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Medical Asepsis

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  • 1. MEDICAL ASEPSIS
  • 2. MEDICAL ASEPSIS
      • All practices intended to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area, limiting their number, growth, and transmission. (Clean/ dirty/ contaminated)
      • Procedures used to protect the client and his environment from the transmission of disease producing organisms that can transmit from one to the other
  • 3. METHODS OF MEDICAL ASEPSIS
    • Isolation precautions
    • Hand washing
    • Use of gown, mask, gloves, glasses
    • Use of disposables, clean surfaces
    • Concurrent and terminal disinfection
    • Control and teaching of visitors/ relatives
    • Developing staff health and hygiene and education
    • Preventive vaccination, inoculation and medicines
    • Use of labour saving and efficient devices for aseptic practices
  • 4. ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS
    • Isolation – Measures to prevent the spread of infections or potentially infectious organisms to health personnel, client and visitors
    • Barrier technique (Reverse isolation) - Measures to protect highly susceptible (compromised) clients from infection
  • 5. ISOLATION SYSTEMS USED IN HEALTH CARE AGENCIES
    • Centers for Disease Control & prevention (CDC) precaution – involves procedures for -
        • Category specific Isolation (CSI) precaution
        • Disease specific isolation (DSI) precaution
        • Universal precaution
    • Body Substance Isolation (BSI) system
  • 6. CDC ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS…
    • Category Specific Isolation- Based on 7 categories-
    • 1. Strict Isolation
    • 2. Contact Isolation
    • 3. Respiratory Isolation
    • 4. TB Isolation
    • 5. Enteric precautions
    • 6. Drainage/ secretions precautions
    • 7. Blood/ body fluid precautions
  • 7. CDC ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS…
    • Disease Specific Isolation – According to specific disease conditions
    • Universal Precautions – Blood and body fluid precautions.
      • Decrease the risk of transmitting unidentified pathogens
      • Hepatitis B, C, and HIV
      • Does not apply to feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, vomitus unless they contain visible blood
      • Used in conjunction with CSI & DSI
  • 8. BODY SUBSTANCE ISOLATION
    • Includes all body parts and secretions and excretions
    • Does not include clients with airborne diseases
    • Follows hand washing, gloving, gowning, wearing masks, eye wear, hair and shoe covers
    • Adheres to needle destruction and disposal and proper disposal of waste
  • 9. IMPLEMENTING ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS
    • A nursing responsibility
    • Based on comprehensive assessment of the client
      • Status of client’s defense system
      • Client's ability to implement isolation
      • precautions
      • Source and mode o transmission of infectious
      • agent
    • Follow specific precautions during therapies for client’s benefit
    • Decision made on the method of isolation precaution
  • 10. HAND WASHING
    • Cut nails short, remove all jewelry, check for breaks/ cuts in the skin
    • Turn on the water, adjust the flow
    • Wet hands thoroughly under running water, apply soap
    • Hold hands lower than the elbows
    • Thoroughly wash and rinse the hands
    • Use firm rubbing and circular movements the palm, back and wrist of each hand. Interlace fingers and thumbs and move the hands back and forth ---for 10seconds
    • Turn off the water
    • Dry hands thoroughly with a paper towel
  • 11. USE OF FACE MASKS
    • To reduce risk of transmission by droplet contact, air borne routes and splatters of body substances
    • To be worn by –
      • Those close to the client (in measles, mumps, Ac resp diseases) – large particle aerosols travel short distances (1 m of 3 ft)
      • All persons entering the room ( in Pulm TB)- small particle aerosols remain suspended in the air, and thus travel great distances
    • Masks – Should have good filtration effectiveness and fit
    • - Do not carry them in the pocket or around the neck
    • - Do not use them outside the unit
    • - Use fresh mask each time (Disposable and non disposable masks)
    • - Disinfect / Sterilize before next use
  • 12. USE OF FACE MASKS..
    • Keep in a clean container near hand washing facility
    • Mask should cover mouth and nose
    • A secure fit prevents escape of exhaled air and fogging of eye glasses
    • Fit the upper edges of the mask under the frame of eye glasses
    • Avoid talking, sneezing, coughing
    • Use only once, and not after it gets moist
    • When removing mask first untie the lower strings
    • Discard disposable mask in a waste container
    • Wash hands
  • 13. EYE WEAR
    • Goggles or glasses
    • Indicated when body substances may splatter the face
  • 14. WEARING OF GOWN
    • Clean or disposable gowns or plastic gowns – to protect nurse’s uniform
    • Best – The fresh gown/ discard technique
    • For repeated use – Provide a stand to hang on. Follow method to hang the gown
    • Remove watch & jewelry
    • Follow method to don a clean gown
    • Follow precautions to remove a soiled gown and discard in proper container
  • 15. WEARING OF GLOVE
    • To protect the hands
    • To protect the client
    • Use clean gloves for medical asepsis
    • No special technique while wearing clean gloves
    • Pull up the gloves to cover the wrist/ sleeves of the gown
    • Wash gloved hand before removing
    • No special precautions to remove gloves
    • If soiled, then follow precautions to remove them
  • 16. OTHER ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS
    • Client placement – Special rooms. Avoid transportation to other rooms
    • Care of soiled equipment and supplies- disposal, cleaning, disinfecting, sterilizing
    • Bagging – Follow colour coding
    • Linen – Least handling of soiled linen
    • Lab specimens –Leak proof containers with secure lid. Prevent outside contamination
    • Needles and sharps – Avoid recapping. Puncture resistant container
  • 17. SUPPORTING DEFENSES OF A SUSCEPTIBLE HOST
    • Susceptibility – The degree to which an individual can be affected. It can be reduced by –
      • Hygiene – Mental and physical
      • Immunizations
      • Nutrition
      • Fluid
      • Rest & sleep
      • Relief from Stress
  • 18. INFECTION CONTROL FOR HEALTH CARE WORKERS
    • Occupational exposure from –
      • Puncture wounds
      • Skin contact
      • Mucus membrane contact
    • Precautions with medical asepsis –
      • Use appropriate personal protective equipment
      • Avoid carelessness in the clinical area
      • Good nutrition
      • Immunization
      • Rest & sleep
  • 19. SPECIAL POINTS IN MEDICAL ASEPTIC METHOD
    • Follow proper technique for admitting patients – Use of gown, mask, gloves, glasses, clean surfaces, stock supplies ..
    • Concurrent disinfection
    • Terminal disinfection
    • Control and teaching of visitors & relatives
    • Staff health & hygiene & health education
    • Vaccinations & medications to prevent infections
    • Use of labour saving devices and more efficient methods for aseptic practices
  • 20. Thank You