• Voice becomes higher as thethroat tenses.Shoulders tighten up & limitflexibility while the legs start toshake & cause unsteadiness.• The presentation becomes"canned" as the speaker locks inon notes & starts to readdirectly from them.“If I had a way to remove allfear of speaking for you, Iwouldn’t do it. The day youbecome casual about speakingis the day you risk falling onyour face.”
Tips to Eliminate Speech Anxiety…• Realize that your audience will probably notrecognize your fear.• Recognize that audiences areapproving & accepting. They wantyou to succeed.• Humanize your delivery. Don’t tryto be someone you are not.
Before the Presentation Reduce Tension by Doing:Stand with you feet about 6 inches apart, arms hanging by yoursides, & fingers unclenched.Gently shake each part of your body, starting with hands, arms,shoulders, torso & legs.Concentrate on shaking out the tension.Then slowly rotate your shoulders forwards & then backwards.Move on to your head.Rotate it slowly clockwise, and then counter-clockwise.
• Mental visualization:- Visualize the room, audience, & giving the presentation.- Take a moment - a sip of water - a deep breathconcentrate on relaxing - say to your self, "I can do it!"- Imagine the audience incompromising positions• Distract yourself for 10 minutes before you begin.• Neck exercises• Breathe deeply• Prepare answers to anticipated questions
SYMPTOM CURENervous energy Talk a walkTrembling legs Gently or imperceptibly lean onthe lectern or tableShaking hands Use a handheld microphone.Avoid holding anything flexibleuntil you are calm.Avoid caffeine.Dry mouth; tight throat Take small drinks of warm waterto loosen your vocal cords.Feeling isolated Make eye contact with thefriendliest faces in the audience
06/17/13 9• Verbal• Non VerbalCommunication
Verbal Vs non-verbal communicationWords(7%)Tone ofVoice(38 %)BodyLanguage(55%)
I need this job done right now.
Voice….• Volume & Emphasis• Pace• Tone• Rhythm
Our school is the best in town. The teachers arefriendly, and very knowledgeable about English.Ive studied at the school for two years and myEnglish is becoming very good. I hope you willvisit our school and try an English class. Maybewe can become friends, too!Our school is the BEST in town. The teachers arefriendly, and VERY KNOWLEDGEABLE aboutEnglish. Ive studied at the school for two yearsand my English is becoming VERY GOOD. I hopeyou will visit our school and try an English class.MAYBE we can become FRIENDS!
• Enunciation…manner in which you sound parts of words….. Saying all the sounds in a word clearly.Do not drop off the ends of words, esp "ing," "ed," "d," "p," or "t."Talking – talkin Studying – studyin Going to – gonnaDo not muddle the middle of words by replacing sharper sounds(like "t") with softer sounds (like "d")Butter – budderDo not run words together.Whadjagit – What did you get Wuzzat – What’s that
• Slow you rate of speak to avoid enunciation errors• Enunciate in front of the mirror (clearly form wordswith your lips)• Pay special attention to /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ whenthey come at the end of a word• open your mouth for vowel sounds so that they areformed properly• Breathe regularly
Voice Training Exercises:• Red leather, yellow leather• She is a thistle sifter, and she has a sieve of siftedthistles and a sieve of unsifted thistles, because sheis a thistle sifter.• Enemy, enemy, many men enemy.• Many men have many minds• He generally reads regularly in a government libraryparticularly rich in Coptic manuscripts, except duringthe month of February. (sound every syllable)• The man from Hong Kong was beating the gong, andit boomed and it thundered round Pal-en-jen-bang.
06/17/13 19Nonverbal Communication• Body LanguageIt could be called a language which conveysaffirmative , ambiguous or negative signalsdepending on individual perception.The point is do we understand them in detail?If Yes then do we act upon them ?If No then we need practice.
.Gripping the lectern.Chewing on objects,fingernails.Constant throat clearing.Playing with hair, beard,jewelry.Rocking back & forth.Rubbing or picking atclothes.Clenched fists.Jingling coins or keys inpockets or hands.Slouching.Standing extremely rigidly.Crossed arms.Pounding fists.Hands on hips.Pointing index finger.Hands behind back.Hands on lapel or hem ofjacket.Preening gestures
.Open hands.Expansive gestures.Stepping out from behind the lectern.Walking towards & into the audience.Animated facial expressions.Dramatic pauses.Confident & consistent eye contactOpen & Confident
People not only listen to you, they also watch you!!!“Personal Appearance”“Confidence”
This is good toWesterners,one’ to Italians,five to JapaneseAndup yours tothe Greeks!!!……Cultural Considerations……
OK to a Westerner,money’ to a Japanese,zero to the Frenchinsulting to the Turks &Brazilians
• Proximity- Cultural norms dictate acomfortable distancefor interaction- If there is too muchdistance - move aroundthe room to increaseinteraction with youraudience.• Eye Contact- Helps to regulate the flowof communication.- Signals interest in others &increases the speakerscredibility.- M or W
• Posture & Body OrientationStanding erect & leaningforward = approachable,receptive & friendly.Looking at the floor or ceiling= disinterest.Avoid creating barriers
• Gestures- If you fail to gesture whilespeaking, you may beperceived as boring and stiff.-Beware of distractingmannerisms• Movement-Avoid standing still, but donot move constantly-Avoid rocking movements
• Facial Expressions- Smile
Mannerisms that Distract & Signal thatyou are Nervous…• Pacing up and down the room• Crossing your arms in front of your body• Turning your back to your audience• Bad posture• Tapping your feet• Swaying• Resting on / tightly grasping the lectern/podium• Bracing against the lectern/podium• Sitting on the desk• Tugging at or playing with clothing or jewelry• Touching your hair constantly• Tapping the lectern or projector with a pen, or pointer• Picking at your fingernails• Tapping your feet
06/17/13 32Body Language In Black n White• Dear John I want a man who knows whatlove is all about you are generous kindthoughtful people who are not like youadmit to being useless and inferior you haveruined me for other men I yearn for you Ihave no feelings whatsoever when we’reapart Will you let me be yours Gloria
06/17/13 33Body Language In Black n White• Dear John,I want a man who knows what love is all about. Youare generous, kind thoughtful. People who are notlike you admit to being useless and inferior. Youhave ruined me for other men. I yearn for you. Ihave no feelings whatsoever when we’re apart.Will you let me be yours?Gloria
Preparing an Effective Presentation• Determine your purpose• Analyze your audience• Gather supporting information• Organize your presentation• Select appropriate presentation aids• Prepare your presentation• Rehearse your presentation
Why Get Organized????• enhances a speaker’s credibility bydemonstrating clear thinking• increases comprehension & retention
Organizing the Presentation…..• Tell them what you’re going to tell them• Tell them• Tell them what you’ve told them
Outline FormatPurpose: ______________________________I. Main PointA. Subpoint1. More detailed information2. More detailed materialB. Subpoint1. More detailed informationa. Even more specific materialII. Main PointA . Subpoint1. More detailed informationa. Even more specific materialB. Subpoint .................
Beginning a Speech....Speech: persuade audience to eat less fat....“This morning I’d like to persuade you to eatless fat in your diet.....”BORINGGGGGG
Fifty percent of the population of the US is killing itself. Onthis room, over half of us are eating ourselves to an earlydeath brought on by too much fat in our diets. Countlessstudies indicate that there is a very real relationship betweenour diet & the development of life-threatening diseases suchas cancer, stroke & diabetes. The Surgeon General’s Report onNutrition and Health concurs with this correlation by statingthat “the single most influential dietary change one can maketo lower the risks of diseases such as cancer, stroke &diabetes is to reduce intake of foods high in fat.”Today I am going to stand before you to convince you toreduce your daily intake of fat. I will give you three well-documented reasons that it’s important to eat a low-fat dietand then we will look at what a healthy diet looks like. Pleaseattend to my message, as what I say may save your life.
Introduction….• Who are you?• What is your topic?• What is your purpose?• How will you tell it all?Get peoples attentionWelcome themIntroduce yourselfState the purpose of your presentation
Get peoples attention• If I could have everybodys attention.• If we can start. OR• Perhaps we should begin? USE ONE OF THE STRATEGIES• Lets get started.Welcome them• Welcome to LUMS.• Thank you for coming today.• Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.• On behalf of Intell, Id like to welcome you.Introduce yourself• My names Ali Ahmed and I ……………………….• For those of you who dont know me, my names Raza Khan.
Strategies for Attracting Attention…Twelve of our customers have cancelled orders in the past month.Startling StatementAre you going to have enough money to do the things you want to when youretire?Rhetorical QuestionAuthor and columnist Earl Wilson said, If you wouldnt write it and sign it,dont say it. This gives us a clue as to how you can gain believability fromyour audience.QuotationAnecdote
State the purpose of your presentation• talk about = to speak about a subjectToday Id like to talk about our plans for the new site.Im going to be talking to you about the results of our survey.• report on = to tell you about what has been done.Im going to be reporting on our results last quarter.Today I will be reporting on the progress we have made since our last meeting.• take a look at = to examineFirst, lets take a look at what we have achieved so far.Before we go on to the figures, Id like to take a look at the changes we have made.• show = to explain something by doing it or by giving instructions.The object of this mornings talk is to show you how to put the theory into practice.Today Im going to show you how to get the most out of the new software.
• tell you about = to speak to someone to give them information orinstructionsFirst, I will tell you about the present situation, then go onto what weare going to do.When I have finished, Jack will then tell you about what is happeningin Europe.• outline = to give the main facts or information about something.Id like to outline the new policy and give you some practical examples.I will only give you a brief outline and explain how it affects you.• fill you in on = to give some extra or missing informationId like to quickly fill you in on what has happened.When I have finished outlining the policy, Jerry will fill you in on whatwe want you to do.
• give an overview of = to give a short description with generalinformation but no details.Firstly, I would like to give you a brief overview of the situation.Ill give you an overview of our objectives and then hand over to Peterfor more details.• highlight = draw attention to or emphasize the important facts.The results highlight our strengths and our weaknesses.Id now like to go on to highlight some of the advantages that thesechanges will bring.• discuss = to talk about ideas or opinions on a subject in more detail.Im now going to go on to discuss our options in more detail.After a brief overview of the results, Id like to discuss the implicationsin more detail.
Overview of the main points:First, I’d like to talk about who the homelessin Columbus are. Second, I’ll talk about theservices The Open Shelter provides. Finally, I’lltalk about what you – either individually or asa group – can do to help.
• Use short sentences.• Avoid:“I’m so nervous …… ““I really don’t know much about this….”“I apologize for taking up your time….”
Body….• Organize logically• Keep the number of main points down to anappropriate level• Smooth transitions between your main points• Clear support for each main point
Patterns for Organizing your Speech….Topical (Climactic) OrderPurpose: To inform my audience about the 3 major areasof my life• The most important area of my life is my relationship with mymother• The second most important area in my life is my quest forspiritual truth• Another instrumental area in my life is my work to acquire adoctorate of philosophy.
Chronological OrderPurpose: To inform my audience about the 3important areas of my life• A spiritual quest became very important to me inhigh school.• After I left the service, I became determined to earna doctorate of philosophy• After college, I developed a strong relationship withmy mother
Spatial OrderPurpose: To inform my audience about the 4flours of XYZ• The first floor will house the gymnasium, auditorium,cafeteria & offices• The second story will contain Math & Scienceclasses.• The third floor will house the humanities classes.• The fourth floor will contain the art classes.
Problem-Solution Order (for persuasion)Purpose: To persuade my audience that weneed to take legislative action to solve thegrowing problem of the homeless.• There is a large and growing homeless problem inthe United States• We can solve this problem through a combination ofincreased federal social welfare programs anddecreased deinstitutionalizing the mentally ill.
Offer a clear signpost as you come to each new point:“Now we come to the third point: what you can do as agroup or as individuals to help homeless people inColumbus.”“So much for what we are doing. Now let’s talk aboutwhat you can do to help.”“You may be wondering, what can I do to help?”“As you can see, the Shelter is trying to do many things.We could do more things with your help.”
• Hold the listener’s attentionShort, active sentencesExamples & specific details• Emphasize your main points“This is my most important point…”“This then, is the critical issue…”• Involve your listenersHelp them form imagesTasks & demonstrations
Closing….• To signal that the end is near• To summarize• To leave your audience with something memorable &worthwhile3 Techniques:QuotationsNarrationChallenges or Appeals
• Restate your main point• Refer to your opener to create a frame foryour presentation• End with a vivid positive picture• Tell the audience exactly what to do next….• Signal to the audience that you are finishing- Transitional devices- Pause & lower the pitch of your voice
Transitions……Tie all parts of your speech – use transitions3 strategies:• Signposts• Internal Previews• Internal Reviews
Signposts• Connect ideas & help to keep your audience on track.• First, finally, further, moreover, whereas, however, considerthis, specifically, third, next, thus,Internal Preview• Prepare your audience for forthcoming information• “Let’s examine the second impact of XYZ. In this portion of myspeech I will discuss how this research study hasinfluenced.......”
Internal Review• Provides your audience with a summary of yourinformation before you move on to new ideas.• Assist audience in retaining important points• “Over the last half hour, we have examined............We have also looked at ......... “
Survival Language….If you get your facts wrong.• I am terribly sorry. What I meant to say was this…If you have forgotten to make a point.• Sorry, I should just mention one other thing…• If I can just go back to the previous point, there is something that I’d like to add…If you realize that what you are saying makes no sense.• Let me rephrase that to make it quite clear…If you are short of time.• So just to give you the main points…• As we are short of time, this is just a quick summary of the main points…If you have been too complicated & want to simplify what you said.• So, basically, the point I am trying to get across is this…
Using Evidence…..• QuotationsAssertion: I think that people become stronger individualsas they work through their problems.Quotation: According to Dr M. Scott, psychologist andauthor of the best-selling book The Road LessTravelled, “It is only because of problems thatwe grow mentally and spiritually.”
• StatisticsAssertion: The size of the United States is pretty smallcompared to the rest of the world.Statistic: Although the United States is approximately3,800,000 square miles, its share of the worldland mass is only 6 percent.• NarrationFactual or hypothetical
Questions about your Evidence…• Do I have enough evidence to defend my assertion, or do Ineed to gather more supporting material?• Have I explained my evidence clearly?• Is my evidence taken from an unbiased & credible source?• Is my evidence current?
Notes….• Cue card – brief – key words• Timings• Messages to yourself with different coloredpens• Clip them together – number them
Questions….Questions do not mean you did not explainthe topic good enough, but that theaudience’s interest is deeper than the averageaudience.• Keep cool if a questioner disagrees with you.You are a professional!• No matter how hard you try, not everyone inthe world will agree with you!
• After inviting questions, do not rush ahead if no one asks a question.Pause for about 6 seconds to allow the audience to gather their thoughts.• Start the ball rollingYour own remark: “One question you might have is….”• When a question is asked, rephrase & repeat the question to ensurethat everyone heard it• Treat questions with respectDo not antagonize or embarrass even the most hostile questioner.“ I don’t blame you for thinking the plan is far-fetched, Sara. Wethought it was strange at first, too, but the more we examined it, thebetter it looked.”
• If you do not know the answer, be honest, do notwaffle. Tell them you will get back to them...and makesure you do!• Address your answer to the entire audience• Answers that last 10 to 40 seconds work best.• Keep your answers focused on your goal• If someone takes issue with something you said, try tofind a way to agree with part of their argument."Yes, I understand your position...""Im glad you raised that point, but...".… the idea is to praise their point & agreewith them.
• Buy time when necessaryRephrase the question“It sounds like everything about the project looks goodto you except the schedule, Ali.”Turn the question around“How would you deal with the situation and still goahead with the project, Mary?”Turn the question outward“Raza, you are the best technical person here. What doyou think is the best way to save energy costs?”
• When you dont want to answer:To be honest, Im not really the person to ask about that.• When someone interrupts you:Sorry, could I just finish?• When you finally understand what they want to know:Oh I see. So what you are asking is …• When you realize they dont understand what you said:Perhaps I didnt make myself clear. What I was trying to say was …• If you dont want to tell everyone:Perhaps we can talk about it when I have finished.• To close off the presentation:If there are no more questions, we should stop there.
• Follow the last question with a summaryI’m grateful for the chance to answer yourquestions. Now that we’ve gone over the costprojections, I think you can see why we’reconvinced that this proposal can help boostproductivity and cut overheads by almost 10%overnight. We’re ready to make thesechanges immediately. The sooner we hearfrom you, the sooner we can get started.
“How well we communicate is determined notonly by how well we say things, but also byhow well we are understood.”