History of Nursing -  Modern Era
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

History of Nursing - Modern Era

on

  • 10,047 views

The renaissance, revolutions and reformations, humanitarians, deaconesses, discoveries and developments

The renaissance, revolutions and reformations, humanitarians, deaconesses, discoveries and developments

Statistics

Views

Total Views
10,047
Views on SlideShare
10,041
Embed Views
6

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
115
Comments
0

2 Embeds 6

http://www.slideshare.net 5
https://blackboard.missouristate.edu 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

History of Nursing -  Modern Era History of Nursing - Modern Era Presentation Transcript

    • IV
    • MODERN ERA 1500 – 1850 AD ( Dark age in nursing)
  • THE RENAISSANCE
    • Expansion of trade and travel
    • Art, architecture, literature, printing
    • Contributions to medicine –
      • Leonardo da Vinci (Anatomical studies & drawing)
      • Andreas Vesalius (Founder of Anatomy as a Science)
      • Ambroisa Pari (Outstanding work in surgery)
      • William Harvey (Circulation of blood)
    • Self sacrifice and self denial cast aside.
    • More worldly under Pagan influence
    • General attitude towards charitable works
    • Focus of medicine and nursing
  • REVOLUTIONS & REFORMATIONS
    • Industrial revolution – Age old spinning and weaving from home >>> Factories
      • Movement of population from villages to cities
      • Problems of poor sanitation, poverty, adjustment
    • Reformation – Protestant revolt to free church from its malpractices -
      • Ignatius Loyola (with the church) formed the ‘Jesuits’- Trained teachers
      • The Order of St Ursula – Education of girls
      • Martin Luther – Emphasis on faith rather than work – Misinterpreted, causing loss of interest in charity & humanity. Monasticism declined
    Ignatius Loyola Martin Luther
    • Political revolutions – Kings fought wars >> poverty & discontentment. This led to -
      • The American revolution (1775 – 1783)
      • The French revolution (1789 – 1795)
      • The Latin American revolution (1800 – 1825)
    • >> Changed the attitude of the people towards human equality and right of people
    • >> Rise of Napoleon
    • >> Democracy established
    • by beginning of 19 th
    • century
  • HOSPITALS & NURSING
    • Darkest period in history of nursing (17 th to mid 19 th century)
    • Secular nursing societies (of 12 th and 13 th centuries) were gaining strength
    • But the older, more conventional ones became stagnant
    • 1212 – Bishops drew up regulations for French hospitals –
      • Nursing orders to take a vow of poverty, chastity and obedience
      • Number of nurses reduced to
      • smallest possible number
      • (to economize)
      • Remain cloistered
      • Thus women’s freedom limited
    • The Beguines refused to be
    • enclosed and continued their visiting nursing
    • The nurses of France did not resist and their professional standards retrograded
    • The Protestant revolt broke up the religious organizations
    • >> Problems of care of the sick and the poor
    • >> Municipal hospitals built ..But there were no nuns and monks to work
    • So, Lay people hired to take care of patients. They were –
      • Illiterate & with no religious motive
      • From the category who couldn't find any other work
      • Without training (skills) with no verification of conduct (morals)
      • Paid very less, poorly fed and over worked
      • Given day duty (young women)
      • and night duty (older women)
    • Long hours of cheerless work
    • became hard & cruel.
    • So they took to drinking
    • Doctors did most of the nursing jobs
    • Nurses did mostly cleaning, laundry and
    • scrubbing
    • Such unsanitary conditions >>> hospitals a source of outbreak of many epidemics
    • No isolation of patients, no visiting
    • Nurses did day and night duty
    • Patients were poor and friendless
    • Under such conditions, women of refinement and intelligence would not take up nursing
    • An average family dreaded and avoided the nurse and the hospital
    • Religious orders and other humanitarians re-opened and tried to revive the tradition.
  • HUMANITARIANS
    • St Vincent De Paul (1576 – 1660) - Made lodges, schools and colonies – to prevent begging and to support people
    • John Howard (1727 – 1789) – Care of prisoners
    • Elizabeth Fry (1780 – 1845) – Better care of women and children
    • Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870) wrote books depicting bad nursing
    • Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802 – 1887) – ‘The John Howard of America’ – Worked for the mentally ill and the criminals
    Charles Dickens
  • REVIVAL OF DEACONESSES
    • By Pastor Theodor Fliedner at a parish in Kaiserwerth, Germany
    • Rented a large house for hospital and deaconess home
    • Mrs Fliedner taught Nursing to deaconesses
    • Later Elizabeth Fry and Florence Nightingale also visited here
    • Modern School of Nursing has adopted their principles –
      • Nurses should be certified healthy and of good conduct
      • Follow probationary system
      • Have regular classes
      • Be given stipend
      • Have a women i/c of nursing
      • Must follow the doctor’s orders
    • V
    • MODERN NURSING
  • DISCOVERIES & DEVELOPMENTS
    • New scientific discoveries – Stethoscope ( Laënnec,), microscope, thermometer (Galileo, Fahrenheit)
    • Developments in medicine, surgery and sanitary science –
      • Pasteur (founder of science of microbiology, germ theory of disease, process of pasteurization, vaccines for several diseases, including rabies).
      • Lister (Discovery of antiseptics)
      • Koch (founded modern medical bacteriology, isolated several disease-causing bacteria, including those of tuberculosis, and discovered animal vectors of a number of major diseases).
      • Loffler (Described foot and mouth disease by virus)
    • Need felt to increase educational facilities for medicine and nursing
    • Higher standards and newer techniques adopted
    • Social reforms focused on the poor and needy
    • Leadership needed to train nurses to be efficient
    • co-workers of doctors
    • Rise of Florence Nightingale
  • And then…. Nursing did a crucial spin all over the globe….