History of Nursing -  Modern Era
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History of Nursing - Modern Era



The renaissance, revolutions and reformations, humanitarians, deaconesses, discoveries and developments

The renaissance, revolutions and reformations, humanitarians, deaconesses, discoveries and developments



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History of Nursing -  Modern Era History of Nursing - Modern Era Presentation Transcript

    • IV
    • MODERN ERA 1500 – 1850 AD ( Dark age in nursing)
    • Expansion of trade and travel
    • Art, architecture, literature, printing
    • Contributions to medicine –
      • Leonardo da Vinci (Anatomical studies & drawing)
      • Andreas Vesalius (Founder of Anatomy as a Science)
      • Ambroisa Pari (Outstanding work in surgery)
      • William Harvey (Circulation of blood)
    • Self sacrifice and self denial cast aside.
    • More worldly under Pagan influence
    • General attitude towards charitable works
    • Focus of medicine and nursing
    • Industrial revolution – Age old spinning and weaving from home >>> Factories
      • Movement of population from villages to cities
      • Problems of poor sanitation, poverty, adjustment
    • Reformation – Protestant revolt to free church from its malpractices -
      • Ignatius Loyola (with the church) formed the ‘Jesuits’- Trained teachers
      • The Order of St Ursula – Education of girls
      • Martin Luther – Emphasis on faith rather than work – Misinterpreted, causing loss of interest in charity & humanity. Monasticism declined
    Ignatius Loyola Martin Luther
    • Political revolutions – Kings fought wars >> poverty & discontentment. This led to -
      • The American revolution (1775 – 1783)
      • The French revolution (1789 – 1795)
      • The Latin American revolution (1800 – 1825)
    • >> Changed the attitude of the people towards human equality and right of people
    • >> Rise of Napoleon
    • >> Democracy established
    • by beginning of 19 th
    • century
    • Darkest period in history of nursing (17 th to mid 19 th century)
    • Secular nursing societies (of 12 th and 13 th centuries) were gaining strength
    • But the older, more conventional ones became stagnant
    • 1212 – Bishops drew up regulations for French hospitals –
      • Nursing orders to take a vow of poverty, chastity and obedience
      • Number of nurses reduced to
      • smallest possible number
      • (to economize)
      • Remain cloistered
      • Thus women’s freedom limited
    • The Beguines refused to be
    • enclosed and continued their visiting nursing
    • The nurses of France did not resist and their professional standards retrograded
    • The Protestant revolt broke up the religious organizations
    • >> Problems of care of the sick and the poor
    • >> Municipal hospitals built ..But there were no nuns and monks to work
    • So, Lay people hired to take care of patients. They were –
      • Illiterate & with no religious motive
      • From the category who couldn't find any other work
      • Without training (skills) with no verification of conduct (morals)
      • Paid very less, poorly fed and over worked
      • Given day duty (young women)
      • and night duty (older women)
    • Long hours of cheerless work
    • became hard & cruel.
    • So they took to drinking
    • Doctors did most of the nursing jobs
    • Nurses did mostly cleaning, laundry and
    • scrubbing
    • Such unsanitary conditions >>> hospitals a source of outbreak of many epidemics
    • No isolation of patients, no visiting
    • Nurses did day and night duty
    • Patients were poor and friendless
    • Under such conditions, women of refinement and intelligence would not take up nursing
    • An average family dreaded and avoided the nurse and the hospital
    • Religious orders and other humanitarians re-opened and tried to revive the tradition.
    • St Vincent De Paul (1576 – 1660) - Made lodges, schools and colonies – to prevent begging and to support people
    • John Howard (1727 – 1789) – Care of prisoners
    • Elizabeth Fry (1780 – 1845) – Better care of women and children
    • Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870) wrote books depicting bad nursing
    • Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802 – 1887) – ‘The John Howard of America’ – Worked for the mentally ill and the criminals
    Charles Dickens
    • By Pastor Theodor Fliedner at a parish in Kaiserwerth, Germany
    • Rented a large house for hospital and deaconess home
    • Mrs Fliedner taught Nursing to deaconesses
    • Later Elizabeth Fry and Florence Nightingale also visited here
    • Modern School of Nursing has adopted their principles –
      • Nurses should be certified healthy and of good conduct
      • Follow probationary system
      • Have regular classes
      • Be given stipend
      • Have a women i/c of nursing
      • Must follow the doctor’s orders
    • V
    • New scientific discoveries – Stethoscope ( Laënnec,), microscope, thermometer (Galileo, Fahrenheit)
    • Developments in medicine, surgery and sanitary science –
      • Pasteur (founder of science of microbiology, germ theory of disease, process of pasteurization, vaccines for several diseases, including rabies).
      • Lister (Discovery of antiseptics)
      • Koch (founded modern medical bacteriology, isolated several disease-causing bacteria, including those of tuberculosis, and discovered animal vectors of a number of major diseases).
      • Loffler (Described foot and mouth disease by virus)
    • Need felt to increase educational facilities for medicine and nursing
    • Higher standards and newer techniques adopted
    • Social reforms focused on the poor and needy
    • Leadership needed to train nurses to be efficient
    • co-workers of doctors
    • Rise of Florence Nightingale
  • And then…. Nursing did a crucial spin all over the globe….