Medical Asepsis


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Medical Asepsis

  2. 2. MEDICAL ASEPSIS <ul><ul><li>All practices intended to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area, limiting their number, growth, and transmission. (Clean/ dirty/ contaminated) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures used to protect the client and his environment from the transmission of disease producing organisms that can transmit from one to the other </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. METHODS OF MEDICAL ASEPSIS <ul><li>Isolation precautions </li></ul><ul><li>Hand washing </li></ul><ul><li>Use of gown, mask, gloves, glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Use of disposables, clean surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent and terminal disinfection </li></ul><ul><li>Control and teaching of visitors/ relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Developing staff health and hygiene and education </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive vaccination, inoculation and medicines </li></ul><ul><li>Use of labour saving and efficient devices for aseptic practices </li></ul>
  4. 4. ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS <ul><li>Isolation – Measures to prevent the spread of infections or potentially infectious organisms to health personnel, client and visitors </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier technique (Reverse isolation) - Measures to protect highly susceptible (compromised) clients from infection </li></ul>
  5. 5. ISOLATION SYSTEMS USED IN HEALTH CARE AGENCIES <ul><li>Centers for Disease Control & prevention (CDC) precaution – involves procedures for - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Category specific Isolation (CSI) precaution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease specific isolation (DSI) precaution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal precaution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Body Substance Isolation (BSI) system </li></ul>
  6. 6. CDC ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS… <ul><li>Category Specific Isolation- Based on 7 categories- </li></ul><ul><li>1. Strict Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Contact Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Respiratory Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>4. TB Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>5. Enteric precautions </li></ul><ul><li>6. Drainage/ secretions precautions </li></ul><ul><li>7. Blood/ body fluid precautions </li></ul>
  7. 7. CDC ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS… <ul><li>Disease Specific Isolation – According to specific disease conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Precautions – Blood and body fluid precautions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease the risk of transmitting unidentified pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B, C, and HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not apply to feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, vomitus unless they contain visible blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in conjunction with CSI & DSI </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. BODY SUBSTANCE ISOLATION <ul><li>Includes all body parts and secretions and excretions </li></ul><ul><li>Does not include clients with airborne diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Follows hand washing, gloving, gowning, wearing masks, eye wear, hair and shoe covers </li></ul><ul><li>Adheres to needle destruction and disposal and proper disposal of waste </li></ul>
  9. 9. IMPLEMENTING ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS <ul><li>A nursing responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Based on comprehensive assessment of the client </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status of client’s defense system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client's ability to implement isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>precautions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source and mode o transmission of infectious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow specific precautions during therapies for client’s benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Decision made on the method of isolation precaution </li></ul>
  10. 10. HAND WASHING <ul><li>Cut nails short, remove all jewelry, check for breaks/ cuts in the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Turn on the water, adjust the flow </li></ul><ul><li>Wet hands thoroughly under running water, apply soap </li></ul><ul><li>Hold hands lower than the elbows </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughly wash and rinse the hands </li></ul><ul><li>Use firm rubbing and circular movements the palm, back and wrist of each hand. Interlace fingers and thumbs and move the hands back and forth ---for 10seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off the water </li></ul><ul><li>Dry hands thoroughly with a paper towel </li></ul>
  11. 11. USE OF FACE MASKS <ul><li>To reduce risk of transmission by droplet contact, air borne routes and splatters of body substances </li></ul><ul><li>To be worn by – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those close to the client (in measles, mumps, Ac resp diseases) – large particle aerosols travel short distances (1 m of 3 ft) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All persons entering the room ( in Pulm TB)- small particle aerosols remain suspended in the air, and thus travel great distances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Masks – Should have good filtration effectiveness and fit </li></ul><ul><li>- Do not carry them in the pocket or around the neck </li></ul><ul><li>- Do not use them outside the unit </li></ul><ul><li>- Use fresh mask each time (Disposable and non disposable masks) </li></ul><ul><li>- Disinfect / Sterilize before next use </li></ul>
  12. 12. USE OF FACE MASKS.. <ul><li>Keep in a clean container near hand washing facility </li></ul><ul><li>Mask should cover mouth and nose </li></ul><ul><li>A secure fit prevents escape of exhaled air and fogging of eye glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Fit the upper edges of the mask under the frame of eye glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid talking, sneezing, coughing </li></ul><ul><li>Use only once, and not after it gets moist </li></ul><ul><li>When removing mask first untie the lower strings </li></ul><ul><li>Discard disposable mask in a waste container </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hands </li></ul>
  13. 13. EYE WEAR <ul><li>Goggles or glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Indicated when body substances may splatter the face </li></ul>
  14. 14. WEARING OF GOWN <ul><li>Clean or disposable gowns or plastic gowns – to protect nurse’s uniform </li></ul><ul><li>Best – The fresh gown/ discard technique </li></ul><ul><li>For repeated use – Provide a stand to hang on. Follow method to hang the gown </li></ul><ul><li>Remove watch & jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Follow method to don a clean gown </li></ul><ul><li>Follow precautions to remove a soiled gown and discard in proper container </li></ul>
  15. 15. WEARING OF GLOVE <ul><li>To protect the hands </li></ul><ul><li>To protect the client </li></ul><ul><li>Use clean gloves for medical asepsis </li></ul><ul><li>No special technique while wearing clean gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Pull up the gloves to cover the wrist/ sleeves of the gown </li></ul><ul><li>Wash gloved hand before removing </li></ul><ul><li>No special precautions to remove gloves </li></ul><ul><li>If soiled, then follow precautions to remove them </li></ul>
  16. 16. OTHER ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS <ul><li>Client placement – Special rooms. Avoid transportation to other rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Care of soiled equipment and supplies- disposal, cleaning, disinfecting, sterilizing </li></ul><ul><li>Bagging – Follow colour coding </li></ul><ul><li>Linen – Least handling of soiled linen </li></ul><ul><li>Lab specimens –Leak proof containers with secure lid. Prevent outside contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Needles and sharps – Avoid recapping. Puncture resistant container </li></ul>
  17. 17. SUPPORTING DEFENSES OF A SUSCEPTIBLE HOST <ul><li>Susceptibility – The degree to which an individual can be affected. It can be reduced by – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hygiene – Mental and physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest & sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief from Stress </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. INFECTION CONTROL FOR HEALTH CARE WORKERS <ul><li>Occupational exposure from – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puncture wounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucus membrane contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precautions with medical asepsis – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use appropriate personal protective equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid carelessness in the clinical area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest & sleep </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. SPECIAL POINTS IN MEDICAL ASEPTIC METHOD <ul><li>Follow proper technique for admitting patients – Use of gown, mask, gloves, glasses, clean surfaces, stock supplies .. </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent disinfection </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal disinfection </li></ul><ul><li>Control and teaching of visitors & relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Staff health & hygiene & health education </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinations & medications to prevent infections </li></ul><ul><li>Use of labour saving devices and more efficient methods for aseptic practices </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thank You